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AND      ITS 


SLANG  ™ ™ 








JOHN    S.   FARMER    and   W.   E.    HENLEY. 


VOL.     II.— C.    TO    Fizzle.  /j 



\B,  subs.  i.  (Uni- 
versity and  school 
boys'). — An  ad- 
ventitious aid  to 
study  ;  a  '  crib' ; 
a  PONY  (q.v.  for 
synonyms).  [From 
CABBAGE  (q.v. )  =  pilfe rings.] 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('  Cuthbert 
Bede  ').  Adventures  of  Verdant  Green. 
Those  who  can't  afford  a  coach  get  a  CAB, 
alias  a  crib,  alias  a  translation. 

1876.  Academy,  4  Nov. ,  p.  448,  col.  21 
The  use  or  translations,  '  cribs,'  or  'CABS  ' 
as  boys  call  them,  must  at  some  time  or 
other  engage  the  serious  attention  of 
schoolmasters.  [M.] 

2.  (old). — A  brothel  :  in  use 
during  the  early  part  of  the  pre- 
sent century  ;  now  obsolete.  [Pro- 
bably a  contracted  form  of 'cabin,' 
some  of  the  older  senses  of  which 
(e.g.,  a  small  room,  bedroom,  or 
boudoir)  are  in  correspondence. 
Parallels  exist  in  other  languages, 
and  comparison  may  be  made 
with  the  Fr.  cabane,  and  Sp. 
cabana ;  also  with  the  Latin 
taberna  =  cabin,  hut,  and  brothel. 
The  It.  bordello  (Eng.  bordcl)  was 
originally  precisely  equivalent  to 
taberna  zn&caba7ia,  beinga  dimin- 

VOL.   II. 

utive  of  borda  =  cottage,  cabin, 
shed,  house  of  boards.  All  these 
words,  and  many  similar  (e.%., 
Latin  cella,  cellula,  the  petite 
maison  of  the  French)  came  to 
be  applied  in  the  specifically 
esoteric  sense  under  discussion, 
by  an  obvious  euphuism  or  famil- 
iamm.  which  left  the  nature  of 
the  hut,  booth,  cell,  or  cabin  to 
be  supplied  by  those  who  under- 
stood. Further,  '  cabin  '  =  an 
Eng.  rendering  of  the  Latin 
cella,  cellula  =  brothel.  Also 
CAB-MOLL  ($.v.)t  a  prostitute, 
originally  the  moll  or  molly  of  a 
cabin,  cabane^  or  brothel,  the 
present  meaning  being  a  popular 
misuse  founded  on  a  mistaken 
analysis.  3  For  all  synonyms,  see 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  Mother, 
hew  many  tails  have  you  in  your  CAB  ? 
i.e.,  how  many  girls  have  you  in  your 
bawdy  house  ? 

Verb  (colloquial). — I.  To  pro- 
ceed from  one  place  to  another 
by  means  of  a  CAB  ;  Cf.,  'to  foot 
or  hoof  it,'  '  to  tram  it,'  '  to  train 
it,'  or  'to  'bus  it.' 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers. 
He's  a  CABBING  it,  I  suppose. 




1882.  BlackwoocFs  Magazine,  Feb., 
p.  238,  col.  i.  He  .  .  .  CABS  off  to  take 

2.  (schoolboys'). — To  pilfer  ; 
to  use  a  crib.  Cf.t  CABBAGE, 
verb,  of  which  it  is  an  abbrevia- 

CABBAGE,  subs.  (old). — I.  Gene- 
rally applied  to  pieces  purloined 
by  tailors  ;  attributively  to  any 
small  profits  in  the  shape  of  ma- 
terial. Quoted  by  Johnson  as  '  a 
canting  term,'  but  now  recog- 
nised. There  is  little  chance  of 
CABBAGE  nowadays,  save  amongst 
those  who  '  make  up  gentlemen's 
own  material '  ;  but  the  expres- 
sion is  well  understood  by  low- 
class  dressmakers.  In  America 
a  corresponding  term  is  '  COLD- 
SLAW  (q.v. )  which  consists  of 
finely-cut  cabbage,  and  represents 
the  small  remnants  known  in 
other  quarters  as  '  carpet-rags  ' 

or      CABBAGE.  C/.,       PlGEON 

SKEWINGS.  [The  derivation  is 
obscure.  Murray  traces  it  back 
to  1663  (Hudibras  [spurious]), 
but  points  out  that  Herrick  [1648] 
apparently  uses  garbage  and  car- 
bage  for  '  shreds  and  patches  used 
as  padding. '  He  then  goes  on  to 
say  that  '  if  this  was  a  genuine 
use  at  the  time,  carbage  may 
easily  have  been  corrupted  to  CAB- 
BAGE.' This  difficulty  can,  I  think, 
be  removed.  In  the  seventeenth 
century,  a  style  of  feminine  head- 
dress, the  a  in  vogue,  very  similar 
to  the  modern  chignon,  was  called 
a  CABBAGE.  Thus  in  Mundus 
Muliebris  [1690]  : 

Behind  the  noddle  every  baggage,  Wears 
bundle  'choux,'  in  English  CABBAGE. 

Now,  if  this  usage  (omitted 
from  the  N.E.D.)  be  compared 
with  the  three  quotations  first 
following,  it  would  appear  (i) 

that  the  word  CABBAGE  was  in 
use  prior  to  carbage  or  garbage 
for  '  shreds  and  patches  '  ;  (2) 
that  carbage  and  garbage  contain 
a  sarcastic  reference  to  the  ma- 
terials with  which  a  woman's 
CABBAGE,  or  chignon,  was  stuffed; 
and  (3)  that  in  every  quotation 
the  play  upon  words  appears 
to  confirm  these  contention?. 
Hence,  if  CABBAGE  as  a  mode 
of  dressing  the  hair  was  current 
during  the  seventeenth  century 
(I  have  come  across  no  earlier 
instance),  it  is  possible  that  the 
stages  of  transition  were  as 
follows  : — 

1.  CABBAGE  =  a  well-known 

2.  =  A  mode  of  dressing  the 
hair,   in  such  a  form   as   to   re- 
semble a  cabbage. 

3.  =  The  materials  with  which 
such  a  tire  was  stuffed. 

4.  =   The   shreds  and   pieces 
appropriated      by      tailors      and 
others  as  perquisites. 

There  is  no  evidence  in  sup- 
port of  such  guesses  as  those  in, 
for  example,  the  quotations  dated 
1853  and  1886. 

1638.  RANDOLPH,  HeyforHonestey 
(Old  Play).  Tailor.  Nay,  he  has  made 
me  sharper  than  my  needle  ;  makes  me  eat 
my  own  CABBAGE. 

1648.  HERRICK,  Hespetides  (Hazl.), 
I.,  79.  Upon  some  women,  Pieces, 
patches,  ropes  of  haire,  In-laid  GARBAGE 

1648.  HERRICK,  Hespemdes  (Hazl.). 
1 1.,  325.  Eupez  for  the  outside  of  his  suite 
has  paide ;  But  for  his  heart,  he  cannot 
have  it  made  ;  The  re^on  is.  his  credit 
cannot  get  The  inward  GARBAGE  for  his 
cloathes  as  yet. 

1063.  Hudibras,  II.,  56.  For  as 
tailors  preserve  their  CABBAGE,  So  squires 
take  care  of  bag  and  baggage. 



1742.  CHARLES  JOHNSON  Highway- 
men and  Pyrates,  p.  343.  She  takes  him 
into  Pissing  Alley,  in  Hollywell  Street, 
otherwise  called  the  backside  of  St. 
Clement's  in  the  Strand,  so  eminently  noted 
for  Taylors  selling  there  their  CABBAGE. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CABBAGE  (s.)  .  .  .  also  a  cant  word  to 
express  anything  that  is  pilfered  pri- 
vately, as  pieces  of  cloth  or  silk  retained 
by  taylors,  mantua-makers,  or  others. 

1821.  COBBETT,  Weekly  Register  28 
April,  col.  219.  Taylor,  of  Charing  Cross, 
will  allow  of  no  thumb-piece  and  of  no 


1853.  Notes  and  Queries,  i  S.,  viii., 
315,  col.  2.  The  term  CABBAGE,  by  which 
tailors  designate  the  cribbed  pieces  of 
cloth,  is  said  to  be  derived  from  an  old 
word  'cablesh,'  i.e.,  wind-fallen  wood. 
And  their  •  hell '  where  they  store  the 
CABBAGE,  from  helan,  to  hide. 

1886.  G.  A.  SALA,  in  ///.  Lon.  News, 
16  Oct.,  394,  i.  My  correspondent's 
terivation  of  CABBAGE  from  caboged 
[caboged  =  '  cabossec I '  or  '  caboched  '  in 
heraldy,  in  Fr.  cabochee.  See  Littre]  is 
good  ;  but  there  is  another  one,  namely, 
cabas,  a  basket  in  which  the  pickings  and 
stealings  of  cloth  might  be  hoarded. 

The  place  where  CABBAGE  is 
stored  is  termed  HELL  (q.v. )  or 
ONE'S  EYE  (q.v.)',  these  term--, 
as  also  GOOSE  (q.v.),  a  smoothing 
iron,  are  responsible  for  much 
cheap  wit.  Cf.,  MAKINGS  and 
PICKINGS.  The  Spanish  has 
sisa  =  'a  petty  theft.' 

2  (old). — A  tailor ;  sometimes 
CABBAGER,  and  formerly  CAB- 
synonyms,  see  BUTTON-CATCHER 
and  SNIP. 

1690.  B  E.  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.  CAB- 
BAGE :  a  Taylor,  and  what  they  pinch 
from  the  Cloaths  they  make  up. 

1725.  New  Cant.  Diet.  CABBAGE: 
Taylors  are  so  called,  because  of  their 
.  .  .  Love  of  that  Vegetable.  The  cloth 
they  steal  and  purloin  ...  is  also  called 


3.  (old). — A  style  of  dressing 
the  hair  similar  to  the  modern 

chignon.     [For  suggested  deriva- 
tion, see  sense  I.]     Fr.  un  kilo. 

1690.  Mundus  Muliebris.  Behind 
the  noddle  every  baggage,  Wears  bundle 
'choux,'  in  English  CABBAGE. 

4.  (schoolboys'). — A    transla- 
tion or  '  crib  '  ;  sometimes  short- 
ened to  CAB  (q.v.,  sense  2). 

1868.  BREWER,  Dictionary  of  Phrase 
and  Fable,  p.  129.  CABBAGE  is  also  a 
common  schoolboy  term  for  a  literary 
crib,  or  other  petty  theft. 

5.  (common). — A  cigar.    The 
French  have  unefeuille  de  platane 
=  a    plane-tree    leaf ;    also    un 
craptilos    or    crapulados,    a    His- 
panization  of  crapule  =  filth.   For 
synonyms,  see  WEED. 

1843.  Punch's  Almanack,  August  i?. 
The  cigar  dealers,  objecting  to  their  lands 
being  cribbed,  have  made  us  pay  for  the 
CABBAGE  ever  since. 

1848.  Punch,  vol.  XIV.,  p.  298.  Q. 
Are  cigars  an  English  invention?  A.  No  ! 
the  cigar  is  a  Spanish  article,  that  has  been 
merely  CABBAGED  by  the  British  manu- 

1853.    C.  S.  CALVERLEY,   Verses  and 

Translations,  p.  141  [ed.   1881],   Carmen 

Scecularce.       O   fumose   puer  nimuim   ne 

crede  Baconi  Manillas  vocat,  hoc  praetexit 

nomine  caules. 

1889.  Ally  SlopeS s  Half- Holiday, 
July  6.  Last  week  he  offered  me  a  weed — 
A  worse  one  no  man's  lips  e'er  soiled.  '  No, 
thanks,'  said,  *  I,  know  the  breed  ;  I  much 
prefer  my  CABBAGE  boiled.' 

6.  (venery). — The  female  pu- 
dendum.      Cf.,    GREENS.       For 
synonyms,  see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

Verb  (old). — i.    To  purloin  or 
pilfer  pieces. 

1712.  ARBUTHNOT,  History  of  John 
Bull,  pt.  I.,  ch.  x.  Your  tailor,  instead  of 
shreds,  CABBAGES  whole  yards  of  cloth. 

1870.  New  York  Evening  Sun,  May 
24.  Report  of  Speech  x>f  Mr  Chandler. 
Let  us  knock  the  British  crown  to  flinders  ; 
let  us  arrange  for  some  one  or  two  hundred 
thousand  British  graves  forthwith,  and 
CABBAGE  the  whole  boundless  continent 
without  any  further  procrastination. 

Cabbage-  Contractor. 


1882.  Notes  and  Queries,  6  S.,  yi., 
210.  But  he  said,  If  I  CABBAGE  that  ring 
to-night,  I  shall  be  all  the  richer  to- 

2.  (schoolboys'). —  To  use  a 
translation  or  other  adventitious 
aid  in  preparing  exercises  ;  to 
'  crib. ' 

1837.  GEN.  P.  THOMPSON,  Exerc. 
(1842),  IV.,  234,  A  speech,  which  .  .  . 
had  been  what  schoolboys  call  CABBAGED, 
from  some  of  the  forms  of  oration  .  .  . 
published  by  way  of  caricature  [M.] 

18(52.  H.  MARRYAT,  Year  in  Sweden, 
II.,  387.  Steelyards  .  .  .  sent  by  Gustaf 
Wasa  as  checks  upon  country  dealers,  who 
CABBAGED,  giving  short  weight.  [M.] 

So  also  CABBAGED,  ppL  adj., 
pilfered,  or  stolen ;  and  CAB- 
IJAGING,  verbal  subs.,  pilfering, 

CABBAGE-CONTRACTOR,  subs.  (old). 
— A  tailor.  [From  CABBAGE 
(q.v.,  subs.,  sense  i)  =  CON- 
TRACTOR, a  trader.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BUTTON-CATCHER  and 

CABBAGE-GELDER,  subs.  (old). — A 
greengrocer  or  market  gardener. 
— A.B.  C.  of  a  New  Dictionary  of 
Flash,  Cant,  and  Slang  [1866]. 

CABBAGE-HEAD,  subs,  (popular). — 
A  fool ;  a  soft-head  ;  a  'go- 
along.  '  For  synonyms  generally, 
see  BUFFLE,  and  more  particu- 
larly infra. 

head ;  chuckle-head ;  chowder- 
head  ;  cod's  -  head  ;  chump  or 
chump  of  wood  ;  dunderhead  ; 
flat ;  go-along  ;  goosecap  ;  green- 
lander  ;  gulpin;  juggins;  thick- 
head ;  lights ;  loony  ;  looby  ; 
lubber  ;  mooney;  mug;  muggins; 
muff ;  ninny-hammer  ;  nincom- 
poop ;  nizzie  ;  pigeon  ;  sawney  ; 
Simon,  or  Simple  Simon  ;  slow- 
coach ;  soft -horn ;  sop ;  Tom 

Tug.  To  which  may  be  added 
'  cupboard-headed,'  '  half-boiled,' 
'  not  all  there, '  and  '  off  one's 
chump,'  used  also  of  one  not 
compos  mentis ;  a  thick  (Win- 
chester College). 

de pioche  (popular  :  pioche  —  pick- 
axe or  mattock)  ;  tmpoulet  c? hide 
(popular  :  poule  d  Inde  =  turkey- 
hen)  ;  un  couille  (popular)  ;  un 
faroissien  de  Saint  Pierre  atix  bceufs 
(popular) ;  un  noc  (popular  =  a 
'juggins') ;  unloffiat( popular  :  this 
is  formed  from  a  species  of  French 
back  slang,  lof  =  fol  reversed. 
On  the  same  lines  we  get  la  loffi- 
tude  =  '  stupidity  '  or  '  non- 
sense '  ;  bonisseur  de  lojjitudes  = 
'  a  nonsense  monger '  ;  also  sol- 
liceur  de  loffitudes  =  '  a  journa- 
list ') ;  tin  Jean-bete  (common  : 
Cf. ,  English  '  Johnnie '  and 
' Jack  '  )  ;  barrt  ( =  cabbage- 
headed)  ;  une  vieille  bouillote 
(popular)  ;  une  bourriche  (popu- 
lar :  'a  hamper  ')  ;  une  baclouille 
(popular  :  also  =  '  a  hen-pecked 
husband ') ;  etre  deboulonne  (popu- 
lar :  literally  =  '  unpinned '  or 
'  unbolted  ')  ;  unffilolo  (popular); 
un  daim  (popular)  ;  etre  de  la 
tribu  des  Benicoco  (military)  ;  $tte 
du  14  benedictins  (popular)  ;  une 
bestiasse  (this  term  has  passed 
into  the  language)  ;  b$te  comme 
chou  (=  'extremely  stupid'); 
bete  comme  un  p6t  (=  a  per- 
fect ass)  ;  b$te  comme  ses  pieds 
{—  an  arrant  fool)  ;  tin  abrtiti  or 
ahuri  de  Chaillot  (popular  : 
Chaillot,  in  the  suburbs  of  Paris, 
is  a  common  butt,  much  as  are 
Hanwell,  Colney  Hatch,  etc.  ; 
abrutir=l  to  stupify,  to  besot,  to 
imbrute')  ;  une  tete  de  boche  (com- 
mon :  =  a  wooden  head  ;  also  a 
German)  ;  un  bidon  de  zinc  (mili- 
tary =  '  a  can  '  or  *  flask  ') ;  un 

Cabbage-  Head. 

Cabbage-  Tree  Mob. 

cul  or  cttl  (fane  (popular :  cul 
(fane  =  '  the  rump  of  an  ass  '  ; 
Cf.t  English  '  ass  ') ;  un  cantaloup 
(popular  :  literally  a  melon)  ;  un 
ciibe  (a  '  regular  idiot ') ;  un 
canarie  ;  etre  un  c  (a  euphemistic 
phrase)  ;  un  busard  or  buson  or 
une  buse  (an  allusion  to  the 
stupidity  of  the  buzzard)  ;  une 
couenne  (popular:  =  'pig-skin.' 
'  Est-il  couenne  /'  'What  an 
ass  !  ')  ;  un  coquardcati ;  un  couil- 
lon  (popular  :  a  cullion,  used  in 
friendly  jocularity  =  abashed, 
crestfallen,  and  above  all  idiotic) ; 
un  esptce  de  cafouilletix  (popular 
=  '  a  bally  bounder  ')  ;  im  ar- 
guche  (thieves') ;  battre  comtois 
(thieves'  =  to  play  the  fool)  ;  un 
baveux  (a  driveller :  one  who  does 
not  know  what  he  is  talking 
about) ;  un  boniface  (popular)  ; 
rt  avoir  pas  casst  la  patte  a  coco 
(thieves'  =  '  as  big  a  bloody 
mug  as  they  make  'em  '). 

(in  ;  properly  '  a  big  jackass  ')  ; 
asno  (m)  ;  bambarria  (m  ;  also  = 
an  accidental  but  successful 
stroke  at  billiards,  *  a  fluke ')  ; 
bobalias  (m  ;  a  colloquialism  for 
'  a  very  stupid  fellow ') ;  borro 
(m  ;  properly  a  wether  not  two 
years  old)  ;  echacantos  (m)  ;  gentil 
hombre  de  placer  ( =  '  a  buffoon  ' 
or  '  clown ') ;  guillote(m  ;  literally 
a  husbandman,  one  who  enjoys 
the  produce  of  a  farm.  Cf., 
'  joskin  ')  ;  fuan  lanas  (vulgar)  ; 
mamacallos  or  mamaluco  (m)  ; 
naranjo  (m  ;  properly  the  citrus 
aurantium) ;  pattdero  (m  ;  also 
*  a  timbrel ') ;  pinchauvas  (m  — 
a  despicable  person)  ;  porra  (f) ; 
es  un  solemne  bobo  ( '  he  is  a  down- 
right booby  ') ;  zamacuco. 

Bamburrio  ;  mctcacada  ;  tauso  ; 

1682.    MRS.  BEHX,  False  Count  (17 24), 

III.,  146.    Thou  foul,  filthy  CABBAGE-HEAD. 

1862.  LOWELL,  Bigloiu  Papers,  II., 
228.  For  take  my  word  for  't,  when  all's 
come  and  past,  The  CABBAGE-HEADS  '11 
cair  the  day  at  last. 

c,  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  'Right 
before  the  missis  too.'  I've  had  a  dreadful 
row  All  through  a  chum  named  Tommy 
Sheen,  I  ought  to  call  him  CABBAGE-HEAD, 
He  is  so  very  green. 

CABBAGE- LEAF,  subs,  (common). — 
A  bad  cigar  ;  usually  contracted 
into  CABBAGE  (q.v.,  suds.,  sense 
5).  [From  a  popular  theory  of 
material.  J  In  French  un  in  fee - 
tados  by  a  play  upon  words  in 
two  languages,  infect,  Fr.  = 
more  than  common,  vile,  and 
infectar,  Sp.  =  '  to  infect  'or  'be 
infected '.  For  synonyms,  see 

CABBAGE  PLANT,  subs.  (old). — An 
umbrella;  GAMP  (q.v.}',  or 

CAB  BAG  ER,  subs,  (common). — A 
tailor.  [From  CABBAGE  (q.v.> 
s^lbs.)  sense  i)  +  ER.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BUTTON-CATCHER  and 

CABBAGE-STUMPS,  subf»  (common). 
— The  legs.  For  synonyms,  see 

CABBAGE -TREE  MOB,  subs.  (Austra- 
lian). Old  for  what  are  now 
called  LARRIKINS  (q.v.}.  De- 
rived from  the  low-crowned 
cabbage-palm  hat  affected  by  this 
section  of  Australian  society.] 
CABBAGITES  was  an  alternative. 

18(?).  LIEUT. -CoL.  MUNDAY  Our 
A  ntipodes.  Loafers  known  as  the  CABBAGE- 
TREE  MOB,  a  class  whom,  in  the  spirit  of  the 
ancient  tyrant,  one  might  excusably  wish 
had  but  one  nose  in  order  to  make  it  a 
bloody  one.  Ibid.  Unaware  of  the  pro- 
pensities of  the  CABBAGITES,  he  was  by 
them  furiously  ass  ailed. 



CABBY,  subs.  (colloquial).  — A 
cabman.  [From  CAB  +  Y.] 
Amongst  French  equivalents  are 
une  hi>ondelle  (properly  =  'a 
swal 'ow  ')  ;  un  maraudeur(i.e. , '  a 
marauder,'  one  who  plies  without 
a  license;  Cf.,  PIRATE  (q.v.), 
as  applied  to  omnibuses. 

1852.  F.  E.  SMEDLEY,  Lewis  Arun- 
del,  ch.  xxxiii.  I  was  forced  to  offer  him 
a  seat  in  the  cab,  but  he  coolly  replied, 
'  No,  thank  ye  ...  I'll  sit  beside  CABBY.' 

1864-5.  YATES,  Broken  to  Harness, 
II.,  p.  41.  Easy,  CABBY;  we  don't  want 
to  be  thrown  into  the  very  midst  of  the 

1890.  Standard,  Feb.  IT,  p.  3,  col.  i. 
There  was  a  Vienna  CABBY  with  his  jolly 
red  face  and  his  professional  impudence. 

CABLE,  verb  (popular). — To  send 
a  telegram  by  ocean  (submarine) 

subs.  phr.  (nautical). — To  die. 
For  exhaustive  lists  of  synony- 
mous terms,  see  ALOFT  and  HOP 


CABLE-HANGER,  subs,  (nautical). — 
Explained  by  quotations. 

1724-7.  D  EFOE,  Tour  thro  G.  Britain 
(ed.  1748),  I.,  150.  Persons  who  dredge 
or  fish  for  oysters,  not  being  free  of  the 
fishery,  are  called  CABLE-HANGERS,  and 
are  prosecuted  and  punished  by  the  Court. 

1867.  SMYTH,  Sailors'  Word  Book. 
CABLE-HANGER,  a  person  catching  oysters, 
in  the  River  Medway,  not  free  of  the 

CAB- MOLL,  subs.  (old). — A  prosti- 
tute addicted  professionally  to 
cabs  and  trains.  [From  CAB 
(q.v.,  sense  2)  +  MOLL  (q.v.},  a 
strumpet.]  For  synonyms,  see 

CABOBBLED,  ppl.  adj.  (nautical). — 
Confused  ;  puzzled  ;  perplexed. 

CABOODLE,  stibs.  (American). — A 
crowd  ;  generally  '  the  whole 
CABOODLE.'  [Thought  to  be 
an  enlarged  form  of  BOODLE 
which  is  frequently  used  in  the 
same  sense,  and  which  is  sup- 
posed by  some  to  be  derived 
from  the  old  English  bottel,  a 
bundle  (Fr.  hotel,  botcau.  Ger. 
beutel.}.  See,  however,  BOODLE, 
sttbs.,  sense  I.  Another  deriva- 
tion is  from  the  Spanish  cabildo, 
a  provincialism  for  the  corporation 
of  a  town.]  CABOODLE  is  gen- 
eral throughout  the  States,  and 
has  now  almost  completely 
supplanted  BOODLE  (q.v.},  which 
is  usually  applied  in  a  different 
sense.  Sometimes  CABOOSE  (q.v. } 

1858.  New  Orleans  Picayune,  23  Feb. 
The  whole  CABOODLE  came  out  and  fell 
upon  me,  till  I  was  as  soft  as  a  squash, 
and  then  they  took  me  up  for  fighting. 

1887.  Scribners  Magazine.  Ye've 
got  ter  have  faith  in  Goddie-mighty  then, 
sure,  a-swingin'  up  an'  down  them  mount'n- 
sides,  dark  nights  or  bright,  when  a 
rock  on  the  track  fom  a  landslide  'ud  fling 
the  whole  CABOODLE  down  the  mount'n 
an  inter  kingdom  come  afo'  you'd  know  it. 

CABOOSE, su^>s.  (American). --Gene- 
rally applied  to  convivial  quar- 
ters ;  also  to  a  bachelor's  snug- 
gery— a  DEN  (q.V.}  Or  DIGGINGS 
(q.v. ).  [Properly  a  ship's  cook- 
house or  galley ;  and  in  the 
United  St  ites,  a  car  on  a  freight 
train  for  workmen,  or  for  a 
special  purpose.] 

(nonce  expression). — Obviously  a 
variation  of  CABOODLE  (q.v.}. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  19  Oct.  'After 
the  Fire.'  In  this  room,  sir,  said  my 
gallant  conductor,  lived  a  bricklayer  with 
his  wife  and  two  kids.  He  made  that 
hole  in  the  wall,  and  got  'em  safe  through 
— THE  WHOLE  CABOOSE  on  'em ;  and  a 
jolly  good  job  he  did. 



CACAFUEGO,.mfo.(old). — A  spitfire  ; 
braggart;  bully.  [From the  Lat;n 
cacare  through  the  Spanish 
cagar^  '  to  void  excrement,'  4- 
Spanish fuego^  fire.]  This  word, 
once  literary,  has  long  fallen 
into  desuetude.  It  was  regarded 
as  vulgar  after  the  middle  of  the 
last  century,  and  thereafter  was 
only  included  in  slang  dic- 

1625.  FLETCHER,  Fair  Maid,  III.,  i. 
She  will  be  ravisht  before  our  faces,  by 
rascalls  and  CACAFUGOS,  wife,  CACA- 

Spanish  word  signifying  Shitefire;  and 
it  is  used  for  a  bragging,  vapouring 
fellow.  [M.] 

1725.     New  Cant.  Diet,    [s.v.] 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CACA- 
FEUGO.  A  sh-te-fire,  a  furious  bragga- 
docio or  bully  huff. 

CACHUNK!  intj.  (American).— On- 
omatopoeic— the  'bow-wow'  word 
of  Max  Miiller — belonging  to  a 
class  of  exclamations  intended  to 
convey  an  imitation  of  the  sound 
of  a  falling  body.  Uncertain  as 
regards  orthography  they  are 
largely  affected  in  the  Southern 
and  Western  States.  Mainly  of 
recent  origin,  though  two, 
rare  in  the  States,  are  not  un- 
familiar to  English  ears.  Ex- 
amples are  : — Caswash  ;  Caw- 
halux  ;  Che  wallop  ;  Casou=e  ; 
Cathump  ;  Kerplunk  ;  Katouse  ; 
Katoose  ;  Kelumpus  ;  Kerchunk  ; 
Kerplunk ;  Kerswosh  ;  Kerslosh ; 
Kerswollop  ;  Kerblinkityblunk ; 
and  Kerblam. 

CACKLE,  subs,  (theatrical). — i.  The 
dialogue  of  a  play ;  especially 
used  at  first,  of  the  patter  of 
clowns,  etc. ,  in  a  circus.  [From 
the  figurative  usage  of  CACKLE, 
to  make  a  noise  as  a  hen  after 

laying    an    egg,    a    usage   trace- 
able as  far  back  as  1225.] 

1887.  Referee,  21  August,  p.  2,  col.  3. 
Those  [playgoers]  who  do  not  insist  upon 
a  very  high  order  of  literary  quality  in  the 


2.  (colloquial). — Idle,  incon- 
sequent, noisy  chatter. 

1676.  A.  RIVETUS,  JUN.  Mr.Smirke, 
18.  Bedawb'd  with  Addle  Eggs  of  the 
Animadverters  own  CACKLE. 

1887.  Punch,  10  Sept.,  p.  in-  If  a 
feller  would  tackle  a  feminine  fair  up  to 
Dick,  he  'as  got  to  be  dabs  at  the  CACKLE. 

Verb  (old).— To  talk  idly, 
especially  in  the  sense  of  telling 
secrets.  For  synonyms,  see 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vu I- 
gar  Tongue.  The  cull  is  leaky  and 
CACKLES  ;  the  rogue  tells  all. 

1882.  Punch,  LXXXII.,  177,  2.  The 
old  jokers  in  scarlet  and  erming  who 
lounge  in  their  red  bedroom-chairs,  And  the 
cinder-wig'd  toffs  in  alpaca  who  CACKLE 
and  give  themselves  airs. 

CACKLE- CHUCKER,  subs. (theatrical). 
— A  prompter.      [From  CACKLE, 
the      dialogue     of    a     play,     -\ 
CHUCKER,  one  who  throws  out 
(from  the  mouth).] 

CACKLE- MERCH ANT,  subs,  (theatri- 
cal).— A  dramatic  author.  [From 
CACKLE,  the  dialogue  of  a  play, 

+      MERCHANT.          Cf.,      CAPER- 
MERCHANT,  a  dancing-master.] 

CACKLER,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  fowl. 
[From  CACKLE  (q.v.)  +  ER.]— 
See  also  CACKLING  CHEAT. 

1673.  R.  HEAD,  Canting  Acad.,  192. 
A  Prigger  of  the  CACKLEKS. 

1730-6.  BAILEY.  CACKLER  ...  a 
humorous  word  for  capons  or  fowl. 

1749.  Life  of  Bamfhylde  -  Moote 
Careiv.  Oath  of  the  '  Canting  Crew."  No 
dimber  damber,  angler,  dancer,  Prig  of 
CACKLER,  prig  of  prancer. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CACK- 
ler :  a  hen. 

Cackle? s-Ken. 

Cackling-  Cove. 

2.  (colloquial).  —  A      noisy 
talker;   a  'blab.' — See  CACKLE, 

1400.  Cov.  MysL,  131.  KyttCAKELERE 
and  Colett  Crane.  [M.] 

1598.  FLORIO,  Gracchione  ...  a 
chatter,  a  CACKLER.  [M.] 

1730-6.  BAILEY,  CACKLER  :  a  Prater, 
a  Tell-tale,  a  noisy  Person. 

1878.  BROWNING,  Poets  ofCroisic,  92. 
If  they  dared  Count  you  a  CACKLER. 

3.  (circus     and     showmen's). 
— An  actor  or  showman  who  has 
a  speaking  pait. 

1854.  DICKENS,  Hard  Ttrnes.bk.  I., 
ch.  vi.,  p.  14  (H.  ed.)-  'He  has  his 
points  as  a  CACKLER  still  ...  a  speaker, 
if  the  gentleman  likes  it  better. 

CACKLER'S-KEN,  subs.  (old).  —  A 
hen-roost ;  a  fowl-house.  [From 
CACKLER  (q.v.,  subs.)  sense  i),  a 
fowl,  +  KEN  (q.v. ),  a  place  or 
house.]  A  French  tnieves' 
equivalent  is  une  orniere  (from 
ornie>  a  hen). 

CACKLE-TU B, subs.  (old). — A  pulpit. 
[From  CACKLE  (q.v.}  +  TUB,  in 
allusion  to  the  shape  of  old- 
fashioned  pulpits.]  For  syno- 
nyms, se*  HUM-BOX. 

1888.  MUSGRAVE,  Savage  London. 
I  sorter  think  if  yer'll  borrow  Lucy's  chair 
to  wheel  me,  I'll  go  and  sit  under  the 
CACKLE-TUB  in  Little  Bethel  next  Sunday. 

(old). — A  fowl.  [From  CACK- 
LING, that  cackles,  +  CHEAT, 
From  A.S.  ceat,  a  thing.] — See 

cackler  ;  margery  prater ;  galeny  ; 
partlet ;  chickabiddy  ;  rooster  ; 
chuck-chuck ;  chuckie. 

quant  (a  thieves'  term) ;  tin 
ornichon  (also  a  thieves'  term  for 

a  chicken) ;  un  pique-en-terre 
(literally  '  a  peck-the-ground  ') ; 
une  estable  or  une  estaphle 
(thieves') ;  brtiantez  ( Breton  slang). 

(from  the  Gypsy)  ;  mistkratzer. 

or  raspant^  (properly  '  scratching  ' 
or  '  scraping '). 

(this,  and  indeed  all  the  terms 
here  given  from  the  Germania, 
refer  to  the  cock-bird.  Capiscol 
=  Fr.  caporat)  ;  obispo  (properly 
a  bishop)  ;  rey  (literally  king). 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat^  p.  86.  She 
has  a  CACKLING-CHETE,  a  grunting-chete, 
ruff  pecke,  cassan,  and  poplarr  of  yarum. 

1622.  FLETCHER,  Beggars  Bush,  v. ' 
i.  Or  surprising  a  boor's  ken  for  grunting- 
cheats?  Or  CACKLING-CHEATS? 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CACKLING-CHEATS  (cant) : 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CACK- 
LING CHEATS  :  Fowls  (cant). 

CACKLING-COVE,  subs,  (theatrical 
and  common). — An  actor.  [From 
CACKLING  (see  CACKLE,  sufa., 
sense  i)  +  COVE,  an  old  canting 
term  for  a  man.] 

mery-cove; mug-faker;  mummer; 
mugger  (properly  an  actor  who 
makes  free  play  with  his  face)  ; 
tragedy  or  comedy  merchant ;  pro ; 
stroller ;  cackle-faker ;  barn- 
stormer ;  surf. 

tre  (thieves' :  literally  '  a  priest ' : 
a  curious  sidelight  on  the  views 
concerning  religious  orders  of 
the  criminal  classes) ;  icn  raze 
or  razi  pour  Faf  (thieves'  :  raze  or 
razi  =  priest ;  and  affe  in  old 
French  cant  signified  '  life '  or 
'  the  soul,'  but  latterly  eau  d'affe^ 



'  brandy. '  There  seems,  however, 
little  connection  between  either  of 
these  readings  and  the  example 
under  consideration)  ;  un  Egyp- 
tien  (theatrical :  a  term  applied 
to  a  bad  or  inferior'  actor) ;  un 
acteur-^uitare  (a  term  specially 
applied  to  one  who  elicits  applause 
in  lacrymose  scenes  only — an 
actor  with  only  one  string  to  his 
bow)  ;  ttn  enleveur  (theatrical : 
one  who  plays  in  such  a  way  as  to 
enlever  la  salle,  i.  e.,  'to  bring  down 
the  house  ')  ;  une  doublure  (an 
understudy) ;  un  cab,  cabot,  or 
cabotin.)  (used  mainly  in  con- 
tempt, much  in  the  same  way  as 
'mummer.'  Cabotinage  is  the  life 
of  hardship  led  by  strolling 
players,  and  thence,  by  derivation, 
the  life  of  the  '  profession ' 
generally) ;  un  bruleur  de  planches 
(theatrical :  a  spirited  or  restless 
actor) ;  un  acteur  briile  (popular  : 
one  that  has  had  his  day) ;  tin 
bouch  trou  (theatrical :  an  under- 
study or  stop-gap) ;  un  bouleur  or 
une  bouleuse(a,  substitute,  or  under- 
study) ;  un  misloquier  or  une 
misloquiere  (thieves') ;  un  nom 
(theatrical :  '  a  star '). 

CACKLING-FART,  subs.  (old). — An 
egg-  [From  CACKLING  (see 
CACKLE)  +  FART  (y.v.)  a  dis- 
charge of  wind  through  the  aims.] 
A  variant  in  English  is  HEN- 
FRUIT  ;  Fr.  un  avergot  (thieves') ; 
the  Breton  cant  has  bruant,  whilst 
in  the  German  Gaunersprache  is 
found  Dickmann  (also  =  \}\e  penis 
and  testes) ;  the  Fourbesque  has 
arbifi  and  albert  o  (the  latter  from 
the  Italian  albo,  white). 

CAD,  subs,  (popular). — A  term  of 
contempt  now  generally  applied 
to  an  offensively  ill-bred  person, 
irrespective  of  social  position. 

Formerly  used  of  underlings  and 
others  performing  menial  offices. 
[Murray  favours  its  origin  in  cadet 
and  the  popular  forms  cadee  and 
caddie.  See,  however,  CADATOR, 
the  quotations  under  which  appear 
to  suggest  a  collateral,  if  an  in- 
dependent origin.  Some  regard 
the  word  as  a  contraction  of 
'  cadger  ' ;  whilst  others  trace  it 
to  the  Scotch  '  cadie  '  or  '  caddie,' 
an  errand  boy — now  an  attendant 
at  golf ;  or  to  the  slang  University 
sense  of  the  word,  a  non- 
member].  The  vocable  has 
passed  through  a  variety  of 

1.  Passengers    taken    up    by 
coach  drivers  for  their  own  profit. 


2.  (obsolete). — A  chum  or  com- 

3.  (old). — An  assistant. 

4.  (old). — An    omnibus    con- 

1833.  HOOD,  Road.  Though 
I  am  a  CAD  now,  I  was  once  a  coachman. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pick-wick,  ch.  xxxiii., 
p.  279.  He  paused,  and  contemplated, 
with  a  face  of  great  calmness  and  philo- 
sophy, the  numerous  CADS  and  drivers 
of  short  stages  who  assemble  near  that 
famous  place  of  resort  [the  Mansion- 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p.  355.  The 
conductor,  who  is  vulgarly  known  as  the 
CAD,  stands  on  a  small  projection  at  the 
end  of  the  omnibus, 

5.  A  messenger  or  errand  boy. 

1835.  T.  HOOK,  Gilbert  Gurney,  ch. 
vii.  I  will  appear  to  know  more  of  you 
than  one  of  the  CADS  of  the  thimble-rig 
knows  of  the  pea-holder. 

1839.  T.  HOOD,  Miss  Kilmansegg, 
p.  230.  Not  to  forget  that  saucy  lad 
(Ostentation's  favourite  CAD),  The  page, 
who  looked  so  splendidly  clad. 




1843.  J.  HEWLETT,  College  Life,  I., 
p.  115.  Webb's  boy,  who  went  as  CAD 
with  the  dog. 

6.  (University  and  public 
schools'). — A  contemptuous  term 
applied  to  non-school  or  non- 
University  men.  At  Cambridge 
SNOB,  the  word  Thackeray  used, 
has  long  been  a  common  term 
for  a  townsman  ;  now  the 
undergrad  says  TOWNEE  or 
TOWNER  (q.v.).  The  German 
an  alogue  is  Philister.  Dr.  Giinther 
(Jena  and  its  Environs]  tells  that 
of  the  old  towers  and  gates  which 
formed  the  entrance  to  Jena,  the 
square  one  to  the  west  alone 
remains  ;  and  is  remarkable  not 
only  lor  its  prison,  called  'The 
Cheese-Basket,'  but  for  four 
images  of  monkeys'  heads  carved 
at  the  several  corners  of  the  gate 
itself.  In  a  quarrel  between  stu- 
dents and  townsfolk  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Johannis-Thor,  the  former 
dubbed  the  watchmen  there  '  the 
monkey  watchmen.'  The  guard 
vowed  vengeance,  and  one  evening 
killed  a  student  who  had  taken  no 
part  in  the  disturbance.  The 
ecclesiastical  superintendent,G6tz, 
preached  a  sermon  at  the  boy's 
funeral  from  Judges  xvi.  20,  '  The 
Philistines  be  upon  thee,  Samson ! ' 
and  that  night  his  text  was  heard 
in  the  street,  Philister  iiber  dir 
Samson !  '  Henceforward  the 
citizens  were  called  '  Philister  '  by 
the  students  ;  and,  the  name  being 
exported  to  the  other  Universities, 
it  came  at  length  to  be  applied  to 
burgher  folk  throughout  Germany. 
According  to  some  this  fight 
occurred  in  1693.  For  synonyms, 

1831.  HONE,  Year  Book,  670.  Pre- 
ceded by  one  or  two  bands  of  music  in 
two  boats,  rowed  by  CADS. 

1856.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('  Cuthbert 
Bede  '),  Adventures  ofl'erdant  Green,  I., 
p.,  117.  And  I  can  chaff  a  CAD. 

1860.  Macmillaris  Mag.,  March  p 
327.  You  don't  think  a  gentleman  can 
lick  a  CAD,  unless  he  is  the  biggest  and 
strongest  of  the  two. 

1873.  Saturday  Review,  September, 
p.  305.  At  Oxford  the  population  of  the 
University  an  J  city  is  divided  into  '  Dons, 
men  and  CADS.' 

7.  (general).  —  A  vulgar,  ill- 
mannered  person  ;  a  blackguard, 
i.e.,  a  person  incapable  of  moral 
decency.  For  synonyms,  see 

1849.  CHARLES  KINGSLEY.  Alton 
Locke.  '  The  CADS  '  '  the  snobs,'  '  the 
blackguards,'  looked  on  with  a  dislike,  con- 
tempt, and  fear  which  they  were  not  back- 
ward to  return. 

1860.  THACKERAY.  Lovell  the 
Widower,  p.  245.  There's  a  set  of  CADS 
in  that  club  that  will  say  anything. 

1880.  Punch's  Almanack,  12.  Lor' 
if  I'd  the  ochre,  make  no  doubt  I  could  cut 
no  end  of  big-pots  out.  Call  me  a  CAD  ? 
When  ironey's  in  the  game,  CAD  and 
swell  are  pooty  much  the  same. 

1882.  F.  ANSTEY,  Vice  VersA,  ch. 
vii.  Perhaps  your  old  governor  has  been 
making  a  CAD  of  himself  then,  and  you're 
out  of  sorts  with  him. 

1889.  Answers,  Feb.  23,  p.  205,  col. 
3.  You  wouldn't  care  to  know  Goodfellow, 
Miss  Smart  ;  he's  awfully  bad  form—  a 
regular  CAD,  you  know. 

CADATOR,  subs.  (old).  —  A  beggar 
in  the  character  of  a  decayed 

1703.  WARD,  London  Spy,  pt.  I.,  p. 
.  He  is  one  of  those  gentile  [?  genteel] 
umpers,  we  call  CADATORS  ;  he  goes  a 
Circuit  round  England  once  a  year,  and 
under  Pretence  of  a  decay'd  gentleman, 
gets  both  Money  and  Entertainment  at 
every  good  House  he  comes  at. 

ed.  1760.  T.  BROWN,  Works,  II., 
179.  You  .  .  .  sot  away  your  time  in 
Mongo's  fumitory,  among  a  parcel  of  old 
smoak-dry  CADATORS. 

CADDIE,  subs.  (Scots).  —  An  at- 
tendant at  golf. 

1889.  Scots  Observer,  Feb.  Oh,  my 
CADDIE,  my  CADDIE  ye're  a  vera  intelligent 
laddie.  But  I  dinna  like  yer  grinnin 
When  I'm  no  exactly  winnin'. 





CADDISH,  adj.  (popular). — Vulgar  ; 
offensively  ill-bred.  [From  CAD 
(q.i'.y  sense  7)  4  ISH.] 

18*59.  SHIRLEY  BROOKS,  Sooner  or 
Later,  II.,  p.  31.  '  Well  I  don't  care 
about  walking  on  Sundays.  Religious 
scruples,  perhaps.'  '  I  should  think  not. 
But  it  seems  so  CADDISH — like  snobs  who 
can  go  out  on  no  other  day.' 

1872.  Civilian,  Aug.  10.  There  are 
many  sorts  of  Ministerial  insolence  at 
present  '  on  view '  in  the  House  of 
Commons.  Mr.  Ayrton's  is  coarse  and 
CADDISH,  the  Attorney  -  General's  con- 
temptuously courteous,  and  Mr.  Lowe's 
cynically  and  facetiously  insulting. 

1874.  E.  I..  LINTON,  Patricia 
Kemball,  ch.  xx.  '  However,  I  have 
brought  you  here  to  reason,  not  to  wrangle,' 
he  continued  more  quietly  ;  'and  wrangling 
is  CADDISH.' 

CADE,  subs,  (society). — The  Bur- 
lington Arcade.  [An  abbrevi- 
ated form  of  'Arcade.']  Cf., 
THE  Zoo  for  'the  Zoological 
gardens,'  THE  PROMS,  for  '  the 
Promenade  Concerts,'  THE  POPS. 
for  '  the  Monday  Popular  Con- 
certs,' and  THE  CRI.  for  the 
'Criterion  Bar. '  Somewhat  older 
examples  are  THE  LANE  (q.v. ) 
and  THE  HOUSE  (q.v.}. 

CADGE,  subs,  (vulgar). — The  pro- 
fession of  cadging  or  begging. 
— Se?  verbal  sense. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Dictionary. 
The  CADGE  is  the  game  or  profession  of 

1832-53.  Whistle- Binkie  (Sc.  Songs), 
Ser.  II. ,68.  He  could  '  lay  on  the  CADGE' 
better  than  ony  walleteer  that  e  er  cost  a 
pock  o'er  his  shouthgr. 

Verb  tr.  and  intr. — To  obtain 
by  begging  ;  to  beg.  Now  ap- 
plied to  vagrants  and  others  who 
solicit  in  an  artful  wheedling 
manner.  [A  comparatively  mo- 
dern derivative.  CADGER  (Scots) 
a  pedlar  or  carrier,  i.e.,  one  who 
strolls  the  country  with  his  stock- 
in-trade  in  a  CADGE,  i.e.,  a  panier 

or  basket  for  the  carriage  of  small 
wares.  Cf.,  '  to  beg,'  from  '  bag.'] 
Hence  said  of  anyone  who  lives 
by  sponging  on  another,  or  who 
gets  a  livelihood  without  giving  a 
proper  quid  pro  quo.  For  ex- 
ample, a  waiter  when  hanging 
about  for  '  a  tip  '  is  said  to  be 
CADGING  or  'on  the  CADGE.' 
Among  intimates  To  CADGE  A 
DINNER  or  SUPPER  is  now  often 
used  without  implied  reproach. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CADGE 
the  swells,  beg  of  the  gentlemen. 

1846.  LYTTON,  Lucretia,  II.,  xii.  '  I 
be's  good  for  nothin'  now,  but  to  CADGE 
about  the  streets  and  steal  and  filch.  [M.] 

1848.  E.  FARMER,  Scrap  Book  (ed. 
6),  115.  Let  each  CADGE  a  trifle. 

1866.  G.  A.  SALA,  Trip  to  Barbary. 
ch.  xiv.  Thumping  the  tom-tom,  and 
CADGING  for  coppers. 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  Feb.  8,  p.  3, 
col.  i.  '  It's  as  bad  a'  most  as  drawing 
peoples'  teeth  to  CADGE  a  trifle  off  them 
in  such  winter  months  as  we've  had  since 
the  Autumn  broke.' 

mump  ;  to  pike  ;  to  mouch  ;  to 
stand  the  pad ;  to  maund ;  to 
tramp ;  to  mike. 

tander  (thieves');  aller  a  la  chasse 
avec  un  fusil  de  toile  (popular  : 
literally  '  to  go  hunting  with  a 
canvas  gun,'  an  allusion  to  the 
necessary  wallet  or  bag);  bellander 
(tramps';  Cf.,  bettander  \  pos- 
sibly some  confusion  has  arisen 
between  these  two  terms)  ;  ba- 
laudet  (tramps')  ;  truquer  de  la 
po^ne  (tramps') ;  trucker  (Old 
Cant,  from  true,  any  kind  of 
open  air  small  trade  or  artifice. 
The  word  appears  in  various 
French,  Italian  and  Spanish 
dialects,  whilst  MKRIL  in  his 
Dictionnaire  du  patois  Nor  maud 
allies  it  with  the  English  'trick'); 
tendre  la  demi-aune  (popular: 




demi-aune  =  the  arm) ;  cameloter 
(popular  :  meaning  also  to  sell, 
cheapen,  or  tramp) ;  faire  le  coiip 
de  manche,  or  faire  la  manche  (to 
call  at  people's  houses) ;  men- 
digoter  (popular). 

(to  get  by  begging.  From  the 
O.H.G.  gil)  •  abschnurren  (to 
beg  through  a  lane,  town,  or 
province  ;  also  =  to  take  to 
one's  heels  ;  M.H.G.  snurren, 
schnurren  (<?.v.,  infra)  and 
Schnurrant,  a  beggar  musician) ; 
bimmeln  (Bimmler,  Bummler,  a 
beggar  or  vagrant) ;  benschen  (a 
corruption  of  the  Latin  benedicere 
=  to  say  grace  after  meat  ;  from 
praying  to  begging  is  but  a  step) ; 
paternellen  (perhaps,  like  the  fore- 
going, a  formation,  from  the  Latin 
pater  noster^  signifying  to  say 
muchflater) ;  noppeln  (vagrants'); 
Schnurren,  schnorren  snurren, 
(from  the  O.H.G.  snurren,  to 
grind,  to  grind  out  music  on  a 
HURDY-GURDY  [g.v.],  or  to  grind 
out  prayers.  A  beggar  or 
vagrant  is  termed  Schmtrrer, 
Schnorrer,  or  Snurrer  =  a 
grinder.  Auf  die  Pille  schnurren 
—  to  beg  by  feigning  epileptic 
fits  ;  auf  Serjfleppe  schnurren  = 
to  beg  on  the  pretence  of  having 
been  '  burnt  out ' ;  Schnurrpilsel, 
Schnurrscheye,  Scenurrschicksel, 
Schurrkeibelche,  and  Sc knurr- 
madchen,  are  epithets  for  very 
young  girls  who  are  beggars  or 
strumpets  as  occasion  fits ;  the 
dual  occupation  being  known  as 
Kommistarchenen  and  Hemdensch  - 
nurren]  ;  tarchenen,  targenen, 
dor  gen )  dorchen  ('  to  beg  '  or  '  to 
hawk. '  The  derivation  is  obscure, 
but  it  is  possibly  to  be  found  in 
the  Hebrew  tirgel,  '  to  teach  to 
walk '  or  'to  guide  the  foot. ' 
Others  trace  it  to  the  O.H.G.  Turg, 

'  uncertain '  or  to  storgen  from 
Stor^tr,  'a wandering  quack.'  The 
Fiesellange,  or  Viennese  thieves' 
lingo,  has  Tarchener  as  equiva- 
lent to  Kegler,  a  kitchen  thief)  ; 
linkstappeln  (to  beg  or  collect 
money  under  false  pretences  ;  ste 
Linkstap^ler  under  CADGER)  ; 
prachern  (probably  from  the 
Hebrew  berocha,  a  blessing : 
wandering  beggars  generally  in- 
troducing themselves  with  some 
sort  of  a  benediction) ;  Schnallen- 
drikken  gehen,  or  attf  Schnallen, 
driicken  gehen  (these  terms  also 
signify  to  walk  the  streets  as  a 
prostitute.  Schnalle  =  untruth, 
cheating,  deception,  and  the 
female  pudendum}  ;  stabeln, 
stappeln,  and  stapeln  (the  first  of 
the-se  forms  is  peculiar  to  Vienna, 
and  all  are  traceable  to  Stiban  or 
Stap,  the  Anglo-Saxon  staff. 
The  meaning  is  to  go  with  a 
begging  staff,  generally  with  a 
pretence  of  having  seen  beUer 
days) ;  dalfen  and  dalfern  (the 
corresponding  noun  Dalfon  =  a 
poor  fellow,  is  supposed  to  be 
derived  from  Dalfon,  the  only 
one  of  the  ten  sons  of  Haman, 
whose  name  had  not  the  letter 
aleph  either  at  the  beginning  or 
end  of  it  [Esther  ix.  7-9].  The 
story  goes  that  because  of  this 
he  was  not  only  hanged,  but 
mocked  into  the  bargain  :  the 
feast  in  commemoration  of 
Haman 's  fall  being  essentially  a 
merrymaking.  Thenceforth,  a 
poor  man  became  a  Dalfon}  ; 
deufen  gehen  =  to  go  begging 
with  the  intention  of  committing 
a  robbery.  Cf.t  O.H.G.  Diufa, 
Deube  =  theft) ;  Jechten,  Viennese 
thieves'  lingo). 

(identical  with  the  French  trnqtter 
y.v.) ;  Santocchiare  (also  =  'to 

Cadge-  Cloak. 


say  one's  prayers  ')  ;    calcheggiare 
(also  =  to  steal). 

CADGE-CLOAKorGLOAK,.mfo.  (old). 

— A  beggar.       For  synonyms,  see 

1791.  CAREW,  Life  and  Adventures 
of  Bamphylde-Moore  Careiv.  CADGK- 
CLOAK,  curtal,  or  curmudgeon  ;  no  Whip- 
Jack,  palliard,  patrico  .  .  .  nor  any  other 
will  I  suffer. 

CADGER,  subs,  (common).— Pri- 
marily a  carrier,  pedlar,  or 
itinerant  dealer  ;  now  mainly 
applied  to  a  whining  beggar ; 
also,  occasionally,  a  *  sponger,' 
SNIDE  (g.v.),  or  '  mean  man  '  (see 
quots.).  [From  CADGE  (q.v. )  + 

man  ;  croaker  ,  Abraham  cove  ; 
Tom  of  Bedlam ;  Bedlam  beggar ; 
maunderer,  moucher  ;  pikey  ; 
traveller  ;  turnpike,  or  dry  land 
sailor  ;  scoldrum  ;  shyster  ; 
Shivering  James  ;  silver  beggar  ; 
skipper-bird  ;  mumper ;  paper- 
worker  ;  goose-shearer ;  master 
of  the  black  art ;  durrynacker. 

trucheur,  or  un  trucheux  (Old 
Cant,  from  true,  which  see  under 
CADGE)  ;  un  marcandier  or  Tine 
marcandiere  (thieves'  ;  a  variety 
of  the  mendicant  tribe  which  is 
described  in  le  Jargon  de  ?  Argot 
as  'those  wno  journey  with  a 
great  purse  by  their  side,  with 
a  pretty  good  coat,  and  a  cloak 
on  their  shoulders,  pretending 
they  have  met  with  robbers  who 
have  stolen  all  their  money) ; 
les  mil  lards.  (Old  Cant);  un 
becheur  ;  une  comete  (popular  :  'a 
comet ' — one  here  and  there)  ; 
les  callots ;  un  enfant  de  la  loupe 
(thieves')  ;  un  loupiat  (popular) ; 
un  mendigot  (thieves') ;  un  lartin 
(Old  Cant). 

(see  CADGE);  7 echtbrud( Viennese 
thieves')  ;  Gomel  (from  the  He- 
brew, and  used  only  as  a  nick- 
name) ;  Hochstappler  (a  beggar 
cheat  who  has  seen  better  days. 
Cf. ,  Stappler  and  Linkstappler)  ; 
l,inkstappler  (a  beggar  by  means 
of  false  papers  ;  a  dealer  in  sham 
lottery  tickets  ;  or  a  '  snide  '  col- 
lector for  purposes  of  charity)  ; 
Pracher  (possibly  from  the  He- 
brew berocha,  'a  blessing,'  in 
allusion  to  the  mumper's  benedic- 
tion ;  Sclmallendriicker  (from 
Schnalle  =  'an  untruth,'  '  cheat- 
ing,' , or  'deception,'  •+  Trecker, 
one  who  pulls)  ;  Schnurrer  (see 
under  CADGE)  ;  Stabeler  (see  under 
CADGE)  ;  Standjunge  (a  beggar 
frequenting  markets,  fairs,  and 
public  processions). 

pa^no  di  calca  (campagno  = 
companion  or  comrade,  calca  — 
'  crowd  ' )  ;  calco  (see  preceding)  ; 
corteggiano  or  cortigiano  (literally 
'  a  courtier  ')  ;  cavorante  di  scarpe 
(literally  'working  shoes'; 
specially  applied  to  a  beggar  who 
is  also  a  pickpocket)  ;  granchetto 
(especially  one  who  PATTERS  IN 
FLASH  (q.v.)  ;  truccante  (also  =  a 
thief)  ;  guido or guidone (literally 
'  a  guide ' ;  also  =  a  '  dog  '  or  a 
'  companion  ')  ;  incattnato  an  old 
and  decrepit  beggar's  boy-leader. 
Literally  one  put  up  or  hung  up 
in  chains). 

(a  nickname  for  a  deformed 
vagrant  or  beggar). 

1821.— W.  T.  MONCRIRFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  ii.,  Sc.  6.  CADGERS  make 
holiday,  Hey,  for  the  maunder's  joys,  Let 
pious  ones  fast  and  pray,  They  save  us  the 
trouble,  my  boys. 

1851.— MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and  Lon. 
Poor,  I.,  339.  A  street  seller  nowadays  is 



looked  upon  as  a   'CADGER,'  and  treated 
as  one. 

1882.— Daily  Telegraph,  5  Oct.,  p.  3. 
col.  i.  See  on  a  Saturday  night,  in  White- 
chapel,  the  rank  hypocritical  CADGER, 
whose  coarse  disguise  of  cleanness  and 
respectability  would  scarcely  deceive  the 
most  fojhsh  persons  at  the  West-end. 

1884.— JAS.  GREENWOOD,  The  Little 
Ragamuffins.  I  may  here  remark  that 
amongst  people  of  my  born  grade  no  one 
is  so  contemptuously  regarded  as  he  who 
is  known  as  a  CADGER.  The  meaning 
they  set  on  the  word  is  not  the  dictionary 
meaning.  The  CADGER  with  them  is  the 
whining  beggar,  the  cowardly  impostor, 
who  being  driven  or  finding  it  convenient 
to  subsist  on  chanty,  goes  about  his  busi- 
ness with  an  affectation  of  profoundest 
humility,  and  a  consciousness  of  his  own 
unworthiness  ;  a  sneaking,  abject  wretch, 
aiming  to  crop  a  meal  put  cf  the  despising 
and  disgust  he  excites  in  his  fellow- 

CADGING,  verbal  subs,  (common). — 
Begging,  frequently  eked  out  by 
petty  pilfering.  [From  CADGE 
(q.v.)  +  ING.] 

1859.  'H..KiNGSLEV,Ge0/rei>ffamfyn, 
ch.  xv.  I've  got  my  living  by  casting 
fortins,  and  begging,  and  CADGING,  and 
such  like. 

1873.  JAS.  GREENWOOD,  In  Strange 
Company.  But  what  one  in  vain  looked 
for  was  the  'jolly  beggar,'  the  oft-quoted 
and  steadfastly  believed  in  personage 
who  scorns  work  because  he  can  '  make ' 
in  a  day  three  times  the  wages  of  an 
honest  mechanic  by  the  simple  process 

CADY,  subs,  (common). — A  hat. 
[Derivation  unknown.]  Some- 
times written  CAUEY  and  CADDY. 
For  synonyms,  see  GOLGOTHA. 

1886.  The  A .  B.  C.  of  New  Dictionary 
of  Flash,  Cant,  Slang,  etc.,  p.  85.  CADDY  : 
a  man's  hat. 

1887.  Walforcfs  Antiquarian,  April, 
p.   251.     Sixpence  I  gave  for  my  CADEY 
A  penny  I  gave  for  my  stick. 

CAFFAN.  —  See  C  ASS  AN. 

CAFFRE'S  LIGHTEN ER,  subs.  (South 
African). — A  full  meal.  Fr.  une 
lichance  (from  lie  her-—  lecher,  '  to 
lick '). 

1864.  LADY  DUFF  GORDON.  Letters 
from  the  Cape.  I  asked  him  [a  young 
black  shepherd  at  the  Cape]  to  sing  ;  and 
he  flung  himself  at  my  feet,  in  an  attitude 
that  would  make  Watts  crazy  with  delight, 
and  crooned  queer  little  mournful  ditties. 
I  gave  him  sixpence  and  told  him"  not  to 
get  drunk.  He  said,  '  Oh,  no  !  I  will  buy 
bread  enough  to  make  my  belly  stiff ;  I 
almost  never  had  my  belly  stiff.'  He  like- 
wi>e  informed  me  that  he  had  just  been  in 
the  tronk  [Cape  Dutch  slang  for  a  prison, 
answering  to  the  English  stone -jugl.  and, 
on  my  asking  why,  replied,  '  Oh,  for  fight- 
ing and  telling  lies.' 

CAGE,  subs.  (old).  —  I.  A  minor 
kind  of  piison  for  petty  male- 
factors ;  a  country  'lock-up.' 
[From  CAGE,  a  place  of  con- 
finement for  birds,  beasts,  and, 
formerly,  human  beings.]  Once 
in  literary  use ;  now  thieves' 

I'.OO.  Lancelot,  2767.  As  cowart 
thut  schamfully  to  ly  Excludit  in  to  CAGE 
from  chewalry.  [M.] 

1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  //.  Henry  VI., 
iv.,  2.  Dick.  Ay,  by  my  faith,  the  field  is 
honorable,  and  there  he  was  born,  under  a 
hedge  ;  for  his  father  had  never  a  house  but 
the  CAGE. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed). 
CAGE  (s)  :  a  place  of  confinement  for 
thieves  or  vagrants  that  are  taken  up  by  the 
watch  in  the  night-time,  to  secure  them  till 
the  proper  officer  can  carry  them  before  a 

1815.  SCOTT,  Guy  Mannering,  ch. 
liii.  I  was  doomed — still  1  kept  my 
purpose  in  the  CAGE  and  in  the  stocks. 

Sheppard  [1882],  p.  78.  The  CAGE  at 
Willesden  was,  and  is— rbr  it  is  still 
standing — a  small  round  building  about 
eight  feet  high,  with  a  pointed  tiled  roof, 
to  which  a  number  of  boards  inscribed  with 
the  names  of  the  parish  officers,  and 
charged  with  a  multitude  of  admonitory 
notices  to  vagrants  and  other  disorderly 
persons,  are  attached. 



1841.  Punch,  vol.  1  ,  p.  3.  'A  synopsis 
of  voting.'  He  who  is  incited  into  an 
assault,  that  he  may  be  put  into  the  CAGE. 

a  prison  generally,  academy ; 
boat  ;  boarding-house  ;  bower  ; 
block-house  ;  bastille ;  bladhunk ; 
stone-jug  ;  jug  ;  calaboose  ; 
cooler  ;  coop  ;  downs  ;  clink  ; 
jigger  ;  Irish  theatre ;  quod  ; 
shop  ;  stir  j  clinch  ;  steel  ; 
sturrabin  ;  mill  ;  toll  shop  ; 
floating  hell ;  floating  academy  ; 
dry  room  ;  House  that  Jack  Built ; 

Among  special  names  for 
particular  prisons  may  be  men- 
tioned Bates's  Farm  or  Garden 
(Cold  Bath  Fields)  ;  Akerman's 
Hotel  (Newgate)  ;  Castieu's 
Hotel  (Melbourne  Gaol)  ;  Bur- 
don's  Hotel  (White  Cross  Street 
Prison)  ;  Ellenborough  Lodge, 
Spike  or  Park  (the  King's  Bench 
Prison,  to  which,  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  every  Chief  Justice  stood 
god-father)  ;  Campbell's  Aca- 
demy (the  Hulks) ;  City  College 
and  Whittington's  College  (New- 
gate) ;  Tench  ;  Pen  ;  and  Smith's 
Hotel  (Edinburgh). 

(thieves')  ;  la  cartiche  (thieves') ; 
la  boite  aux  cailloux  (thieves') ; 
cailloux  =  stones  ;  Cf. ,  '  stone 
jug  '  ;  le  college  (thieves'  :  New- 
gate at  one  time  was  called  the 
City  College)  ;  la  cage  (popular)  ; 
le  chateau  (thieves'  :  literally  a 
castle,  chateau  de  Sombre  =  a 
convict  settlement)  ;  la  chambre 
de  surete  (the  parish  prison  of 
the  Conciergerie)  ;  le  chetard 
(thieves') ;  le  canton  (thieves' : 
according  to  Menage  in  his  Dic- 
tionnaire  Etymologique,  the 
original  sense  of  this  word  is  the 

same  as  coin.  From  canton  has 
been  derived  the  verb,  cantonner^ 
a  military  term  signifying  the 
billetting  of  troops  in  one  or 
more  villages)  ;  en  ballon  (popu- 
lar :  in  prison)  ;  la  grosse  boite 
(thieves'  :  literally  the  big  box)  ; 
la  bonde  (thieves'  :  a  central 
prison)  ;  la  Biscaye  (thieves')  ; 
Vabbaye  de  sots  bougres  (thieves'  : 
obsolete  =  The  billy  Bugger's 
Arms)  ;  le  bloc  (a  military  prison 
or  cell,  Cf.)  block-house)  ;  la 
dure  (thieves' :  a  central  prison, 
dur  is  properly  hard,  merciless, 
obdurate)  ;  la  femme  de  Fadju- 
dant  (a  military  lock-up,  jigger, 
or  Irish  theatre ;  literally  the 
adjutant's  wife) ;  la  bagnole  (popu- 
lar :  a  diminutive  of  bagne,  of 
the  same  meaning)  ;  la  motte 
(thieves'  :  a  central  prison  or 
house  of  correction)  ;  Fhbpital 
(thieves'  :  a  man  in  durance  is 
un  malade  =  a  patient) ;  la  mitre 
(thieves' :  a  corruption  of  mith- 
ridate,  the  name  of  a  certain 
ointment ;  mitre  formerly  meant 
'  itch  ')  ;  le  jetar  (military  ;  the 
same  as  chetar]  ;  Pours  (common  : 
a  term  given  to  a  prison,  guard- 
room, or  cell)  ;  la  boite  a  violon 
(a  lock-up  at  a  police-station  ; 
violon  itself  signifies  a  prison, 
the  barred  windows  being  com- 
pared to  the  strings  of  that 
instrument.  Argot  and  Slang 
says  : — The  lingo  terms  jouer  de 
la  harpe,  to  be  in  prison,  and 
jouer  du  violon ,  to  file  through 
the  window  bars  of  a  cell,  seem 
to  bear  out  this  explanation. 
Some  philologists,  however, 
think  that  the  stocks  being 
termed  psalterion,  mettre  au 
psalterion,  to  put  in  the  stocks, 
became  synonymous  with  '  to 
imprison,'  the  expression  being 
superseded  in  time  by  mettre  au 
violon  when  that  instrument  itself 




superseded  the  psalterion}  ;  la 
tune f on  (Old  Cant) ;  fausto  (a 
military  prison)  ;  le  lycee( thieves': 
=  '  academy  ')  ;  Fecole  prepara- 
toire  (pop.  :  a  preparatory  school 
tor  young  thieves^  le  lazaro  (mili- 
tary :  —  lazar-house,  or  *  spike)  ; 
le  mazaro  (military  :  =  cells)  ;  la 
matatane  (military:  'a  guard  room' 
or  the  cells);  le loustatid ( thieves)'; 
la  lorcefe  (thieves'  :  the  old  prison 
of  La  Force}  ;  le  loir  (thieves'  = 
'  dormouse  ') ;  fhosto  (soldiers' 
and  thieves'  :  also  popularly,  '  a 
house  or  crib ') ;  lagrotte  (thieves' : 
the  hulks.  Properly  a  grotto  or 
crypt) ;  Fh6tel  des  haricots  (fa- 
miliar :  from  the  staple  of  diet, 
Cf.,  Ger.  Erbsien  and  Graupen- 
palais]  ;  la  morte  paye  stir  mer 
(obsolete  :  the  hulks)  F  ombre 
(popular:  =  'shade,'  Cf.,  Ger. 
Kilhle}  ',  la  maze  (abbreviation  of 
Mazas,  a  central  prison  in  Paris) ; 
la-bas  (prostitutes  :  St.  Lazare ; 
thieves'  :  the  convict  settlement 
at  New  Caledonia,  or  in  Cayenne); 
la  malle  (military  :  Cf.,  English 
'  box '). 

klosterl  (Viennese  thieves'  =  a 
prison  in  Vienna) ;  Drillbajis  or 
Drillhaus  (a  house  of  drill  or 
correction) ;  Echetel  (Viennese 
thieves') ;  Erbsien  (Viennese 
thieves'  :  from  the  staple  of  diet 
— Erbsen  =  peas.  Cf.,  Grau- 
penpalais]  ;  Graupenpalais  (a 
prison  in  Berlin,  from  the  staple 
of  diet — barley) ;  Grannigebais 
(Granigire  Marochum  =  a  for- 
tress) ;  Gymnasium  (Cf.,  col- 
lege, academy,  lycee ;  Kaan  or 
K'ln  (from  the  Hebrew ;  im 
Kaan  scheften,  to  be  in  prison) ; 
Kue  or  Kuh  (in  die  Kue  sperren-, 
to  imprison) ;  Kitt  or  Kittchen 
(from  the  Hebrew  Kisse  —  a 
chair,  throne,  roof,  common 

lodging-house,  brothel,  work- 
house, and  prison) ;  Kille  (literally 
an  assembly)  ;  Kiihle  (im  Kiihhn 
sitzen,  literally  to  sit  in  the 
'cooler'  or  in  the  shade;  Cf., 
etre  a  F  ombre,  and  '  to  be 
under  a  cloud  ') ;  Leek  (Viennese 
thieves'  M.H.G.,  hiken,to  lock 
up);  Mifzer  (Hebrew  pozar,  a 
fortress  or  prison)  ;  Schofelbajis 
(from  the  Hebrew  schophal,  bad, 
common,  low,  or  unfortunate. 
Also  a  brothel) ;  Stube  (this, 
according  to  Zimmermann,  signi- 
fies a  prison) ;  Talltsittasky 
(Hanoverian  :  from  tallo,  gal- 
lows, +  masky  from  Maskopei, 
society,  i.e.,  gallows-birds) ;  l^fise 
(from  the  Hebrew  tophas}. 

casa  (a  house.  The  forms  ca- 
saccia  and  cazanza  are  also  used) ; 
cavagna  ;  travaghosa  (literally 
laborious)  ;  sentina  (properly  a 
sink  of  vice; ;  mscola  or  visco 

rastra  ;  angiistias  or  ansias  (lite- 
rally grief  or  anguish)  ;  banasto 
(literally  a  large  round  basket)  ; 
banco  (properly  a  bench) ;  temor 
(i.e.,  fear) ;  trena  (/). 

tarim  or  xelro  ;  limoeiro  (a  cant 
name  for  a  prison  in  Lisbon). 

2.  (common). — An  'improver, 
or  bustle.     See  BIRD-CAGE. 

3.  (venery).  —  A    bed  ;     also 

1875.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Unpublished 
Ba'lad.  '  In  the  BREEDING  CAGE  I  cops  her, 
With  her  stays  off,  all  a'blowin' ! — Three 
parts  sprung.' — 

4.  (  parliamentary  ).   —  The 
Ladies'  Gallery  in  the  House  of 



Commons  ;  sometimes  called  the 

CHAMBER    OF     HORRORS,    which 

appertains  more  properly  to  the 
Peeresses'  Gallery  in  the  Upper 
r      House. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  10  June.  '  The 
Angels  in  the  House.'  Mr.  Crauford's 
Motion  for  the  expulsion  of  strangers 
(during  the  debate  on  The  Contagious 
(Women's)  Diseases  Act  had  reference  to 
the  CAGE  and  not  to  the  Reporters'  Gallery. 

CAGG,  verb  (old  military). — Grose 
says  '  a  military  term  used  by  the 
private  soldiers,  signifying  a 
solemn  vow  or  resolution  not  to 
get  drunk  for  a  certain  time  ;  or, 
as  the  term  is,  till  their  CAGG  is 
out,  which  vow  is  commonly 
observed  with  the  strictest  exact- 
ness :  e.g.,  "  I  have  CAGG'D  my- 
self for  six  months.  Excuse  me 
this  time,  and  I  will  CAGG  myself 
for  a  year."  Common  in  Scotland, 
where  the  vow  is  performed  with 
divers  ceremonies.' 

CAG-MAG,  subs,  (vulgar). — Pri- 
marily a  provincialism  for  a  tough 
old  goose ;  now  a  vulgarism  for 
refuse,  or  rubbish,  or  scraps  and 
ends.  The  transferred  sense  is 
older  than  given  in  the  N.E.D. 
Cf.,  KEG-MEG.  [Brewer  derives 
it,  'from  the  Gaelic  and  Welsh,' 
cag  magu,  whilst  others  consider 
it  as  originally  a  University  slang 
term  for  a  bad  cook,  KCCKO^ 
paytipoc.  The  Latin  magma 
(Pliny),  =  dregs  or  dross.]  Also  a 
plain  or  dirty  woman. 

1769.  PENNANT,  Tour  in  Scotland, 
1774,  p.  10.  Vast  numbers  [of  geese]  are 
driven  annually  to  London  ;  among  them, 
all  the  superannuated  geese  and  ganders 
(called  here  [Lincoln]  CAG-MAGS). 

1839.— Comic  Almanack,  Sept.,  p.  188, 
But  here's  the  greatest  grief,  and  sure  it 
makes  one  choke  to  put  on  A  libel  to  one's 
neck,  just  like  cheap  CAG-MAG-SCRAG  of 

1851-61.— H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  L on.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  133.  'Do  I  ever 
eat  my  own  game  if  it's  high?  No,  sir, 
never,  I  couldn't  stand  such  CAG-MAG. ' 

1864.— Temple  Bar,  vol.  X.,  p.  185. 
No  KAG  MAG  wares  are  sold,  no  cheap 
articles  are  retailed. 

CAIN.  To  RAISE  CATN,/^*-.  (Ameri- 
can).— To  proceed  to  extreme 
measures  ;  to  be  quarrelsome  ; 
to  make  a  disturbance.  Of 
Western  origin  ;  primarily  applied 
to  men  who  would  have  shown 
no  hesitation  in  shooting  or 
stabbing ;  generally  =  merely  dis- 
putatious or  quarrelsome  Vari- 
ants are  TO  RAISE  HATE,  HELL,  or 


NED  (q.v.\     [An  allusion  to  the 
anger  of  the  first  fratricide.] 

1849.— RUXTON,  Scenes  in  the  Far 
West,  p.  117.  He  had  been  knocking 
around  all  day  in  every  grog-shop  and 
bar-room  in  town,  and  when  evening  came 
he  was  seen  swaggering  down  Main  Street, 
his  head  bare,  his  eyes  bloodshot,  and  his 
revolver  in  hand,  shouting  : '  Who'll  hinder 
this  child  ?  I  am  going  TO  RAISE  CAIN  ! 
Who's  got  anything  to  say  agin  it  ? ' 

1869.— MRS.  BEECHER  STOWE,  Old 
Town  Folks,  p.  116.  'I'll  tell  you  what, 
Solomon  Peters,'  said  Miss  Asphyxia,  '  I'd 
jest  as  soon  have  the  red  dragon  in  the 
Revelation  a  comin'  down  on  my  house  as 
a  boy  !  If  I  don't  work  hard  enough  now, 
I'd  like  to  know,  without  having  a  boy 
around  RAISIN'  gineral  CAIN.' 

CAIN  AND  ABEL,  subs,  fhr,  (rhym- 
ing slang). — A  table. 

CAINSHAM  -  SMOKE,  subs,  phr, 
(old).— The  tears  of  a  wife-beaten 
husband. — DUNTON.  Ladies'  Die ~ 
tionary  [1694], 

CAKE  or  CAKEY,  subs,  (popular).— 
I.  A  fool  or  dullard.  Quoted  by 
Grose  in  his  Dictionary  of  the 
Vulgar  Tongue  [1785],  in  various 
provincial  glossaries,  and  generally 
colloquial  in  the  lower  strata  of 
society.  [In  punning  allusion, 
some  have  thought,  to  the  doughy 




softness  of  a  cake,  a  name  given 
at  first  to  any  '  flat '  kind  of 
sweetened  breadstuff.  Hence 
variants,  such,  for  example,  as 
'flat,'  'soft,'  and  'muff.'  Others, 
however,  trace  it  to  the  Greek 
icaicoc,  bad,  and  point  out  that  in 
University  slang  a  clever  man  is 
called  a  good  man  and  the  oppo- 
site a  bad  one,  or  a  CAKE.]  For 
synonyms,  see  BUFFLE  and  CAB- 

1841.  Comic     Almanack ;     'Twelfth 
Night,'  p.  256.     And   ever  since,    on  fair 
Twelfth  Night,  A  wand'ring  form  is  seen  : 
A  female  form,  and  this  its  cry  : — '  Vy  vot 
a  CAKE  I've  been  ! ' 

1842.  J.  R.  PLANCHE,  The  White  Cat, 
II.,  iv.     Your  resignation  proves  that  you 
must  be  The  greatest  CAKE  he  in  his  land 
could  see  ! 

1862.  MRS.  H.  WOOD,  Channings, 
ch.  xxix.  If  Pye  does  not  get  called  to 
order  now,  he  may  lapse  into  the  habit  of 
passing  over  hardworking  fellows  with 
brains  to  exalt  some  good-for-nothing  CAKE 
with  none,  because  he  happens  to  have  a 
Dutchman  for  his  mother. 

2.  (American     thieves'). — A 
stupid  policeman. 

3.  subs.   (Christ's  Hospital). — 
A  stroke  with  a  cane. 

Verb  (Christ's   Hospital).— To 

TO     TAKE     THE      CAKE,     phr. 

(common). — To  rank  the  highest ; 
to  carry  off  the  honours  ;  to  be 
the  best  of  a  kind  ;  '  to  fill  the 
bilP  (theatrical).  [CAKE  has 
long  been  employed  symbolically 
in  this  connection  ;  in  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  centuries, 
'  to  get  one's  share  of  the  cake  ' 
was  a  common  colloquialism. 
The  special  application  has  been 
popularised  in  the  U.S.A.  In 
certain  sections  of  the  country 
'  cake  walks  '  are  in  vogue  among 
the  coloured  people.  The  young 

bucks  get  themselves  up  most 
elaborately,  and  walk  from  one 
end  of  the  hall  to  the  other,  under 
the  gaze  of  beauty  and  the  critical 
glance  of  the  judges.  The  mark- 
ing is  done  on  a  scale  of  numbers, 
and  the  ties  are  walked  off  with 
the  utmost  finish  and  a  rare  at- 
tention to  style.  The  prize  is  a 
CAKE  and  the  winner  TAKES  it.] 
Whimsical  variations  are  TO  TAKE 


THE  KETTLE  =  to  take  the  prize 
for  lying. 

1885.  San  Francisco  Nevus  Letter, 
Between  you  'n  me,  red  stockings  ain't 
becomiri'  to  all — ahem — limbs,  'n  for  cool 
cheek  'n  dash.  I  back  some  o'em  against 
any  saleslady  't  makes  a  livin'  by  it,  the 
way  't  some  o'  those  girls  'd  pin  on  a 
boutonniere  TOOK  THE  CAKE. 

HURRY  UP  THE  CAKES  !  phr. 
(American)  =  Look  sharp  ! 
Buckwheat  and  other  hot  cakes 
form  a  staple  dish  at  many 
American  tables,  but  the  phrase 
has  now  become  pure  slang. 

LIKE  HOT  CAKES,  phr.  (Ame- 
rican).— Quickly  ;  with  energy  ; 
a  variant  of  LIKE  WINKING,  or 
LIKE  ONE  O'CLOCK  (q.v.}. 

1888.  Punch's  Library,  p'.  15.  '  Will 
go  LIKE  HOT  CAKES.'  Book  Seller  (to 
Clerk).  '  Haven't  we  an  overstock  of 

"Jack,  the  Giant|Killer,"  on  hand,  James  ? ' 
Clerk.  'Yes,  sir.'  Book  Seller.  'Well, 
take  'm  up  to  the  Polo  Grounds  this  after- 
noon ;  they'll  sell  fast  enough  there.' 


CALABOOSE,  subs.  (American  and 
nautical). — The  common  gaol. 
[This  word  comes  into  popular  u?e 
from  the  Spanish  calabozo  through 
the  French  calabouse.~\  So  also 
TO  CALABOOSE  =  to  imprison. 


Calfs  Head. 

1840.  R.  H.  DANA,  Two  Yearsbefore 
the  Mast,  ch.  xxi.  A  few  weeks  after- 
wards I  saw  the  poor  wretch  sitting  on 
the  bare  ground,  in  front  of  the  CALABOZO, 
with  his  feet  chained  to  a  stake,  and 
handcuffs  about  his  wrists. 

1888.  Santa  Ana  Blade.  Charley 
Read  struck  an  old  tramp  in  the  CALA- 
BOOSE the  other  day,  who  looked  disgusted 
at  his  headquarters  and  remarked  '  Well 
I've  been  in  every  jail  from  Portland  to 
Santa  Ana,  but  this  is  the  d — nest  snide  of 
a  CALABOOSE  I  ever  struck  yet. 

CALCULATE,  verb  (U.S.  colloquial). 
— To  think  ;  expect ;  believe  ; 
intend  ;  indeed,  almost  any  sense 
save  the  legitimate,  which  is  '  to 
estimate  by  calculation.'  It 
belongs  to  the  same  class  of 
colloquialisms  as  GUESS  and 
RECKON.  CALCULATE  is  some- 
times, especially  in  New  England, 
corrupted  into  CAL'LATE. 

1830.— GALT,  Laivrie,  T.,  II.,  v. 
(1849),  56.  I  CALCULATE,  that  ain't  no 
thing  to  make  nobody  afeard. 

1848.— J.  R.  LOWELL,  Biglvw  Papers. 
The  Sarjunt  he  thout  Hosea  hedn't  gut  his 
i  teeth  cos  he  looked  a  kindo's  though  he'd 
jest  come  down,  so  he  CAL'LATED  to  hook 
him  in,  but  Hosy  woodn't  take  none  of  his 

1851.— Miss  WETHERELL,  Queechy, 
ch.  xix.  'Your  aunt  sets  two  tables,  I 
CALCULATE,  don't  she?' 

CALEYS,.r«&y.  (Stock  Exchange). — 
Caledonian  Railway  Ordinary 

1881.— ATKIN,  House  Scraps.  '  If 
anything  tickles  our  fancy  We  buy  them, 
Brums,  CALEYS  or  Apes.' 

CALF,  stibs.  (colloquial). — An  igno- 
ramus ;  a  dolt ;  a  weakling.  Cf., 
CALF  LOLLY.  For  synonyms, 

1553.— UDALL,  R  oyster  D.,  II.,  iv., 
in  Hazl.  Dodsley,  III.,  94.  You  great 
CALF,  ye  should  have  more  wit,  so  ye 

1627.— DRAYTON,  Nymphid  (1631), 
171.  Some  silly  doting  brainless  CALFE. 

1872.    H 

AIDE,  Moials  and 
'  rlish  fancy 
who  had 

J.OJ4?.         nAMll.lUIN     nilJE.,    1V1  U 

Mysteries,  p.  60.  She  had  a  girli 
for  the  good-looking  young  CALF 
so  signally  disgraced  himself, 

TO   EAT    THE     CALF     IN     THE 

COW'S  BELLY,  phr.  (common). 
— A  \  ariant  of  *  to  count 
one's  chickens  before  they  are 

1748.  RICHARDSON.  Clarissa  Har- 
lome  [ed.  1811],  III.,  135.  I  ever  made 
shift  to  avoid  anticipations  :  I  never  would 

EAT     THE    CALF    IN    THE   COW'S    BELLY,    as 

Lord  M's  phrase  is. 

CALF-CLINGERS,  subs,  (common). — 
Pantaloons  ;  i.e.,  close-fitting 
trousers.  [Derivation  obvious.] 
For  synonyms,  see  BAGS  and 

1884.— J.  GREENWOOD,  Little  Raga- 
muffins. Knee-breeches  were  just  going 
out  of  fashion  when  I  was  a  little  boy,  and 
CALF-CLINGERS  (that  is,  trousers  made  to 
fit  the  leg  as  tight  as  a  worsted  stocking) 
were  '  coming  in.' 

CALF,  Cow,  and  BULL  WEEK,  subs, 
phr.  (operatives').  —  Before  the 
passing  of  the  Factory  Acts  it 
was  customary  in  manufacturing 
districts,  especially  for  men, 
women,  and  children,  to  indulge 
in  the  practice  of  working  verj 
long  hours  for  a  period  of  three 
weeks  before  the  Christmas 
holidays.  In  the  first,  which 
was  called  *  CALF  WEEK,'  the 
ordinary  hours  of  work  were 
but  slightly  exceeded  ;  in  the 
second,  or  'cow  WEEK,'  they 
were  considerably  augmented ; 
and  in  the  third,  or  'BULL  WEEK,' 
it  was  common  for  operatives  to 
spend  the  greater  portion  of  the 
twenty-four  of  each  day  in  their 
workshops.  The  practice  re- 
sulted in  extreme  exhaustion  and 
— naturally — indulgence  to  excess 
in  stimulants. 



Calico- Bally. 

1871.— Echo,  4  Dec.  CALF,  cow,  AND 
BULL  WEEK.  We  find  a  good  illustration 
of  the  beneficial  influence  of  the  Factory 
Acts  in  the  reports  of  the  Government 
Inspectors  just  issued.  The  district  in- 
spector expresses  the  hope  that  the  measures 
which  he  took  against  some  offenders  in 
BULL  WEEK  last  year  will  extinguish  for 
good  and  all  this  absurd  and  illogical 

CALF'S  HEAD,  subs,  (common).  -A 
stupid,  witless  individual.  For 
synonyms,  see  BUFFLE  and  CAB- 

1600.  — SHAKSPEARE,  Much  Ado 
about  Nothing,  V.,i.,  CLAUDIO  :  '  I' faith, 
I  thank  him  ;  he  hath  bid  me  to  a  CALF'S 
HEAD  and  a  capon  ;  the  which  if  I  do  not 
carve  most  curiously,  say  my  knife's  naught. 


CALF  -  LOLLY,  subs.  (old). — An 
idle  simpleton  ;  a  general  term  of 

1653.  URQUHART,  Rabelais,  bk.  I., 
ch.  xxv.  Jobbinol  goosecaps,  foolish 
loggerheads,  flutch  CALF-LOLLIES. 

1708.  MOTTEUX,  Rabelais,  iv.,  xvii. 
I  was  a  CALF-LOLLY,  a  doddipole. 

CALF  -  LOVE,  subs,  (common).  — 
A  youthful,  romantic  fancy.  [A 
sarcastic  allusion  to  the  blind 
unreasoning  character  of  boy  and 
girl  attachments.] 

1823.  GALT,  Entail,  I.,  xxxii.,  284. 
I  made  a  CALF-LOVE  marriage.  [M.J 

1863.  MRS.  GASKELL,  Sylvia's  Lovers, 
II.,  104.  It's  a  girl's  fancy — just  a  kind  o' 
CALF-LOVE — let  it  go  by. 

1884.  Longman's  Mag.,  IV.,  50.  I 
was  still  at  the  early  and  agonising  stage 
of  the  passion  which  is  popularly  known  as 


CALFSKIN-FIDDLE,  subs,  (old).— A 

1785.    GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue^  s.v. 

CALF-STICKING,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
Explained  by  quotation.  [Cf.t 
CALF  and  STICK]. 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  25  July,  p' 
2,  col.  i.  The  venerable  oarsman  grinned, 
and  set  me  right  by  explaining  that  what 
was  called  CALF-STICKING  by  those  who 
practised  it  was  the  putting  off  of  worth- 
less rubbish,  on  the  pretence  that  it  was 
smuggled  goods,  on  any  foolish  or  un- 
scrupulous person  who  could  be  inveigled 
into  treating  for  the  same. 

CA LI  BOGUS,  subs.  (American). — A 
very  old  name  for  a  mixture  of 
rum  and  spruce  beer,  being 
quoted  by  Grose  in  1785  as  '  an 
American  beverage.'  The  last 
two  syllables  of  the  word  are 
thought  to  be  derived  from  the 
French  bagasse,  the  refuse  of  the 
sugar  cane.  This  view  would 
seem  to  be  supported  by  the 
fact  that  rum  is  itself  a  product 
of  the  sugar  cane. 

1861.  L.  DE  BOILEAU.  Recoil. 
Labrador  Life,  p.  162.  CALLI BOGUS,  a 
mixture  of  Rum  and  Spruce-beer,  more  of 
the  former  and  less  of  the  latter. 

CALICO,  adj. (old).—  Thin  ;  wasted  ; 
attenuated.  [Calicut  is  the  name 
of  the  Indian  city  whence  the 
material  of  the  comparison  was 
brought.  The  earliest  reference 
for  original  signification  given  by 
Murray  is  1505  ;  but  he  omits  the 
cant  meaning.] 

1733.  NATH  \NIEL  BAILEY,  Colloquies 
of  Erasmus  (translated),  p.  37.  In  such  a 
place  as  that  your  CALLICO  body  (tenui 
corpusculo)  had  need  have  a  good  fire  to 
keep  it  warm. 

1861.  SAL  A,  Seven  Sons  of  Mammon. 
A  shrewd,  down-east  Yankee  once  ques- 
tioned a  simple  Dutchman  out  of  his  well- 
fed  steed,  and  left  him  instead  a  vile 
CALICO  mare  in  exchange. 

CALICO-BALLY,  adj.  (common).— 
Somewhat  '  fast  '  ;  applied  to 



Calverfs  Entire. 

one  always  on  the  look  out  for 
amusement.  [Primarily  used  of 
frequenters  of  CALICO-BALLS.] 

180).  Broadside  Ballad,  'The  Flip- 
perty-Flop  Young  Man.'  I  once  was  a 
cabby  and  hack  young  man,  And  a  little 
bit  CALICO-BALLY  ;  A  picture  card  out  of 
the  pack  young  man,  And  frequently  music 

sense  2. 

CALIFORNIAN,  subs,  (common). — i. 
A  red  or  hard-dried  herring. 
Further  explained  by  quota- 
tions. Also  SOLDIER,  ATLANTIC 

1873. — CasselFs  Mag.,  Jan.,  p.  245, 
Very  large  quantities  of  cured  herrings 
came  from  North  Britain  at  that  time,  and, 
excepting  those  from  the  Firth  of  Forth, 
they  were  more  cured,  dryer  and  salter 
than  those  from  Norfolk.  Some  were  sent 
very  dry  indeed,  as  hard  as  a  stick,  and  of 
a  very  deep  red  colour;  such  were  used, 
as  similar  fish  now  are,  for  exportation. 
About  the  time  of  the  gold  discoveries, 
some  one  applied  the  term  CALIFOKNIAN 
to  these.  The  word  was  appropriate, 
and  CALIFORNIANS  such  highly-coloured 
herrings  are  called  to  this  day. 

2.  [Generally  used  in  the 
plural — CALIFORNIANS.]  Generic 
lor  gold  pieces. 

CALIFORNIA  WIDOW,  subs.  phr. 
(American). — A  married  woman 
whose  husband  is  away  from  her  for 
any  extended  period  ;  a  GRASS 
WIDOW  (q.v.}  in  the  least  offen- 
sive sense.  The  expression  dates 
from  the  period  of  the  Californian 
gold  fever,  when  so  many  men 
went  West,  leaving  their  wives 
and  families  behind  them. 

CALK,  verb  (Eton  College).— To 

CALL,  subs.  (Eton  College).— The 
time  when  the  masters  do  not  call 
ABSENCE  (g.v.). 


phr.  (American), — To  have  a  pre- 
ierence,  or  the  first  chance. 

1888.— Puck's  Library,  May,  p.  23, 
Picture  Dealer  (to  Professionals  Hus- 
band) :  '  No,  sir ;  I  can't  sell  no  more  of 
your  wife's  pictures  unless  she  gets  down 
some  of  that  flesh,  and  looks  kinder 
sestheticker.  The  ethereal  and  intellectual 
HAS  GOT  THE  CALL  on  the  old  style  of 
beauty  now-a-days. 

To  CALL  A  GO,  verbal  phr. 
(vagrants'  and  street  patterers'). 
— To  change  one's  stand ;  to 
alter  one's  tactics ;  to  give  in  at 
any  game  or  business.  [From  the 
GO  '  call '  in  cribbage.] 

1851-61.— H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  252.  To  CALL  A 
GO,  signifies  to  remove  to  another  spot,  or 
adopt  some  other  patter,  or,  in  short,  to 
resort  to  some  change  or  other  in  conse- 
quence of  a  failure. 

TO    TALL    A    SPADE  A  SPADE. 

— See  SPADE. 

TO    CALL    OVER    THE    COALS. 

— See  WIGGING. 


CALLE,  subs,  (old  and  American 
thieves'). — A  cloak  or  gown. 
Quoted  by  Grose  [178$],  and 
still  in  use  in  the  U.S.A.  amongst 
the  criminal  classes.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  CASTER. 

CALP  or  KELP,  subs.  (old). — A  hat. 
[Origin  unknown.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  GOLGOTHA. 

CALVERT'S  ENTIRE. — The  Four- 
teenth Foot.  [Called  CALVERT 
from  their  colonel,  Sir  Harry  Cal- 
vert( 1 806-1826),  and  ENTIRE,  be 
cause  three  entire  battalions  were 
kept  up  for  the  good  of  Sir 
Harry,  when  adjutant -general. 
A  play  upon  words  in  reference 




to  Calvert's  malt  liquors.]  This 
regiment  was  also  called  the  OLD 

1780.  R.  TOMLINSON,  Slang  Pastoral, 
canto  viii.  Gin  !  What  is  become  of  thy 
heart-chearing  fire,  And  where  is  the  beauty 

1871.  Chambers'  Journal,  23  Dec  , 
p.  803,  col.  i.  The  1 4th  Foot,  CALVERT'S 


1886.  Tinsley's  Magazine,  April,  p. 
322.  A  very  curious  name,  CALVERT'S 
ENTIRE,  used  to  be  attached  to  the  i4th, 
but  this  as  well  as  the  circumstances  which 
gave  rise  to  it  are  forgotten. 

subs.  phr.  (old).  —  Said  of  spindle 
sh  inks  ;  i.e.,  slender,  undeveloped 
legs,  with  lack  of  calves. 

(old).  —  Many  ways  of  saying  or 
doing  a  foolish  thing  ;  a  simple- 
ton has  many  ways  of  showing 
his  folly  ;  or,  generally,  if  one 
way  won't  do,  we  must  try 

phr.  (common).  —  A  sarcastic 
apology  for  one  sitting  down  to 
eat  with  his  hat  on.  —  See  STAND- 

CALX,  subs.  (Eton  College).—  The 
goal  line  at  football.  [From  a 
Latin  sense  of  CALX  =  a  goal, 
anciently  marked  with  lime  or 
chalk.]  At  Eton  CALX  is  a  space 
so  marked  off  at  each  end  of 
WALL  ;  GOOD  CALX  is  the  end  at 
which  there  is  a  door  for  a  goal  ; 
BAD  CALX  the  end  where  part  of 
an  elm  tree  serves  the  purpose. 

1864.  Daily  Telegraph,  Dec.  i.  The 
Collegers  were  over-weighted  .  .  .  and 
the  Oppidans  managed  to  get  the  ball 
down  into  their  CALX  several  times.  [M.] 

CAMBRIDGE  OAK,  subs.  (old). — A 
willow.  [An  allusion  to  the 
abundance  of  this  tree  in  the 
county  in  question,  which  is 
situate  in  the  P'en  District.] 
Formerly  many  analogous  sayings 
were  in  vogue  ;  e.g. ,  'A  Cots- 
wold  lion '  for  'a  sheep,'  etc. 


GALE, subs.  phr.  (common). — A 
frog.  [The  county  is  scored  with 
canals  and  dykes  ;  the  allusion  is 
to  the  natural  preponderance  of  the 
croaking  of  frogs  over  the  singing 
of  nightingales.]  Cf.  CAM- 

1875.  Chambers'  Journal,  No.  581, 
p.  107,  col.  2.  The  male  of  the  eatable  frog 
is  distinguished  ...  by  ...  a  pouch 
.  .  .  These  pouches  increase  the  volume 
of  the  croak,  and  render  it  so  powerful  that 
the  possessors  have,  from  the  county  in 
which  they  are  particularly  plentiful, 
received  the  nickname  of  CAMBRIDGESHIRE 


CAM  DEN -TOWN,  subs,  (rhyming 
slang). — A  half  penny,  or  'brown.' 
For  synonyms,  see  MAG. 

CAMEL'S  COMPLAINT,  subs.  phr. 
(common).  — Low  spirits;  the 
HUMP  (q.V.}. 

CAMESA,  suls.  (thieves'). — A  shirt 
chemise,  or  'shimmy.'  [From 
the  Spanish  camisa,  or  Italian 
caniicia.'}  The  word  appears  in 
various  forms  from  the  beginning 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  e.g., 
'  camisa,'  *  camiscia  '  '  kemesa,' 
*  camis  •, '  and  in  a  more  genuinely 
English  dress  as  '  COMMISSION  ' 
(q.v.),  which  in  turn  is  shortened 
into  MISH  (g.v.).  For  synonyms, 
see  FLESH-BAG. 

1690.— B.E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.  CA- 
MESA :  a  shirt  or  shift. 



1785. — GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CAMESA  (cant,  Spanish)  :  a 
shirt  or  shift. 

1812.— BYRON,  Childe  Harold  II., 
Tambourgi  ii.  Oh  !  who  is  more  brave 
than  a  dark  Suliote,  In  his  snowy  CAMESE 
and  his  shaggy  capote  ? 

1834. — H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood, 
bk.  III.,  ch.  v.  With  my  fawnied  famms, 
and  my  onions  gay,  my  thimble  of  ridge, 
and  my  driz  (laced)  KEMESA. 

CAMISTER,  subs,  (thieves'). — A 
preacher  or  clergyman.  From 
the  white  gown  or  surplice. 
From  Latin  camisia^  a  linen 
tunic,  alb,  or  shirt,  +  (probably) 
a  termination  suggested  by 
'  minister. ']  For  synonyms,  see 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  231.  [List  of 
patterer's  words.]  CAMISTER= Minister. 

CAMP.  To  GO  TO  CAMP,  phr. 
(Australian). — To  go  to  bed  ;  to 
take  rest.  [From  the  practice 
in  the  early  settlers'  days  of 
forming  a  camp  whenever  a  halt 
for  the  night  was  called.] 

1887.  All  the  Year  Round,  30  July, 
p.  66,  col.  2.  To  GO  TO  CAMP,  by  a 
transference  of  its  original  meaning,  now 
signifies,  in  the  mouth  of  a  dweller  in 
houses,  simply  'to  lie  down,'  'togotobed.' 

TO    TAKE     INTO    CAMP,     phr* 

(Common). — To  kill. 

1878.  S.L.CLEMENS  ('Mark Twain') 
Sotne  Rambling  Notes  of  an  Idle  Ex- 
cursion, p.  66.  Sure  enough  one  night  the 
trap  took  Mrs.  Jones's  principal  tomcat  into 
camp,  and  finished  him  up. 

To  CAMP,  phr.  (Australian). — 
To  surpass  ;  to  '  floor.' 

18(?)  H.  KENDALL,  Billy  Vickers. 
At  punching  oxen  you  may  guess  There's 
nothing  out  can  CAMP  him  ;  He  has,  in 
fact,  the  slouch  and  dress  Which  bullock- 
driver  stamp  him. 

CAMPBELL'S  ACADEMY,  subs.  phr. 
(old). — The  hulks,  or  lighters, 

on  boa^d  of  which  felons  were 
condemned  to  hard  labour.  Mr. 
Campbell  was  the  first  director. — 
Grose.  —  See  ACADEMY  and 
synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.,  n.  He  was  tried  at  Guildhall,  West- 
minster, and  sentenced  to  improve  as  a 
pupil  in  Mr.  Duncan  Campbell's  FLOATING 
ACADEMY  for  five  years. 

CAM  P-CAN  DLESTiCK,.y«fo.  (military) 
— An  empty  bottle,  or  a  bayonet. 
Quoted  in  the  Lexicon  Balatroni- 
cum  [1811].  For  synonyms  in 
the  sense  of  'an  empty  bottle,' 
see  DEAD-MAN. 

CAMP-STOOL  BRIGADE,  s^lbs.  phr. 
(common).  — Said  in  the  first 
place  of  people  who  wait  outside 
a  place  of  entertainment  to  secure 
the  best  seats,  and  bring  camp- 
stools  with  them  to  rest  them- 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  23  Sept., 
p.  5,  col.  2.  The  first  night  of  the  Gaiety 
Wanderers  will  not  be  forgotten  in  a 
hurry.  Seats  for  the  occasion  were  booked 
a  year  ago  last  April  !  Can  you  wonder 
that  the  CAMP-STOOJ.  BRIGADE  besieged 
the  pit  door  as  early  as  10  a.m.  ? 

CAN,  subs.  (American). — I.  Adollar 

2.  (Scots). — A  'slavey.' 


K'NUCK,  subs.  (American). — A 
Canadian,  usually  a  K'NUCK. 
[Obscure,  and  limited  in  its  appli- 
cation within  the  Canadian 
frontier.  There,  a  CANUCK  is 
understood  to  be  a  French 
Canadian,  just  as  within  the 
limits  of  the  Union  only  New 
Englanders  are  termed  Yankees  ; 
whereas  elsewhere  that  appel- 
lation is  given  indiscriminately  to 




natives  of  all  the  States.  It  is  by 
some  supposed  that  CANUCK  is 
a  corruption  of  Connaught,  the 
name  applied  by  French-Cana- 
dians to  the  Irish,  from  which  it 
would  follow  that,  by  a  process 
of  inversion,  a  nickname  given 
by  one  section  of  a  nation  to 
another  has,  in  course  of  time,  been 
applied  to  the  whole.  Others, 
however,  think  the  first  syllable 
of  'Canada 'has  been  joined  to 
the  Algonkin  Indian  substantive 
termination  uc  or  ug.~\ 

CANARY  or  CANARY-BIRD,  subs. 
(thieves'). — I.  A  prisoner;  a 
very  old  cant  term  for  habitual 
offenders ;  or,  as  Grose  says 
[1785],  '  a  person  used  to  be  kept 
in  a  CAGE'  (q.v.}.  The  same 
idea  occurs  in  some  foreign  equiva- 
lents, e.g.,  the  French,  oiseau  de 
cage,  and  the  German,  Kastener^ 
from  Kasten,  a  chest  or  case. 
For  synonyms,  see  WRONG  'UN. 

1673. — HEAD,  Canting  Academy,  p. 
157.  Newgate  is  a  cage  of  CANARY-BIRDS. 

1725. — New  Canting  Dictionary.  CA- 
NARY-BIRD, a  little,  arch,  or  knavish  boy ; 
a  rogue  or  whore  taken  and  clapped  into 
the  cage  or  roundhouse. 

Sheppard  [1889],  p.  55.  Now  for  the  cage, 
my  pretty  CANARY-BIRD.  Before  we  start 
I'll  accommodate  you  with  a  pair  of  ruffles. 

2.  (general).  —  A     mistress. 
{See  preceding  quot.  (1725)  :  the 
term  is  still  in  use.]     For  syno- 
nyms, see  TART. 

3.  (common).  —  Formerly    a 
guinea,    but    now   applied   to    a 
sovereign       [From   similarity  of 

boy  ;  goldfinch  ;  yellow  hammer  ; 
shiner  ;  gingleboy  ;  monarch  ; 
couter ;  bean  foont ;  James 

(from  Jacobus) ;  poona ;  por- 
trait ;  quid  ;  thick  'un ;  skin ; 
skiv  ;  dragon  ;  goblin.  A  guinea 
was  also  called  a  '  ned.' 

equivalent  twenty  franc  piece 
are,  un  jatinet  (popular  :  literally 
'  butter-cup  '  or  '  yellow-boy ')  ; 
une  sigue,  sigle,  sigolle  or  cig 
(thieves')  ;  un  bonnet  jaune( popu- 
lar :  literally  '  yellow-cap  '  or 
'bonnet');  un  boitton  (i.e.,  'a 
master-key  ') ;  une  maltaise  (old 
cant ;  according  to  Victor  Hugo 
this  go'd  coin  was  used  on  board 
the  convict  galleys  at  Malta)  ;  un 
motile  a  boutons  (popular) ;  une 
medaille  d"or  (popular :  =  a  gold 

(gelb  =  yellowr)  ;  Fuchs  (a  gold 
piece  ;  literally  '  a  fox  '). 

For  synonyms  of  money  gene- 
rally, see  ACTUAL  and  GILT. 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the 
Vulgar  Tongue.  CANARY-BIRDS  in  a 
canting  sense,  guineas. 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xvi.  Fifty  as  fair  yellow  CANARY-BIRDS  as 
e'er  chirped  in  the  bottom  of  a  green  silk 

1842.  Punch,  p.  168.  '  Prolusiones 
etymological,'  13.  Goldfinches — CANARIES. 
— Singing  birds  ;  the  which  whose  pos- 
sesseth  needeth  never  to  pine  for  lack  of 

4.  (thieves'). — A  female  watcher 
or    stall;    a    MOLLISHER  (q.v.). 
Cf.   CROW    =    a   male   watcher. 
Fr.  une  marque  franche. 

1362.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Land.  Poor,  IV.,  337.  Sometimes  a  woman, 
called  a  '  CANARY,'  carries  the  tools  [of 
burglars],  and  watches  outside. 

5.  ( Salvation  Army).  — A  written 
promise   of  a   donation   or   sub- 
scription.    At  some  of  the  meet- 
ings of  the    '  Army '   instead  of 


Candy  man. 

sending  round  the  plate,  the 
'  officers  '  distribute  slips  of  paper 
on  which  those  present  are  in- 
vited to  record  their  benevolent 
intentions.  The  original  colour 
of  the  slips  was  yellow — hence 
the  nickname. 

A  CANCER,  phr.  (common). — See 

1857.  HOOD,  Pen  and  Pencil  Pictures 
p.  141.  He  had  another  way  of  CAPTURING 
CANCERS,  namely,  by  never  putting  his  oar 
into  the  water  at  all. 

CANDLE  -  KEEPERS,  subs.  (Win- 
chester College).  —  The  eight 
seniors  in  college  by  election  who 
are  not  prefects.  They  enjoy 
most  of  the  privileges  of  prsefects 
without  their  powers. 

1870.  M  NSFIELD,  School-Life  at 
Winchester  C.  lege,  p.  30.  The  Seven 
CANDLE-KEEPERS  (why  so-called,  I  have 
no  idea,  nor  have  I  ever  heard  any  inter- 
pretation of  the  appellation)  These  were 
the  seven  inferiors  who  had  been  longest 
in  the  school,  quite  independently  of  their 
position  in  it ;  they  were  generally  old  and 
tough.  Of  these,  the  senior  had  almost  as 
much  power  as  a  praefect ;  he  had  a  '  valet ' 
in  chambers,  one  or  two  '  breakfast  fags,1 
and  the  power  of  fagging  the  twenty  juniors 
when  in  school,  or  in  meads.  The  junior 
CANDLE  KEEPER  was  called  '  the  Deputy,' 
and  had  also  some  slight  privileges  besides 
that  of  having  a  valet  and  breakfast  fag, 
which  was  common  to  all  of  them. 

1878.  ADAMS,  Wykehamica,  p.  278. 
Presided  over  by  a  CANDLE-KEEPER. 

CANDLESTICK,  subs.  i.  (Winchester 
College). — A  humorous  corrup- 
tion of  the  wcrd  *  candidate.' 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School-Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  175.  Each  of  these 
[the  Electors]  had  in  turn  the  privilege 
of  nominating  a  boy  for  admission  into 
Winchester  till  all  vacancies  were  filled, 
of  which  there  were  generally  about  twelve, 
but  always  many  more  '  Candidates '  (or 
CANDLESTICKS,  as  they  were  often  called). 

1878.  H.  C.  ADAMS,  Wykehamica,  p. 
418.  CANDLESTICK,  merely  a  facetious 
version  of '  candidate.' 

2     pi.    (London).— The 
tains  in  Trafalgar  Square. 


1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
Lon.  Poor,  I.,  p.  529.  There  was  his 
(Nelson's)  pillar  at  Charing  Cross,  just  by 
the  CANDLESTICKS  (fountains). 

CANDY,  adj.  (old). — Given  by  Grose 
in  1785,  and  by  the  Lexicon 
Balatronicum,  in  1811,  as  'drunk 
— an  Irish  term.' 

CANDYMAN,  subs,  (northern). — A 
bailiff  or  process  server.  Origin- 
ally a  seller  of  candy.  [In 
October,  1863,  there  was  a  great 
strike  of  miners  at  the  collieries 
of  Messrs.  Strakers  and  Love,  in 
the  county  of  Durham.  As  no 
adjustment  of  the  difference  was 
possible,  the  owners  determined 
to  eject  the  miners  from  their 
cottages.  For  this  purpose,  an 
army  of  rascals  were  engaged, 
including  at  least  one  whose 
ordinary  occupation  was  that  of 
hawking  candy  and  sweetmeats. 
The  man  was  recognised  and  was 
chaffed  ;  and  CANDYMAN,  which 
rapidly  became  a  term  of  reproach, 
was  soon  applied  to  the  whole 
class  ;  and  since  that  time  is  come 
into  general  use  over  the  two 
northern  counties  whenever  eject- 
ments take  place.] 

1863.  Newcastle  Chronicle,  Oct.  31. 
The  colliery  carts  and  waggons  stood  at 
the  doors,  and  the  furniture  was  handed 
out,  and  piled  quickly  but  carefully  upon 
them.  It  was  evident  that  the  CANDYMEN 
had  warmed  to  their  work.  The  name 
of  CANDYMAN  has  been  given  to  the 
loaders  because  of  their  avocations  of 
'  candy '  hawking,  from  which  they  are 
supposed  to  have  been  taken  to  be  put  to 
this  work. 

1876.  Notes  and  Queries,  5  S.,  v.,  405. 
A  term  in  the  North  for  men  employed  to 



carry      out      evictions      against      cottage 

1886.  Notes  and  Queries,"']  S.,  i.,  p. 

CANISTER,.?/^.?,  (general).  —  I.  The 
head.  [A  transference  of  the 
original  meaning,  '  a  box  or 
case  for  holding  things.']  For 
synonyms,  see  CRUMPET. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  To 
mill  his  CANNISTER  ;  to  break  his  head. 

1821.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and  Jerry, 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  4.  Tom.  I've  nobb'd  him  on 

1885.  BelFs  Life,  Jan.  3,  p.  8,  col.  4. 
Once  more  did  the  star  of  Australia  rise, 
but  to  set  from  additional  raps  on  the 
CANISTER.  He  fell  on  his  knees,  and  his 
head  droped  on  his  breast. 

2.  (common). — A  hat.  [For- 
merly CANISTER-CAP  (see  sense 
i)  ;  subsequently  shortened  to 
CANISTER.]  For  synonyms,  see 

1887.  ATKIN,  House  Scraps.  Turning 
round,    I  saw  my  unfortunate  beaver,  or 
CANISTER,  as  it  was  called  by  the  gentry 
who    had   it   in   their   keeping,    bounding 
backwards  and  forwards. 

CANK,  adj.  (old). — Dumb;  silent. 
[Curiously  enough,  CANK  also 
signifies  '  to  chatter,'  or  '  cackle 
as  a  goose  '  ;  it  only  survives  in 
this  latter  sense.] 

1673.  R.  HEAD,  Canting  Acad.,  36. 
CANK.  :  dumb. 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CANK  :  dumb. 

CANNIBAL,  subs.  (Cambridge  Uni- 
versity).— In  the  bumping  races 
at  Cambridge,  a  college  may  be 
represented  by  more  than  one 
boat.  The  best  talent  is  put  into 
the  first,  but  it  has  sometimes 
happened  that  the  crew  of  the 
second  have  got  so  well  together 
that  it  has  disappointed  the 

prophets  and  bumped  the  first  of 
its  own  college.  In  this  case  it 
is  termed  A  CANNIBAL,  it  having 
eaten  up  its  own  kind,  and  a  fine 
is  enacted  from  it  by  the  Univer- 
sity Boat  Club. 

CANNIKIN  or  CANNiKEN,.57/&y.  (old). 
— The  plague.  [Grose  includes 
it  in  his  dictionary  under  the 
sense  of  '  a  small  can,'  but  this 
was  not  a  slang  usage.] 

1688.  R.  HOLME,  Armoury.  III., 
iii.,  §  68.  CANNIKIN,  the  Plague.  [M.] 

1690.     B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.   s.v. 

CAN  Nis-CovE, .fz/Ay.(  American). — A 
dog-fancier.  [Either  from  Latin 
cants,  a  dog,  or  the  Fr.  caniche^ 
poodle  +  COVE,  a  man.] 


CANNON-BALLS,  subs,  (political). — 
i.  A  nickname,  now  obsolete, 
given  to  the  irreconcileable  oppo- 
nents of  free  trade  in  England. 

1858.  Saturday  Re-view,  30  Oct.,  p. 
413,  col.  2.  The  amendment  .  .  .  which 
pealed  for  ever  the  fate  of  Protection,  was 
carried  [in  1852]  with  only  fifty  dissentient 
voices — the  celebrated  CANNON-BALLS. 

2.       (venery). — The     testicles. 
For  synonyms  see  CODS. 

CANOE,  phr.  (American). — To 
make  one's  own  way  in  life  ;  to 
exhibit  skill  and  energy ;  to 
succeed  unaided  ;  a  slang  phrase 
of  Western  American  origin,  but 
now  universal.  [Extremely  care- 
ful and  clever  manipulation  is 
required  in  the  management  of 
canoes,  especially  in  shooting 
rapids  ;  otherwise  the  surging 
body  of  water  might  swamp  the 
boat,  or  sunken  rocks  strike  and 
seriously  damage  it.  Hence  the 
adoption  of  such  an  expression  to 
signify  skill,  close  attention,  and 




energy.]  A  variant  is  TO  BAIL 
ONE'S  OWN  BOAT;  and  the  French 
have  a  proverbial  saying,  il conduit 
or  il  mene  bien  sa  barque. 

1845.  Harper  s  Magazine,  May. 
Voyager  upon  life's  sea,  to  yourself  be 
true ;  And,  where'er  your  lot  may  be, 

1868.  Broadside  Ballad,  sung  by 
»  HARRY  CLIFTON.  My  wants  are  small,  I 
care  not  at  all,  If  my  debts  are  paid  when 
due.  And  to  drive  away  strife  on  the  ocean 

Of  life,  I  PADDLE  MY  OWN    CANOE. 

1870.  C.   H.   SPURGEON.     At  Metro- 
politan Tabernacle  [speaking  of  Mr.  John 
Magregor  said] — He  puts  his  trust  in  God 

1871.  DE  VERB,  English  of  the  New 
World,    p.    343.       The     familiarity    with 
boating,  which  the  unsurpassed  number  of 
watercourses  all  over  the  country  naturally 
produces  everywhere,  has  led  to  the  use, 
not  only  of  PADDLING  ONE'S  OWN  CANOE, 
.  .  .  but  also  of '  bailing  one's  own  boat,' 
in  the  sense  of  '  minding  one's  own  busi- 
ness,' independently  and  without  waiting 
for  help  from  others. 

CANON  or  CANNON,  adj.  (thieves'). 
— Drunk.  [The  origin  of  this 
term  is  very  obscure,  although 
many  guesses  have  been  hazarded. 
Amongst  these  may  be  mentioned 
( i )  From  the  '  can  '  having  been 
used  freely.  Rather  less  absurd 
is  (2)  its  derivation  from  the 
French  slang  expressions  un 
canon,  a  glass  drunk  at  the  bar 
of  a  wine-shop ;  canonner,  to 
drink  wine  at  a  wine-shop,  or  to 
be  a  habitual  tippler  ;  se  canonner, 
to  get  drunk ;  and  un  canonneur,  a 
tippler,  v;ine-bibber,  or  drunkard, 
Yet  another  suggested  origin  is 
(3)  from  the  German  cannon,  a 
drinking  cup,  from  which  is  ob- 
tained canonised,  =  '  shot '  or 
'drunk.'  A  German  proverb 
runs  er  ist  geschossen,  and  Barrere 
points  out  that  CANON  becomes 
naturally  confused  with  can,  Ger- 
man Kaune,  a  tankard,  and 
Canonenstiefel,  or  '  canon  '  (f.e., 

long  boots),  a  common  pattern  of 
tankard.]  For  synonyms,  see 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mag.,  XL.,  502.  One  night  I  was  with 
the  mob,  I  got  CANON  (drunk),  this  being 
the  first  time. 

CANOODLE,  verb  (American). — i. 
To  fondle  ;  bill  and  coo  ;  indulge 
in  endearments. — See  CANOOD- 
LING. [There  are  two  suggested 
derivations — (i)  from  CANNIE  in 
the  sense  of  gentle,  and  (2)  that 
the  primary  signification  may  have 
been  '  to  act  as  a  noodle,'  i.e.,  to 
play  the  fool.]  For  synonyms, 

1864.  G.  A.  SALA,  Temple  Bar,  Dec., 
p.  40.  He  is  an  adept  in  that  branch  of 
persuasive  dialectics  known  as  conoodling. 
He  will  CONOODLE  the  ladies  (bless  their 
dear  hearts !  and  how  sharp  they  think 
themselves  at  making  a  bargain  !)  into 
the  acquisition  of  whole  packages  of  gim- 
crack  merchandise. 

1879.  Punch,  March  15,  p.  117,  col. 
2.  'Our  Representative  Man.'  Then 
he  and  the  matchless  one  struggle,  snuggle, 
and  generally  CONOODLE  together  rap- 
turously. Then  the  matchless  Ecstacy 
being  the  wife,  not  of  the  Chevalier,  but  of 
Charles  VI.,  Kine  of  France,  she,  this 
impulsive,  loving,  beautiful,  hugging, 
conoodling  young  Ecstacy,  has  the  cool 
impudence  to  declare  that  theirs  is  a 
1  guiltless  love.' 

2.  (Oxford    University). — To 
paddle  or  propel  a  canoe. 

1879.  E.  H.  MARSHALL,  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  5  S.,  xi.,  375.  When  I  was  an 
undergraduate  at  Oxford,  to  CANOODLE 
was  the  slang  expression  for  paddling 
one's  own  canoe  on  the  bosom  of  the 
Cherwell  or  the  Isis. 

3 .  ( American  theatrical ) .  — To 
share  profits. 

18(?).  Green  Room  Jokes.  'Pray, 
good  sir,  what  is  a  CANOODLER?'  'Tell 
you,  mum,  queer  business,  mum,  but 
prosperous,  money—  heaps  of  it,  mum,  for 
you  and  me  ' — and  he  winked  significantly, 
jerked  up  a  chair,  and  squatted  in  it,  all  in 
a  breath.  .  .  .  Undeterred,  he  rattled  on  : 




1  I'm  an  original  thinker,  mum.  Invent 
bu>iness  opportunities.  Share  'm  with 
actors,  and  then  we  CANOODLE — divvy  the 
profits.  Me  and  Sheridan  made  a  big 
thing  on  the  Japanese  advertising  screen 
in  "  School  for  Scandal !  "  Big  thing.'  m 

4.     (common). — To  coax. 

CANOODLING,  verbal  subs.  (Ameri- 
can).— Endearments. 

1859.  SALA,  Twice  Round  the  Clock, 
ii  a.m.,  par.  8.  A  sly  kiss,  and  a  squeeze, 
and  a  pressure  of  the  foot  or  so,  and  a 
variety  of  harmless  endearing  blandish- 
ments, known  to  our  American  cousins 
(who  are  great  adepts  at  sweet-hearting) 
under  the  generic  name  of  CONOODLING. 

1864  and  1879.  [See  quots.  under 
Canoodle,  sense  i.] 

CANT,  subs,  arid  verb. — [As  regards 
derivation  (whether  noun  or  verb), 
to  signify  the  speech,  phraseology, 
or  whine  peculiar  to  thieves, 
beggars,  and  vagrants,  authorities 
differ  among  and  with  themselves: 
the  word  occurs  as  early  as  1540, 
and  has  long  since  achieved 
respectability.  Grose  was  pro- 
bably wrong  in  thinking  it  a  cor- 
ruption of  chaunting,  and  it  was 
certainly  in  use  long  prior  to  the 
two  Scotch  clergymen,  Oliver 
and  Andrew  Cant,  who  are  said 
to  have  preached  with  such  a 
voice  and  such  a  manner  as  to 
give  their  name  to  all  speaking  of 
the  same  kind.  A  correspondent 
of  Notes  and  Queries  (2  S.,  vii., 
158)  suggests  as  a  possible  source 
the  ordinary  word  mendicant  (fr. 
Lat.  mendico),  but  this  is  histori- 
cally improbable,  and  the  weight 
of  evidence  is  in  favour  of  the 
Latin  cantus,  singing  or  song, 
though  it  must  be  observed  that 
neither  the  ancient  nor  the  modern 
usage  implies  a  mere  sing-song, 
but  rather  the  whine  of  one  bent 

on  deceit.  There  is  a  con- 
sciousness of  hypocrisy  be  the 
canting  in  connection  with  re- 
ligion, politics,  begging,  or  any- 
thing else  ;  and  this  principle  is 
recognized  in  the  attempt  on  the 
part  of  The  Scots  Observer  to  sub- 
stitute BLEAT  (subs,  and  verb) 
for  the  cant  of  aestheticism,  the 
cant  which  deals  with  art  in  the 
language  of  sentiment  and  emotion . 
It  has  been  further  suggested  that 
if  the  word  meant  singing,  the 
A.S.  cantere  is  a  much  more 
probable  source  of  origin  than 
the  Latin  canto  or  cantus ;  but 
there  is  an  argument  which  seems 
to  lend  additional  weight  to  the 
claim  of  the  latter  language  :  the 
French  chanter,  to  sing,  is  some- 
times used  in  the  sense  of  CANT. 
In  answer  to  a  whining,  lying 
tale  (in  reply  indeed  to  anything 
incredible  whether  whining  or 
brazen),  a  Frenchman  would  say, 
'  Qu  est  ce  que  vous  chantez  la. ' 
Whatever  the  derivation,  how- 
ever, there  is  little  doubt  that 
Andrew  Cant  has  little  to  do 
with  it ;  indeed,  Pennant  in  his 
Tour  in  Scotland,  vol.  I.,  p.  122, 
says  that  '  Andrew  canted  no 
more  than  the  rest  of  his  brethren, 
for  he  lived  in  a  whining  age.'] 

Subs. — i.  The  secret  speech  or 
jargon  of  the  vagrant  classes — 
gipsies,  thieves,  beggirs,  etc.  ; 
hence,  contemptuously,  the  pecu- 
liar phraseology  of  a  particular 
class  or  subject.  Identical  with 
etc.  (q.v.) ;  but  for  synonyms, 
see  FLASH. 
1706.  In  PHILLIPS.  [M.] 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.) 
CANT  (s.) :  a  barbarous  broken  sort  of 
speech  made  use  of  by  gypsies. 

1856.     C.  REA  DE,  Never  too  Late,  ch. 




xlv.      AH    this    not    in    English,    but    in 
thieves'  CANT. 

Here  follow  specimens  of 
ancient  and  modern  jargon. 
Further  illustrations  will  be  found 
in  the  canting  songs  in  the  Ap- 


1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (E.E.T.  Soc., 
extra  series,  IX.,  1869),  p.  84-86.  The 
vpright  Cofe  canteth  to  the  Roge.  VPRIGHT- 
MAN. — Bene  Lightmans  to  thy  quarromes, 
in  what  lipken  hast  thou  lypped  in  this 
darkemans,  whether  in  a  lybbege,  or  in  the 
strummell  ?  ROGE. — I  couched  a  hogshead 
in  a  Skypper  this  darkemans.  VPRIGHT- 
MAN. — 1  towre  the  strummel  trine  vpon  thy 
nabchet  and  Togman.  ROGE. — I  saye  by 
the  Salomon  I  will  lage  it  of  with  a  gage  of 
benebouse  ;  then  cut  to  my  nose  watch. 
MAN. — Why,  hast  thou  any  lowre  in  thy 
bonge  to  bouse  ?  ROGE. — But  a  flagge,  a 
wyn,  and  a  make,  etc.,  etc.,  etc. 

1881.  New  York  Slang  Dictionary. 
Oh  !  I'm  fly.  You  mean  jumping  Jack, 
who  was  done  last  week  for  heaving  a 
peter  from  a  drag.  But  you  talked  of 
padding  the  hoof.  Why,  sure,  Jack  had  a 
rattler  and  a  prad  ? '  '  Yes,  but  they 
were  spotted  by  the  harmans,  and  so  we 
walked  Spanish.'  '  Was  he  nabbed  on  the 
scent  ? '  '  No  ;  his  pal  grew  leaky  and 
cackled.'  'Well,  Bell,  here's  the  bingo- 
sluice  your  gob  !  But  who  was  the  cull 
that  peached  ? '  'A  slubber  de  gullion 
named  Harry  Long,  who  wanted  to  pass 
for  an  out-and-out  cracksman,  though  he 
was  merely  a  diver.'  '  Whew  !  I  know 
the  kiddy  like  a  copper,  and  saved  him 
once  from  lumping  the  lighter  by  putting  in 
buck.  Why,  he  scarcely  knows  a  jimmy 
from  a  round  robin,  and  Jack  deserved  the 
tippet  for  making  a  law  with  him,  as  all 
coves  of  his  kidney  blow  the  gab.  But  how 
did  you  hare  it  to  Romeville,  Bell  for  I 
suppose  the  jets  cleaned  you  out?'  '  I  kidded 
a  swell  in  a  snoozing-ken,  and  shook  him  of 
his  dummy  and  thimble.'  '  Ah  !  Bell  ! 
you  were  always  the  blowen  for  a  rum  bing.' 

2.  (pugilistic)  — a  blow  or  toss. 
[In  Mem.  Capt.  P.  Drake,  II., 
xiv.,  244  (1755),  occurs  this  pas- 
sage, '  To  give  me  such  a  CANT 
as  I  never  had  before  or  since, 
which  was  the  whole  length  of  the 
coffee-room  ;  he  pitched  me  on  my 

head  and  shoulders  under  a  large 
table  at  the  further  end.'  Transi- 
tion from  the  nautical  sense  of 
heeling  over  to  that  embodied  in 
'  CANT  on  the  chops,'  is  easy.]  For 
synonyms,  see  BANG,  DIG,  and 

3.  (tramps').  —  Food.      Also 
KA.NT,  but  Cf.,  sense  4. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London 
Labour  and  London  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p. 
415.  The  house  was  good  for  a  CANT — 
that's  some  food — bread  or  meat. 

1877.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Son.  of 
Vulcan,  pt.  I.,  ch.  ix.  The  slavey's  been 
always  good  for  a  KANT,  and  the  cove  for 
a  bob. 

4.  (tramps'). — A  gift.  [Possibly 
connected  with  CANT,  sense  3,  a 
share  or  portion.] 

1857.  SNOWDEN.  Mag.  Assistant,  3, 
ed.,  p.  444.  Gift  of  Clothes— CANT  of 

Verb.-— i.  To  speak  with  the 
beggar's  whine. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1869),  34. 
c  It  shall  be  lawefull  for  the  to  CANT  — 
that  is,  to  aske  or  begge — '  for  thy  living  in 
al  places.' 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  17  (B.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  According 
to  the  saying  that  you  [thieves  and  cad- 
gers] haue  among  your  selues  (If  you  can 
CANT,  you  'will  neuer  worke)  shewing  that 
if  they  haue  beene  rogues  so  long,  that 
they  can  CANT,  they  will  neuer  settle 
themselues  to  labour  againe. 

2.  To  speak  the  jargon  of 
gipsies,  beggars,  and  other  vag- 
rants.— See  CANTING. 

1592.  Defence  of  Conny-catcking,  in 
Greene's  Works,  XI.,  45.  At  these  wordes 
Conny-catcher  and  Setter,  I  was  driven 
into  as  great  a  maze,  as  if  one  had  dropt 
out  of  the  clowds,  to  heare  a  peasant  CANT 
the  wordes  of  art  belonging  to  our  trade. 

1609.  DEKKER,  English  Villainies 
(1638),  And  as  these  people  are  strange, 
both  in  names  and  in  their  conditions,  so 
do  they  speake  a  language  (proper  only  to 
themselves)  called  Canting,  which  is  more 
strange.  This  word  canting,  seemes  to  be 



derived  from  the  Latine  Verbe(C#«/0)  which 
signifies  in  English  to  sing,  or  to  make  a 
sounde  with  words,  that  is  to  say,  to 
speake.  And  very  aptly  may  Canting  take 
its  derivation,  a  cantando,  from  singing, 
because  amongst  these  beggerly  consorts 
that  can  play  on  no  better  instruments,  the 
language  of  canting  is  a  kinde  of  Musicke, 
and  he  that  in  such  assemblies  can  CANT 
best,  is  counted  the  best  musician. 

1639.  FORD,  Lady's  Trial,  V.,  i. 
One  can  man  a  gulan,  and  CANT,  and  pick 
a  pocket. 

1748.  T  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.) 
CANT  (v.)  :  to  talk  gibberish  like  gypsies. 

3.     To  speak  ;  to  talk. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
To  CANTE,  to  speake. 

1881.  New  York  Slang  Dictionary. 
1  On  the  trail.'  '  But  CANT  us  the  cues. 
What  was  the  job?'  'A  pinch  for  an 
emperor's  slang.  We  touched  his  leather 
too,  but  it  was  very  lathy. 

CANTAB,  suds,  (colloquial).  —  A 
student  at  Cambridge.  [An  ab- 
breviation of  *  Cantabrigian. '] 

1750.  COVENTRY,  Pomfey  Litt.  II., 
x.  (1785),  p.  18,  col.  i.  The  young  CANTAB 
.  .  .  had  come  up  to  London.  [M.] 

1821.  BYRON,  Don  yuan,  c.  Hi., 
st.  126.  And  I  grown  out  of  many  '  wooden 
spoons '  Of  verse  (the  name  with  which  we 
CANTABS  please  To  dub  the  last  of  honours 
in  degrees). 

CANTABANK,  subs.  (old). — A  com- 
mon ballad  singer.  [From  Latin 
cantare,  to  sing,  +  banco,  bench ; 
i.e.,  a  singer  on  a  stage  or  plat- 
form. ] 

1589.  PUTTENHAM,  Eng.  Ppesie 
(Arb.),  96.  Small  and  popular  Musickes 
song  by  these  CANTABANQUI  vpon  benches 
and  barrels  heads.  [M.] 

1834.  TAYLOR,  Ph.  -van  Art,  pt.  I., 
Hi.,  2.  He  was  no  tavern  CANTABANK 
that  made  it,  But  a  Squire  minstrel  of  your 
Highness1  court. 

CANTANKEROUS,  adj.    (colloquial). 

— Cross-grained  ;  ill-humoured; 

self-willed  ;  productive   of  strife. 

See   also  quot.    1773.     [Thought 

.to    be   derived    from    the    M.E. 

contak,  conteke,  contention  or 
quarrelling.]  So  also  CANTAN- 
NESS.  For  synonyms,  see  CRUSTY. 

1773.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stoops  to 
Conquer,  II.  There's  not  a  more  bitter 
CANTANKEROUS  road  in  all  Christendom. 

1775.  SHERIDAN,  Rivals,  Act  v.,  Sc. 
3.  But  I  hope  Mr.  Faulkland,  as  there 
are  three  of  us  come  on  purpose  for  the 
game,  you  wont  be  so  CANTANKEROUS  as 
to  spoil  the  party  by  sitting  out. 

1876,  M.  E.  BR ADDON,  Joshua  Hag- 
gard, ch.  xvi.  And  who  was  to  nurse  this 
peevish,  CANTANKEROUS  old  man. 

Hence  the  American  verb,  TO 
CANTANKERATE,    and   adjective, 


1835.  HALIBURTON  ('  Sam  Slick '), 
The  Clockmaker,  \  S.,  ch.  xxiv.  You  may 
[by  contentious  writing]  happify  your 
inimies  [and]  CANTANKERATE  your  op- 
ponents. Ibid,  3  S.,  ch.  xii.  Plato  Frisk, 
a  jumphV  Quaker,  a  terrible  cross-grained 



CANTEEN  MEDAL,  subs.  phr.  (mili- 
tary).— A  good  conduct  stripe  for 
the  consumption  of  liquor. 

CANTER,  subs.  (old). — A  vagrant  or 
beggar;  one  who  CANTS  (q.v.) 
or  uses  the  secret  language 
otherwise  called  Peddlars'  French, 
St.  Giles'  Greek,  etc.  The  form 
has  varied,  Greene  using  CANTE, 
whilst  many  writers  speak  of  the 
fraternity  as  the  CANTING  CREW. 
— See  Appendix.  [From  CANT, 
verb,  sense  i,  +  ER.] 

1592.  GREENE,  Quip  for  Upst. 
Courtiers,  Harl,  Misc,  V.,  396. 
I  fell  into  a  great  laughter,  to  see  certain 
Italianate  CANTES,  humourous  cavaliers, 
youthful  gentlemen,  etc. 

1625.  BEN  JONSON,  Staple  of  News, 
Act  ii.  A  rogue,  a  very  CANTER  I,  sir, 
one  that  maunds  upon  the  pad. 

1630.  TAYLOR,  ('  Water  Poet '),  wks. 
II.,  239,  i.  Two  leash  of  oyster-wives 



hyred  a  coach  on  a  Thursday  after  Whit- 
sontide  .  .  .  they  were  so  be-madam'd,  be- 
mistrist,  and  ladified  by  the  beggars,  that 
the  foolish  women  began  to  swell  with  a 
proud  supposition  or  imaginary  greatness, 
and  gave  all  their  mony  to  the  mendi- 
canting  CANTERS. 

1878.  CHARLES  HINDLEY,  Life  and 
Times  of  fames  Catnach.  '  Song  of  the 
Young  Prig.'  My  mother  she  dwelt  in 
Dyot's  Isle,  One  of  the  CANTING  CREW, 

CANTICLE,  subs.  (old).  —  A  parish 
clerk.  [From  CANTICLE,  a  song 
or  psalm  ;  one  of  the  duties  of  a 
parish  clerk  being  to  lead  the 
congregational  singing.]  So 
given  in  Grose  [1785],  and  in  the 
Lexicon  Balatronicum  [1811]. 
Also  called  an  AMEN  CURLER 

1871.  London  Figaro,  13  May,  p.  3, 
col.  2.  '  Bill's  dead  on  for  a  lark  with  the 
CANTING  bloke/  whispered  a  lean  and 
hungry-looking  '  casual '  to  a  no  less  half- 
starved  neighbour, 


GENCER, phr.  (American).  —  A  eu- 
phemistic expression  equivalent 
to  'drunk.'  [The  National  In- 
telligencer is  an  old  Washington 
newspaper.]  For  synonyms,  see 


phr.  (American).  —  Referring  to  a 
superlative  form  of  intoxication. 
For  synonyms,  see  SCREWED. 

CANTING,  verbal  subs.  (old).  —  The 
jargon  used  by  beggars,  thieves, 
gipsies,  and  vagrants.  The  same 
as  CANT,  subs.,  sense  I,  which 
seems  to  be  an  abbreviated  and 
later  form  of  CANTING  ;  Cf.  '  cab  ' 
from  '  cabriolet  '  and  '  bus  '  from 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  6, 
Their  language  which  they  terms  ped- 
delers  Frenche  or  CANTING. 

1610.  JONSON,  Alchemist,  \\.  Supr. 
What  a  brave  language  here  is  !  next  to 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sq.  ofAlsatia.  I., 
in  wks.  (1720)  IV.,  27.  A  particular 
language  which  such  rogues  have  made 
to  themselves,  called  CANTING,  as  beggars, 
gipsies,  thieves,  and  jail-birds  do. 

1742.  JOHNSON,  Highwayman  and 
Pyrates,p.  57.  All  the  CANTING  language 
(which  comprehends  a  parcel  of  invented 
words,  such  as  thieves  very  well  know,  and 
b\r  which  they  can  distinguish  one  another 
from  the  other  classes  of  mankind.) 

Ppl.    adj.  —  Belonging    to    the 
jargon  of  thieves  and  beggars. 

1592.  Groundwork  Coney-Catch,  99 
The  manner  of  their  CANTING  speech  [M.) 


VASS, phr.  (old).  —  A  seventeenth 
century  colloquialism  for  '  to  be 
dismissed  '  ;  in  modern  slang  '  to 
get  the  sack.'  —  See  BAG,  sense  2, 
and  SACK. 

1652.  SHIRLEY,  The  Brothers,  Act.  ii. 
As  much  as  marriage  comes  to,  and  I  lose 
My  honor,  if  the  Don  RECEIVES  THE 


CANVASSEENS,  subs,  (nautical).  — 
Sailors'  canvas  trousers.  For 
synonyms,  see  BAGS  and  KICKS. 

CANVASS-TOWN,  subs,  (general).  — 
The  Volunteer  Encampment  at 
Wimbledon  or  Bisley  when  the 
National  Rifle  Association  meets  ; 
also  any  camp  or  *  baby  '-city. 

CAP,  suds,  (thieves').—  i.  A  false 
cover  to  a  tossing  coin,  called  a 
covER-rowN.  The  cap  showed 
either  head  or  tail  as  it  was  left 
on  or  taken  off.  Obsolete. 


32  Cape  Cod  Turkey. 

2.  (old). — The  proceeds  of  an 
improvised  collection.     [Cf.,  'to 
send  round  the  cap  or  hat.'] 

1851.  EUREKA  ;  Sequel  Ld.  Russell's 
Post  Bag,  21.  What  amount  of  CAP  is 
realised  out  of  an  average  field  ?  [M.] 

3.  (Westminster      School). — 
The  amount  of  the  collection  at 
Play  and  Election  dinners.   [From 
the    College    cap    being    passed 
round  on  the  last  night  of  Play 
for  contributions.      Cf.,  'to  send 
round  the  cap.'] 

Verb  (thieves'). — I.  To  stand 
by  a  friend  ;  to  take  part  in  any 
undertaking ;  to  lend  a  hanH. 
Grose  has  '  to  take  one's  oath.' 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  I  will  CAP  downright ;  1  will 
swear  home. 

2.  (public  schools'  and  Uni- 
versity).— To  take  off  or  touch 
one's  hat  in  salutation ;  also  TO 
CAP  10  and  TO  CAP  IT. 

1593.  H.  SMITH,  Serm.  (1871)  I., 
203.  How  would  they  CAP  me  were  I  in 
velvets.  [M.] 

1803.  Gradus  ad  Cantabrigiam  p.  23. 
s.v.  BORE  Other  bores  are  to  attend  a 
sermon  at  St.  Mary's  on  Sunday  ...  TO 
CAP  a  fellow. 

CAP  ONE'S  LUCKY,  verbal  phr. 
(American  thieves').  —  To  run 
away.  For  synonyms,  see  AM- 

CAP  or  CAST  ONE'S  SKIN,  verbal 
phr.  (thieves'). — To  strip  naked. 
For  synonyms,  see  PEEL. 

To  SET  ONE'S  CAP  AT,  phr. 
(colloquial).  —  To  set  oneself  to 
gain  the  affections.  Said  only  of 

1773.  GRAVES,  Spiritual  Quixote, 
bk.  III.,  ch.  xi.  I  know  several  young 
ladies  who  would  be  very  happy  in  such 
an  opportunity  of  SETTING  THEIR  CAPS 
AT  him. 

1773.  O.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stoops  to 
Conquer,  Act  i.,  Sc.  i.  'Well,  if  he  re- 
fuses ....  I'll  only  break  my  glass  for 
its  flattery,  SET  MY  CAP  to  some  newer 
fashion,  and  look  out  for  some  less  difficult 

1846.  THACKERAY,  V.  Fair,  ch.  iii. 
The  wily  old  fellow  said  to  his  son,  '  Have 
a  care,  Joe  ;  that  girl  is  SETTING  HER  CAP 
AT  you.' 

DOTE, PROVERB,  &c.,phr.  (collo- 
quial ).—  To  fit  with  a  second 
from  the  same,  or  another,  author  ; 
to  '  go  one  better  '  in  the  way  of 
anecdote  or  legend. 

1584.  PEELE,  A  rraignm.  Paris,  iy., 
ii.  (1829)  48.  Sh'ath  CAPT  his  answer  in 
the  cue.  [M.] 

1856.  VAUGHAN,  Mystics  (1860)  I., 
i.  v.  Now  you  come  to  Shakspeare,  I 
must  CAP  your  quotation  with  another.  [M  .] 

To  PULL  CAPS,  phr.  (collo- 
quial). —  To  wrangle  in  an  un- 
seemly way.  —  Said  only  of 

1763.  COLMAN,  Deuce  is  in  Him,  I., 
in  wks.  (1777)  IV.,  120.  A  man  that  half 
the  women  in  town  would  PULL  CAPS  for. 

1771.  SMOLLETT,  Humphry  Clinker, 
line  19.  At  length,  they  fairly  proceeded 
to  PULLING  CAPS,  and  everything  seemed 
to  presage  a  general  battle. 

17(7).  WOLCOT,  P.  Pindar,  p.  140. 
Behold  our  lofty  duchesses  PULL  CAPS,  And 
give  each  other's  reputation  raps,  As  freely 
as  the  drabs  of  Drury's  school. 

1825.  SCOTT,  St.  Konan's  Well,  ch. 
vii.  Well,  dearest  Rachel,  we  will  not 
PULL  CAPS  about  this  man. 

CAPE  COD  TURKEY,  subs.  pht. 
(American).  —  A  salted  cod  fish, 
another  name  for  which  is 

1865.  C.  NORDHOFF,  i  May  (in 
letter).  A  salted  cod  fish  is  known  in 
American  ships  as  a  CAPE  COD  TURKEY. 




1890.  New  York  Herald,  3  June. 
'  Newfoundland  Fishery  Dispute.'  Fac- 
tories have  bee  n  established  for  the  pro- 
duction of  CAPE  COD  TURKEYS  ;  i.e.,  salted 
cod  fish. 

CAPELLA,  subs,  (theatrical).  —  A 
coat.  [From  the  Italian.] 

min ;  cover-me-decently ;  upper 
benjamin  (a  great  coat) ;  Joseph  ; 
wrap-rascal ;  bum-cooler  or  arse- 
hole-perisher,  or  shaver  (a  short 
jacket)  ;  claw-hammer,  swallow- 
tail, steel-pen  (all  three  =  a 
dress  coat) ;  M.  B.  coat ;  panu- 
petaston  ;  rock-a-low  ;  reliever  ; 
pygostole  ;  ulster  ;  monkey- 
jacket.  See  also  CASTER,  many 
synonyms  of  which  =  a  coat. 

cache-misere  (familiar  :  specially 
applied  to  a  coat  buttoned  close 
to  the  throat  to  conceal  the 
absence  of  a  shirt  or  the  soiled 
state  of  one's  linen) ;  un  alpague 
(also  alpaga  and  alpag}  ;  un 
elbeuf;  un  Berry  (a  fatigue 
jacket)  ;  une  menuisiere  (pop  :  a 
long  coat) ;  un  ne  -  te-gene  -  pas- 
dans-le-parc  (a  short  jacket  ;  also 
termed  un  saute-en-barque,  un 
pet-en -Fair,  and  iin  inontretouf}. 

hdnger  (an  overcoat ;  also  a  cloak). 
Wattnusch  (Hanoverian:  corrup- 
tion from  the  Hebrew  malbusch  = 
clothes)  ;  Schwalbenschweif  (a 
dress-coat,  a  '  swallow-tail '). 

(clothing  in  general  ;  it  also 
signifies  'feathers'). 

CAPE-NIGHTINGALE,  subs,  (colo- 
nial).— A  frog.  CJ.,  CAMBRIDGE- 

1889.  H.  A.  BRYDEN,  Kloof  and 
Karroo  :  or  Sport,  Legend,  and  Natural 
History  in  Cape  Colony.  The  very  smell 
of  the  water  and  the  din  of  the  huge  frogs, 
CAPE  NIGHTINGALES  as  we  call  them, 
revived  them. 

CAPEOVI,  adj.  (costers'). — Sick; 
SEEDY  (q.v.  for  synonyms).  Cf., 

CAPER,  suds,  (vagrants'). — A  device, 
idea,  performance,  or  occupation. 
Americans  use  it  in  the  same 
sense  as  RACKET  (q.v.},  e.g.,  the 
'real  estate  racket'  or  'CAPER.' 
[From  the  figurative  sense  of 
CAPER,  signifying  a  fantastic  pro- 
ceeding, freak,  or  prank.]  Also 
used  in  the  sense  of  '  the  go,' 
'the  fad,'  i.e.,  the  latest  fashion- 
able fancy. 

1867.  London  Herald,  23  March,  p. 
221.  '  He'll  get  five  years  penal  for  this 
little  CAPER,'  said  the  policeman. 

1870.  C.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adven- 
tures of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  220.  Charley 
would  reply  .  .  .  '  I  have  just  done  such 
and  such  an  amount  to-day  with  these 
people,'  at  the  same  time  showing  the 
invoice  of  the  goods  he  had  just  purchased 
at  the  house  where  he  got  change  for  his 
fifty  sovereigns.  The  conversation,  as  a 
rule,  ended  in  Charley's  giving  them  an 
order  too.  Of  course,  this  little  CAPEK 
would  only  '  wash  '  once. 

1884.  J.  GREENWOOD,  The  Little 
Ragamuffins.  '  Are  you  goin'  a  '  tottin'  ? ' 
'  No,'  .  .  .  '  Then  what  CAPER  are  you  up 

TO    CUT    A    CAPER    UPON    NO- 

phr.  (old). — To  be  hanged.     For 
synonyms,  see  LADDER. 

170s.  MOTTEUX,  Rabelais.  IV.  xvi. 
Two  of  the  honestest  Gentlemen  in  Catch- 
poie-iand  nad  been  made  to  CUT  A  CAPER 


1834.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood, 
bk.  III.,  ch.  v.  And  my  father,  as  I've 
heard  say,  Was  a  merchant  of  CAPERS  gay, 
Who  CUT  HIS  LAST  FLING  with  great 


Caper  Juice. 

34  Capper-Clawing. 

CAPER-JUICE,  subs.  (American). — 
Whiskey.  [From  CAPER,  a  freak 
or  antic  +  JUICE.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  DRINKS. 

1888.  Portland  Transcript,  29  Feb. 
Say,  fellers,  let's  take  a  leetle  mo'  uv  the 
CAPER  JUICE.  [They  drink  again.  Sam 
and  the  girl  exchange  affectionate 

CAPER-MERCHANT, subs.  (old). — A 
dancing  master.  [From  CAPER, 
a  frolicsome  leap  or  step,  + 
MERCHANT.]  Also  called  a  HOP- 
MERCHANT  (q.v.  for  synonyms). 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  [Quoted  as  above.] 

phr.  (old). — To  commit  an 
offence  punishable  with  death. 

1878.  CHARLES  HINDLEY,  Life  and 
Times  of  James  Catnach.  And  though 
I  don't  WORK  CAPITAL,  And  do  not  weigh 
my  weight,  sirs,  Who  knows  but  that  in 
time  I  shall. 

CAPIVI  or  CAPIVVY  (vulgar). — Bal- 
sam copaiba,  a  popular  remedy  for 

To  CRY  CAPIVVY  (sporting). 
—To  be  persecuted  to  the  death, 
or  very  near  it.  In  Handley  Cross 
[1843]  Mr-  Jorrocks  promises  to 
make  the  foxes  CRY  CAPIVVY. 

CAPON,  subs,  (popular). — Primarily, 
a  red  herring;  but  applied  to 
other  kinds  of  fish,  herrings  now 
receiving  the  distinctive  cognomen 
usage  is  a  very  old  one,  and  it  is 
notable  that  GLASGOW  MAGIS- 
TRATE, another  name  for  a  red 
herring,  was  formerly  GLASGOW 


c.  1640.  J.  SMYTH,  Hundred  of 
Berkeley  (1885),  319.  The  Sole  wee  call 
our  Seuverne  CAPON.  [M.] 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
YxkMOUTH  CAPON  a  Red  Herring. 

1719.  RAMSEY,  Hamilton,  II.,  iii.  A 
GLASGOW  CAPON  and  a  fadge  ye  thought  a 
feast.  [M.] 

1812.  W.  TENNANT,  Anster  F.,  iv. 
Each  to  his  jaws  A  good  Crail's  CAPON 
holds  [note  'a  dried  haddock  '].  [M.] 

CAPERDEWSIE,  subs.  (old). — 
Nares  says  'a  cant  term  for  a 
prison.'  [The  same  authority  sug- 
gests that  it  is  a  corruption  of 
Cappadocia  :  *  The  king  of  Cap- 
padocia,  says  Horace,  was  rich 
in  slaves,  but  had  little  money.'] 
For  synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

1600.  HEYWOOD,  I.  Ediv.  IV.  My 
son's  in  Dybell  here,  in  CAPERDOCHY,  i' 
the  gaol. 

1607.  W.  S.,  Puritan,  in  Supp. 
Shaks.,  II.,  510  (N.).  How  captain  Idle? 
my  old  aunt's  son,  my  dear  kinsman,  in 

1663.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  I.,ii.,  832. 
I  here  engage  myself  to  loose  ye,  and  free 
your  heels  from  CAPERDEWSIE. 

CAPPER,  subs.  (American  thieves'). 
— i.  A  confederate  ;  at  cards 
one  who  makes  false  bids  in  order 
to  encourage  a  genuine  player. 
[See  CAP,  vetb,  sense  i.] 

1871.  DE  VERE,  Americanisms, 
p.  319.  In  the  West  a  striker  is  not  only 
a  shoulder-hitter,  as  might  be  suspected, 
but  a  lunner  for  gambling  establishments, 
who  must  be  as  ready  to  strike  down  a 
complaining  victim  as  to  ensnare  an  un- 
suspecting stranger  .  .  .  CAPPERS  they 
are  called,  when  the  game  is  the  famous 
Three-Card  Monte. 

1881.  New  York  Slang  Dictionary. 
Gamblers  are  called  knights  of  the  green 
cloth,  and  their  lieutenants,  who  are  sent 
out  after  greenhorns,  are  called  decoys, 
CAPPERS,  and  steerers. 

2.  (auctioneers'). — A  dummy 
bidder  whose  function  is  either  to 
start  the  bidding  or  to  run  up  the 
price  of  articles  for  sale. 




Captain  Sharp. 

CAPTAIN,  subs,  (general). — i.  A 
familiar  and  jesting  form  of  ad- 
dress. An  equivalent  of  '  gover- 
nor,' 'boss,'  etc.  Very  common 
in  U.S.A.,  where  also  it  signifies 
the  conductor  or  guard  of  a  train 
—  an  analogy  being  drawn 
between  the  phraseology  of  rail 
and  water  traffic,  (see  quot.  1862). 

1598.  SHAKSPEARE  King  Henry  IV. 
pt.  2,  Act  ii.,  Sc.  4.  Doll  Tearsheet.  A 
CAPTAIN  !  God's  light,  these  villains  will 
make  the  word  as  odious  as  the  word 
'  occupy.' 

1862.  Ru SSEL.L, Diary,  North  and S., 
I.,  xiii.,  139.  All  the  people  who  addressed 
me  byname  prefixed  '  Major '  or  '  Colonel.' 
'CAPTAIN'  is  very  low.  .  .  .  The  conductor 
who  took  our  tickets  was  called  '  CAP- 
TAIN.' [M.] 

2.  (old). — A  gaming  or  bawdy 
house  bully.  Cf.,  Fielding's 
Captain  Bilkum  in  Covent  Garden 
Tragedy.  Fr.  un  major  de  table 

1731.  Daily  Journal,  Jan.  9.  '  List 
of  the  officers  established  in  the  most 
notorious  gaming-houses.'  i2th.  A  CAP- 
TAIN, who  is  to  fight  any  gentleman  who 
is  peevish  for  losing  his  money. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  ($  ed.). 
CAPTAIN  (s.)  .  .  .  and  in  the  Cant  Phrase, 
a  CAPTAIN  is  a  bully,  who  is  to  quarrel 
or  fight  with  peevish  gamesters,  who  are 
testy  or  quarrelsome  at  the  loss  of  their 
money  ;  and  sometimes  it  signifies  money 
itself,  as,  '  the  CAPTAIN  is  not  at  home,' 
that  is,  there  is  no  money  in  my  pocket. 

[CAPTAIN  is  also  a  fancy  title  for  a 
highwayman  in  a  good  way  of  business ; 
Fletcher  uses  the  term  COPPER-CAPTAIN, 
as  also  does  Washington  Irving,  for  one 
who  has  no  right  to  the  title,  and,  in 
modern  athletics,  we  have  the  CAPTAIN  of 
a  club  or  crew,  with  the  corresponding 
verb  TO  CAPTAIN.] 

3.  (old). — Money. — See    pre- 
ceding quot.  [1748]. 

4.  (knackers'). — A  glandered 

CAPTAIN  ARMSTRONG,//^,  (turf) 

— To  '  pull '  a  horse  and  thus 
prevent  him  from  winning. 
used  for  a  dishonest  jockey.  [A 
play  upon  words,  i.e.,  f  to  pull 
with  a  strong  arm.'] 

1864.  Sporting  Life,  5  Nov.  (Leader). 
CAPTAIN  ARMSTRONG  is  again  abroad, 
muscular  and  powerful,  riding  his  favourite 
hobby  in  the  steeple-chase  field,  preparing 
thus  early  in  the  season  for  pulling,  stopp- 
ing, and  putting  the  strings  on. 

subs.  phr.  (old). — All  officers 
Said  of  a  company  where  every- 
one wants  to  be  first. 

CAPTAIN  CORK,  subs.  phr.  (mili- 
tary).— A  nickname  for  a  man 
who  is  slow  in  passing  the  bottle. 

CAPTAIN  CRANK,  subs.  phr.  (old). 
— The  chief  of  a  gang  of  high  way  - 

CAPTAIN  GRAND,  subs.  phr.  (old). 
— A  haughty,  blustering  fellow. 
For  synonyms,  see  FURIOSO. 

CAPTAIN  HACKUM,  subs. phr.  (old). 
— A  hectoring  bully. — Grose. 

CAPTAIN  LIEUTENANT,  subs.  phr. 
(old). — Meat  neither  young 
enough  for  veal,  nor  old  enough 
for  beef.  [The  simile  is  drawn 
from  the  brevet  officer  who,  while 
ranking  as  captain,  receives  lieu- 
tenant's pay.] — Grose. 

CAPTAIN  QUEERNABS,  subs.  phr. 
(old). — A  shabby  or  ill-dressed 
man.  For  synonyms,  see  GUY. 

CAPTAIN  Quiz,  subs.  phr.  (old). — 
A  mocker. 

CAPTAIN  SHARP, subs. phr.  (old).— 
A  cheating  bully,  or  one  in  a  set 

Captain  Tom. 


of  gamblers,  whose  office  it  is  to 
bully  the  '  pigeon,'  who  refuses 
to  pay. — Grose.  Cf.,  CAPTAIN, 
sense  2. 

CAPTAIN  TOM,  subs.  phr.  (old). — 
The  head  or  leader  of  a  mob  ;  also 
the  mob  itself.  —  Grose. 

CARAVAN,  stibs.  (old). — i.  A  dupe; 
gull  ;  a  subject  of  plunder. — See 

1676.  ETHEREGE,  Man  of  Mode,  III., 
in.,  in  wks.  (1704),  233.  What  spruce  prig 
is  that?  A  CARAVAN,  lately  come  from 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sg.  of  Alsatia. 
[In  list  of  cant  words  prefixed  to.]  CARA- 
VAN :  a  bubble,  the  cheated. 

1889.  G.  L.  APPERSON,  in  Gentleman  s 
Magazine  ('Seventeenth  Century  Collo- 
quialisms'), p.  598.  Towards  the  end  of 
the  century  a  person  easily  gulled,  or 
'  bubbled  '  was  known  as  a  CARAVAN,  but 
earlier  the  term  'rook'  which  is  now 
restricted  to  a  cheat  or  sharper,  appears  to 
have  been  applied  to  the  person  cheated. 

2.  (old). — A     large     sum     of 

1690  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
CARAVAN  :  a  good  round  sum  of  money 
about  a  man,  and  him  that  is  cheated  of  it. 

3.  (pugilistic).  —  A     railway 
train,  especially  a  train  expressly 
chartered  to  convey  people  to  a 
prize  fight.    [Early  in  the  present 
century  CARAVAN,  now  shortened 
to  'van,'  was  applied  to  a  third 
class   covered   railway    carriage  ; 
now  a  pleasure  party  is  so  des- 
cribed ;  also  a  gypsy's  cart  ;  also 
the  wheeled  cages  of  a  travelling 

CARAVANSERA,  subs,  (pugilistic). — 
A  railway  station.  As  thus : 
'  The  scratch  must  be  toed  at 
sharp  five,  so  the  caravan  will 
start  at  four  from  the  CARAVAN - 
SERA.' — Hotten.  See  CARAVAN, 
e  3. 

CARD,  subs,  (common).  —  i.  A 
device  ;  expedient ;  or  under- 
taking ;  that  which  is  likely  to 
attain  its  object,  or  through 
which  success  is  sure.  Thus  we 
have  such  expressions  as  a  '  good 
CARD,'  a 'strong  CARD,' a  'safe 
CARD,'  a  '  likely,  or  a  doubtful 
CARD.'  [Figurative;  from  card 
playing.]  THAT'S  A  SURE  CARD 
sounds  modern,  but  as  Lowell 
has  pointed  out  it  is  to  be  found 
in  the  old  interlude  of '  1'hursytes  ' 

1690.  B.  E.,  Die.  Cant.  Crew.  A 
SURE  CARD,  a  trusty  Tool,  or  Confiding 

1763.  FR.  BROOKE,  Lady  J.  Mande 
ville,  in  Barbauld  Brit.  Novelists  (1820) 
xxvii.,  23.  Poor  fellow  !  I  pity  him  ;  but 
marriage  is  his  only  CARD.  [M.] 

1826.  SCOTT,  Woodstock,  III.,  xiv., 
358.  No  CARD  seemed  to  turn  up  favour- 
able to  the  royal  cause. 

2.  A  character  ;  an  odd  fish  ; 
an  eccentric ;  generally  coupled 
with  such  adjectives  as  '  know- 
ing,' 'old,'  'queer,'  'downy,' 
'rum, 'etc.  [Apparently  derived 
from  the  caid-table,  such  expres- 
sions as  a  '  sure  card,'  a  '  sound 
card,'  being  of  very  ancient  use. 
Osric  tells  Hamlet  that  Laertes  is 
the  CARD  and  calendar  of  gentry. 
— (Hamlet,  v.,  2.)] 

1835.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Boz,  264. 
Mr.  Thomas  Potter,  whose  great  aim  it 
was  to  be  considered  as  a  knowing  CARD. 

1852.  DICKENS,  Bleak  House,  ch.  xx., 
p.  173.  '  Such  an  old  CARD  as  this  ;  so 
deep,  so  sly,  and  secret.' 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  ii.  Frank  Hardingstone  was, 
to  use  their  favourite  word,  'a  great  CARD  ' 
amongst  all  the  associates  of  his  age  and 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  xii.  A  quaint  boy  at  Eton, 
cool  hand  at  Oxford,  a  deep  CARD  in  the 
regiment,  man  or  woman  never  yet  had 
the  best  of  '  Uppy.' 




1864.  DICKENS,  Our  Mutual  friend. 
bk.  III.,  ch.  i.  '  You're  one  of  the  Patri- 
archs ;  you're  a  shaky  old  CARD  ;  and  you 
can't  be  in  love  with  this  Lizzie.' 

3.  (common). — The  'ticket '  ; 
the  '  figure ';  the  correct  thing. 
[Possibly  from  the  K'RECT  CARD 
{q.v. )  of  racing.] 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  II.,  p.  47.  I've  got  IDS. 
often  for  a  great  coat,  and  higher  and 
lower,  oftener  lower  in  course  ;  but  los.  is 
about  the  CARD  for  a  good  thing. 

Verb. — Also  CARDING,  subs. 
(Irish  Nationalist).  A  peculiar 
form  of  torture,  which  consists  in 
the  application  of  the  card,  a 
spiked  or  toothed  implement  used 
in  the  preparation  of  flax  and 
wool,  to  the  naked  shoulders, 
&c. ,  and  is  commonly  reserved  for 
'  unpatriotic  '  girls  and  women. 

1889.  The  Scots  Observer.  'They 
never  told  the  ramping  crowd  to  CARD  a 
woman's  hide.' 

TO     GIVE     ONE     CARDS,     phr. 

(American). — To  give  one  an  ad- 
vantage. The  English  equiva- 
lent, '  to  give  points,'  is  derived 
from  the  billiard  saloon.  An 
analogous  French  phrase  is  faire 
un  bceuf. 

18S8.  Grip  (Toronto),  May.  You 
know  that  Artie  found  a  Chinaman  out 
in  'Frisco  who  could  GIVE  HIM  CARDS  and 
spades  and  beat  him  out. 

ON  THE  CARDS,  phr.  (com- 
mon).— Within  the  range  of  pro- 
bability. [Dickens  popularised 
the  expression,  which  appears  to 
mean  '  possible  to  turn  up,'  as 
anything  in  the  game  when  the 
cards  are  turned  up.  Still,  it  is 
not  unlikely  that  the  phrase 
originated  with  cartomancy,  at  a 
time  when  cards  were  frequently 
consulted  as  to  the  issue  of  enter- 
prises.] SeeN.  and  Q.,  7  s.  iv., 
507  ;  v.  14,  77,  495. 

1749.  SMOLLETT,  Translation  of  il 
Bias.  I  showed  them  tricks  which  they 
did  not  know  to  be  ON  THE  CARDS,  and 
yet  acknowledged  to  be  better  than  their 

1813.  SIR  R.  WILSON,  Diary,  II.,  40. 
It  is  not  OUT  OK  THE  CARDS  that  we  might 
do  more.  \M.] 

1849.     DICKENS,  David  Cppperfield, 
I.,  p.  219.     By  wav  of  going  in  for  any- 
thing  that  might  be  ON    THE  CARDS, 
petition  to  the  House  of  Commons,  etc. 

1868.  W.  COLLINS,  Moonstone,  I., 
p.  149.  It's  quite  ON  THE  CARDS,  sir,  that 
you  have  put  the  clue  into  our  hands. 

1874.  Saturday  Review,  April,  p.  488. 
When  they  discovered  that  a  Restoration 
was  not  at  present  ON  THE  CARDS,  they 
became  Conservatives. 

1890.  H.  D.  TRAILL,  A  Bulgarian 
Appeal.  'Saturday  Songs,'  p.  43.  I'll 
be  shot  if  I  do,  though  it's  equally  true 
That  it's  quite  ON  THE  CARDS  I'll  be  shot 
if  1  don't. 

To  PACK,  STOCK,  or  PUT  UP, 
THE  CARDS, phr.  (Western  Ameri- 
can).— To  prepare  cards  for  cheat- 
ing purposes. — See  CONCAVES, 

TO  SPEAK    BY  THE  CARD,  phr. 

(general). — To  speak  with  pre- 
cision ;  or  with  the  utmost  accu- 
racy. [An  allusion  to  the  card  of 
the  mariner's  compass.] 

1596.  SHAKSPEARE,  Hamlet,  v.,  i, 
149.  We  must  SPEAK  BY  THE  CARD,  or 
equivocation  will  undo  us. 

1867.  YATES,  Forlorn  Hope,  i.,  p.  23. 
'Are  you  SPEAKING  BY  THE  CARD?'  said 
Count  Bulow,  with  the  slightest  foreign 

1879.  TROLLOPE,  Thackeray  [in 
'  English  men  of  Letters '  series],  p.  186. 
Hemy  Esmond  .  .  .  however,  is  not  made 
to  SPEAK  altogether  BY  THE  CARD,  or  he 
would  be  unnatural. 

CARDINAL,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  red 
cloak  worn  by  ladits  circa  1740 
and  later.  [From  the  colour  and 
shape  which  suggested  a  cardinal's 



1755.  Connoisseur,  No.  62.  That 
fashionable  cloak  .  .  .  which  indeed  is 
with  great  propriety  styled  the  CARDINAL. 

1755.  The  World,  No.  127.  I  have 
made  no  objection  to  their  (the  ladies) 
wearing  the  CARDINAL,  though  it  be  a  habit 
of  popish  etymology,  and  was,  I  am 
afraid,  first  invented  to  hide  the  sluttish- 
ness  of  French  dishabille. 

1881.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Chap,  of 
the  Fleet,  pt.  i,  ch.  iv.  In  the  windows  of 
which  were  hoods,  CARDINALS,  sashes, 
pinners,  and  shawls. 

2.  (general).  —  Mulled     red 

1861.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown  at  Ox- 
ford, ch.  xv.  He  goes  up,  and  finds  the 
remains  of  the  supper,  Tankards  full  of 
egg-flip  and  CARDINAL,  and  a  party  playing 
at  vingt-un. 

3.  in    plural    (street). — Shoe- 
blacks.    [In  allusion  to  the  red 
tunics  of  some  London  brigades. 
That  stationed  in  the  City  is  now 
better  known  as  the  CITY  REDS.] 

1889.  T.  MACK  AY  [on  '  Shoeblacks '], 
in  Time,  Aug.,  p.  132.  From  that  hour 
the  Shoeblack  Brigade  has  been  firmly 
established  in  London  .  .  .  costermongers 
called  them  CARDINALS. 

4.  (American). — A    lobster; 
from   its   colour    when    cooked. 
Jules  Janin  once  made  a  curious 
blunder  and  called  the  lobster  le 
cardinal  de  la  mer.     CARDINAL 
HASH  =  a  lobster  salad. 

5.  (common). — A  new  [1890] 
variety  of  red. 


STRAW,  RUSH,  or  HANG,  etc.], 
phr.  (colloquial). — Similes  of  in- 
difference ;  to  care  about  a  matter 
not  even  so  much  as  to  the  value 
of  a  fig,  a  pin,  or  a  straw.  Fr. 
s'en  battre  Fail. — See  NOT  WORTH 
A  FIG. 

1590.  SPENSER,  Fairie  Queene,  I.,  ii., 
12.  He  ...  CARED  NOT  for  God  or  man 
A  POINT.  [M.] 

1633.  MARMYON,  Fine  Compan.,  II., 
i.,  68.  I  do  not  CARE  A  PIN  for  her.  [M.] 

1709.     STEELE,  Tatler,  No.  50.     I  do 

not  CARE  A  FARTHING  for  you.       [M.] 

1760.  GOLDSMITH,  Citizen  of  the 
World,  xlvi.  Not  that  I  CARE 'THREE 
DAMNS  what  figure  I  may  cut. 

1833.  MARRYAT,  Peter  Simple,  ed. 
1846,  vol.  I.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  13.  You  told  him 
you  did  not  CARE  A  FIG  for  him. 

1848-62.  J.  R.  LOWELL,  Biglow 
Papers.  '  Don't  fire,'  sez  Joe,  '  it  ain't  no 
use,  Thet  Deacon  Peleg's  tame  wi  I- 'goose '  ; 
Seys  Isrel,  '  I  don't  CARE  A  CENT,  I've 
sighted  an'  I'll  let  her  went.' 

1871.  London  Figaro,  May  13,  p.  4, 
col.  2.  Coster  Ballads,  'Found  Drowned.' 
'  Well,  sir,  to  cut  it  short,  she  'ad  the 
chap — 'Twos  cruel  'ard  on  me — I  don't 
believe  he  CARED  for  'er  A  RAP,  But  so  it 
wos,  yer  see.' 

1889.  Answers,  June 22,  p.  40,  col.  i. 
'  Is  it  for  sale  ?  '  demanded  the  visitor,  ex- 
citedly. '  If  it  is  I  want  it.  I  don't  CAKE 
A  SNAP  what  it  costs.' 

I  DON'T  CARE  IF  I  DO,  phr. 
(American).  —  A  street  phrase, 
meaning  nothing  in  particular. 
Also  a  form  of  accepting  an  invi- 
tation to  drink  :  '  Will  you  peg  ?  ' 
'  I  DON'T  CARE  IF  i  DO.' 

1888.  New  York  Tribune.  Volapuk 
will  never  be  popular  in  Kentucky.  It 
contains  no  sentence  to  take  the  place  of 
that  classic  phrase,  I  DON'T  CARE  IF  I  no. 

CARE-GRINDER,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
More  usually  the  VERTICAL  CARE- 
GRINDER. — See  quot.  For  syn- 
onyms, see  WHEEL  OF  LIFE. 

1883.  Echo,  Jan.  25,  p.  2,  col  4.  The 
treadmill  again,  is  more  politely  called 
...  the  wheel  of  life,  or  the  VERTICAL- 


CARGO,  subs.  (Winchester  College). 
— A  hamper  from  home.  The 
word  is  still  in  use. 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School  Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  77.  The  boys, 
eager  for  breakfast,  tumultuously  rushed 
out  from  school-court  ...  to  see  if  Poole, 



Car oon. 

the  porter,  had  letters,  or,  what  was  even 
more  delightful,  a  CARGO  (a  hamper  of 
game  or  eatables  from  home). 

1883.  Every-day  Life  in  our  Public 
Schools.  Scholars  may  supplement  their 
fare  with  jam,  potted  meats  .  .  .  or,  better 
still,  from  the  contents  of  CARGOES,  i.e., 
hampers  from  home. 

CARLER,  subs.  (New  York  thieves'). 
— A  clerk.  For  synonyms,  see 


CARNEY  or  CARNY,  subs,  (collo- 
quial).— Soothing  and  seductive 
flattery ;  language  covering  a 
design.  [The  origin  is  unknown, 
though  some  have  conjectured  the 
word  to  be  of  Irish  derivation. 
As  a  verb  it  first  appears  as  a 
dialecticism,  and  is  now  mostly 
in  use  as  a///,  adj. — CARNEYING 
(q.v.).  The  word,  however, 
seems  to  be  fast  making  its  way 
into  respectable  usage,  and  is 
even  now  largely  in  literary  use.] 

Verb,  tr.  and  intrans.  —  To 
wheedle  ;  coax  or  insinuate  one- 
self ;  to  act  in  a  cajoleing  manner. 

CARNEYING,///.  adj.  (common). — 
In  a  wheedling,  coaxing,  or  in- 
sinuating manner.  Cf. ,  CARNEY. 

1851-61.  H.MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and Lon.  Poor,vo\.  II.,  p.  566.  When  I 
tried  to  turn  'em  off  they'd  say,  in  a 
CARNYING  way,  '  Oh,  let  us  stay  on,'  so  I 
never  took  no  heed  of  'em. 

1869.  II.  J.  BYRON,  Not  such  a  Fool 
as  He  Looks  [French's  Acting  ed.],  p,  12. 
Sharp  old  skinflint,  downy  old  robber  as  he 
is,  he's  under  Jane  Mould's  thumb,  and 
well  he  knows  it.  (In  CARNEYING  voice) 
With  many  thanks,  sir,  for  your  kind  at- 
tention to  my^case. 

1871.  Daily  Telegraph,  15  May, 
'  Critique  on  Mr.  H.  J.  Byron's  Play  of 
An  English  Gentleman?  Rachel  does 
not  like  Brandon's  CARNEYING  ways. 

1884.  R.    L.    STEVENSON    in    Eng. 
Illustr.  Mag.,   Feb.,  p.  305.     The  female 
dog,  that  mass  of  CARNEYING  affectations. 

1885.  CLEMENT  SCOTT,  in  ///.  Lon. 
News,  3  Oct.,  p.  339,  2.     The  change  from 
the  CARNEYING,    wheedling   sneak  to  the 
cowardly  bully,  is  extremely  clever. 

GARNISH,  stris.  (thieves'). —  Meat. 
[From  the  Italian  came,  flesh, 
through  the  Lingua  Franca. 
Came,  in  French  argot,  signifies 
tottgh  meat.] 

crigne,  or  crignolle  (thieves' : 
Old  Cant ;  Greek,  fcpj'ae ;  Four- 
besque,  crea,  creata,  creatura, 
criulfa  ;  Germania,  crioja)',  la 
criolle  (thieves')  ;  la  niorte 
(thieves') ;  la  barbaque  or  bidoche 
(popular) ;  le  cholera  (popular  — 
bad  meat)  ;  le  mastic  (=  bread  or 

(this  is  the  same  as  GARNISH  and 
comes  from  the  Italian  carne ; 
Karnerfetzer  =  a  butcher). 

(specially  applied  to  beef) ;  sta* 
vigna ;  crea  (see  remarks  under 
crie  in  French  synonyms). 

CARNISH-KEN,  subs,  (thieves'). — A 
thieves'  eating  house,  or  prog- 
shop.  [From  GARNISH,  meat, 
through  the  Italian  carne,  + 
KEN,  a  house  or  dwelling.]  A 
French  equivalent  for  the  pro- 
prietor of  such  a  place  is  unfripier^ 
a  term  which  also  means  a  cook, 
a  '  dripping  '  or  old  clothes'  man. 


CAROON,  subs,  (costermongers'). — 
A  five  shilling  piece.  [Hotten  and 
Barrere  trace  it  to  the  French 
couronne,  Spanish  and  Italian 




corona  ;  it  is  in  all  probability  a 
mispronunciation  of  the  English 
word  '  crown. '] 

or  bull's-eye  ;  cartwheel,  coach- 
wheel,  or  simply  wheel ;  tushe- 
roon  ;  dollar  ;  thick  'un  (obsolete, 
the  term  being  now  applied  to  a 
sovereign) ;  case  ;  caser  ;  decus. 

The  nearest  French  equivalent, 
a  five  franc  piece,  is  called  tin 
rotie  de  detriere  (literally  '  a  hind 
wheel,'  and  corresponding  pretty 
closely  to  the  English  WHEEL, 
un  bouton  de  guetre  ;  un  blafard 
de  cinq  balles ;  une  drill e  or 
dringue ;  une  croix  (the  old  six 
franc  piece,  in  allusion  to  the 
cross  inscribed  on  it) ;  tim  chatte 
(a  piece  of  six  francs  :  very  old  ; 
and  formerly  prostitutes') ;  une 
medaille  or  medaille  de  St.  Hubert 
(popular) ;  un  nionarque  (popu- 
lar) ;  un  ceil  de  bceuf(—  an  ox's 
eye)  ;  tin  noble  etran^ere  (literary  : 
=  a  distinguished  stranger). 

1859.  G.  W.  MATSELL,  Vocabulunr, 
or  the  Rogue's  Lexicon.  Kersey-mere 
kicksies,  any  colour,  built  very  slap  with 
the  artful  dodge,  from  three  CAROON. 

CARPET,  verb  (colloquial).  —  To 
reprimand.  Equivalents  are  to 
*  call  over  the  coals,'  to  '  give  a 
wigging'  or  'earwigging,'  etc. 
The  phrase  sometimes  runs  '  TO 

WALK  THE  CARPET.'  So  also 
CARPETING  :  for  synonym=,  see 

1823.  GALT,  Entail,  III.,  xxix.,  278. 
Making  ....  her  servants  WALK  THE 
CARPET.  [M.] 

1840.  H.  COCKTON,  Valentine  Vox, 
xli.  They  had  done  nothing  !  Why  were 
they  CARPETED? 

1871.  Chester  Chronicle,  n  Feb. 
1  Report  of  Affiliation  Case  at  Hawarden 
Petty  Sessions,'  [The  plaintiff,  Louisa 
JacV«on,  said]  neither  did  Lunt,  the  page, 

say  that  night  if  her  master  knew   of  her 
coming  home  in  that  state  she  would  be 

CARPETED  for  it. 

1877.  HAWI.EY  SMART,  Bound  to 
Win,  ch.  xxx.  There  is  no  hurry  ;  but, 
before  the  race,  I  think  Mr.  Luxmoore  will 
have  to  CARPET  Sam. 

To  bring  up  or  forward.  A  slang 
rendering  of  mettre  sur  le  tapis. 

CARPET-BAG,  subs,  used  attribu- 
tively as  adj.  (American). — See 
CARPET-BAGGER  for  explanation 
of  such  phrases  as  CARPET-BAG 
rule,  CARPET-BAG  adventurers, 
CARPET-BAG  government,  etc. 

1872.  New  York  Herald,  22  Aug. 
Hundreds  of  millions  have  been  taken  from 
the  pockets  of  the  people  since  the  beginn- 
ing of  the  war  by  dishonest  contractors, 
unjust  claimants,  county  robbers,  and  city 
plunderers,  and  CARPET-BAG  State 
Governments.  Ibid.  The  Tammany 
robberies,  although  trifling  in  comparison 
with  the  old  revenue  robberies,  and  the 
present  wholesale  plunder  of  the  CARPET- 
BAG Governments  in  the  South,  etc. 

1888.  Chicago  Record.  The  head  of 
the  ticket  is  one  of  the  most  vulnerable 
men  who  figured  in  Southern  politics  in 
the  CARPET-BAG  era.  No  man  of  that 
period  left  a  blacker  record. 

CARPET-BAGGER,  subs.  (American 
political).  —  A  political  adven- 
turer. [After  the  Civil  War, 
numbers  of  Northerners  went 
South.  Honest  or  not,  they 
we  e  looked  upon  with  suspicion 
by  the  Southerners,  and,  as  they 
were  generally  Republican  in 
politics  andjoined  with  the  freed- 
men  at  the  pells,  the  nickname 
CARPET-BAGGER  came  to  have, 
and  still  retains,  a  political  signifi- 
cance. It  was  unjustly  applied 
to  many  well-meaning  men,  but 
at  the  same  time  it  fitted  the 
horde  of  corrupt  adventurers  who 
infested  the  South,  and  whose 
only  '  property  qualification  '  was 
contained  in  the  carpet  bag  with 

Carpet- Bag  Recruit.        41 


which  they  had  arrived  from  the 
North.  Originally,  however,  a 
CARPET-BAGGER  was  a  '  wild-cat 
banker  *  out  West  :  a  banker, 
that  is,  who  had  no  local  abiding 
place,  his  worldly  possessions 
being  contained  in  a  carpet  bag.] 
Applied  to  politics  the  term  has 
become  of  general  application. — 

1868.  Daily  News,  Sept.  18.  All 
CARPET-BAGGERS  and  '  scalawags '  aie 
whites.  The  CARPET-BAGGERS  are  irnm  - 
grants  from  the  North  who  have  throw  n 
themselves  into  local  politics,  and  through 
their  influence  with  the  negroes  obtained 

1871.  New  York  Post, ,  April.  'The 
general  drift  of  public  sentiment  is,  that 
the  CARPET-BAGGERS,  scalawags,  ex- 
slaves,  ex-slaveholders,  rebels  recon- 
structed, rebels  unreconstructed,  and 
Southern  loyalists  should  be  left,  for  a 
brief  period  at  least,  to  fight  out  their 
own  battles,  in  their  own  way ;  and  that 
if  the  nation  is  ever  again  to  become  a 
party  to  their  quarrels,  it  shall  be  on  no 
slight  pretext  and  for  no  trivial  purpose.' 

1877.  Temple  Bar,  May,  p.  107.  At 
the  same  moment  a  swarm  of  adventurers 
settled  in  the  conquered  states,  and  became 
governors,  judges,  tax-collectors,  and  so 
on.  These  are  the  CARPET-BAGGERS  of 
history.  They  came  with  two  shirts,  got 
salaries  of  (on  an  average)  four  thousand 
dollars  per  annum,  and  made  fortunes  of  a 
million  in  four  years  ! 

CARPET-BAG  RECRUIT,  subs.  phr. 
(military). — A  recruit  of  better 
than  the  ordinary  standing  ;  one 
with  more  than  he  stands  upright 

CARPET-SWAB,  subs,  (common). — 
A  carpet-bag. 

1837.  BARHAM,  I.L.  (Misadv.  at 
Margate).  A  little  gallows-looking  chap 
— dear  me  !  what  could  he  mean  ?  With  a 
CARPET-SWAB  and  mucking  togs,  and  a 
hat  turned  up  with  green. 

CARRIER,  subs.   (old). — See  quot., 

1725.  New  Cant.  Diet.  CARRIERS  : 
a  sett  of  Rogues  .  .  .  employ'd  to  look  out, 
and  watch  upon  the  Roads,  at  Inn-;,  etc., 
in  order  to  carry  Information  to  their 
respective  Gangs,  of  a  booty  in  Prospect. 

CARRIER-PIGEON,  subs.  (old). — i. 
A  cheat  —  especially  one  who 
victimised  lottery  office  keepers. 

1781.  G.PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.,  64  [named  and  described  in]. 

17 '5.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CARRIER  PIGEONS  ;  sharpers 
who  attend  the  drawing  of  the  lottery  in 
Guildhall,  and  as  soon  as  a  number  or 
two  are  drawn,  write  them  on  a  card,  and 
run  with  them  to  a  confederate,  who  is 
waiting  near  at  hand,  ready  mounted ; 
with  these  numbers  he  rides  full  speed  to 
some  distant  insurance  office  before  fixed  on, 
where  there  is  another  of  the  gang,  com- 
monly a  decent-looking  woman,  who  takes 
care  to  be  at  the  office  before  the  hour  of 
drawing ;  to  her  he  secretly  gives  the 
number,  which  she  insures  for  a  considerable 
sum,  thus  biting  the  biter. 

2.  (racing). — One  that  runs 
from  place  to  place  with  *  com- 
mi^sions '  ;  a  kind  of  tout. 

CARRION,  subs,  (venery).  —  I.  A 
prostitute.  For  synonyms,  see 

2.  (common). — The  human 
body  ;  formerly  a  corpse. 

CARRION  CASE,  subs,  (common). — 
A  shirt  or  chemise.  [From 
CARRION,  the  human  body,  4- 
CASE,  a  covering.]  For  synonyms, 
see  FLESH  BAG. 

CARRION  HUNTER,  suds.  (old). — An 
undertaker.  [CARRION  was 
formerly  general  to  signify  a 
corpse].  For  synonyms,  see  COLD 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vulgar 
Tongue.  CARRION  HUNTER:  an  under- 
taker, etc. 

CARROTS,  subs,  (popular). —  Red 
hair.  Used  attributively,  and 
also  as  a  proper  name.  The 

Carry  Boodle. 


Carry  Me  Out. 

adjectival  form  is  CARROTTY. 
An  analogous  colloquialism  is 
GINGER-HACKLED,  which  see  for 

1685.  S.  WESLEY,  Maggots,  57.  The 
Ancients  .  .  .  Pure  CARROTS  call'd  pure 
threads  of  beaten  gold.  [M.] 

1690.  B.  E..  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
CARROTS  :  Red  hair'd  People. 

1703.  T.  BAKER,  Tunbridge  Walks, 
quoted  in  Ashton's  Social  Life  in  Reign  of 
Q.  Anne,  I.,  129.  Jenny  Trapes  !  What 
that  CARROT-pated  Jade. 

1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rod,  Random,  ch. 
xiv.  Not  to  appear  before  Mr.  Cringer 
till  I  had  parted  with  my  CARROTY  locks. 

1848.  THACKERAY,  Book  of  Snobs, 
ch.  vii.  '  Blanche,  with  her  radish  of  a 
nose,  and  her  CARROTS  of  ringle  s.' 

1855.  Neivcomes,  ch.  xxii.  '  Tom  is 
here  with  a  fine  CARROTY  beard. 

1864.  MARK  LEMON,  Jest  Book,  p. 
Why  scorn  red  hair  ?  The  Greeks,  we  know 
(I  note  it  here  in  charity)  Had  taste  in 
beauty,  and  with  them  The  graces  were  all 

1882.  Daily  Telegraph,  Oct.  6,  p.  2, 
col.  i.  The  two  elder  of  the  party  were 
a  boy  and  a  girl  of  unmistakably  Irish 
parentage,  and  with  unkempt  and 
CARROTTY  heads  of  hair. 

TAKE  A  CARROT  !  (common). 
— A  vulgar  insult  ;  equivalent  to 
calling  one  a  fool,  or  telling  one 
to  '  go  to  hell.'  The  phrase  was 
originally  obscene  [Cf.,  Et  ta 
sceur !  aime-t-elle  les  rails  ?~\  and 
applied  to  women  only. 

CARRY  BOODLE,  verbal phr.  (Ameri- 
can).— See  BOODLE. 

CARRY  COALS,  verbal  phr.  (obso- 
lete).— To  put  up  with  insults  ;  to 
endure  an  affront  or  injury. 

1593.  G.  HARVEY,  Pierces  Supererog., 
in  wks.  II.,  32.  Because  Silence  may 
seeme  suspicious  to  many  :  Patience  con- 
temptible to  some  ...  a  knowne  forbearer 
of  Libellers,  a  continuall  BEARER  OF 

1595.  SHAKSPEARE,  Romeo  and  Juliet 
i.,  i.  Gregory  o'  my  word,  we'll  not 


1638.  H.  SHIRLEY,  Martyr1  dSouldier, 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  i.  Hub.  I  can  CARRY  anything 
but  Blowes,  COLES,  my  Drink,  and  — the 
tongue  of  a  Scould. 

CARRY  Co *n,rerbalphr.  (common). 
—  To  bear  success  well  and 
equably.  It  is  said  cf  a  man  who 
breaks  down  under  a  sudden 
access  of  wealth — as  successful 
racing  men  and  unexpecte  I 
legatees  often  do  —  or  who 
becomes  affected  and  intolerant, 
that  '  he  doesn't  CARRY  CORN 

CARRYINGS  ON,  subs.  phr.  (collo- 
quial).— Frolicsome  or  question- 
able proceedings ;  a  course  of 
conduct  that  attracts  attention. — 
See  CARRY  ON. 

1663.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  I.,  ii.,  556. 
Is  this  the  end  to  which  these  CARRYINGS 
ON  did  tend  ? 

1859.  SALA,  Gaslight  and  Daylight, 
ch.  xxi.  Many  have  heard  her  stern 
demands  for  rent,  and  her  shrill  denun- 
ciation of  the  CARRYINGS  ON  of  her  tenants. 

1876.  M.  S.  BRADDON,  Joshua 
Haggard,  ch.,  iv.  'And  what  about  the 
rest  of  the  time  when  he  wasn't  with  you  ? 
Fine  CARRYINGS  ON  indeed  for  a  grocer's 
daughter  ! ' 

CARRY-KNAVE, subs.  (old). — A  com- 
mon prostitute.  For  synonyms, 
see  BARRACK-HACK  and  TART. 

1630.  Taylors  Workes.  And  I  doe 
wish  with  all  my  heart  that  the  super- 
flous  number  of  all  our  hyreling  hackney 
CARRY-KNAVES,  and  hurry-whores,  with 
their  makers  and  maintainers  were  there. 

DECENTLY,  phr.  (general). — An 
exclamation  or  objurgation  gene- 
rally called  forth  by  an  incre- 
dible story,  or  by  something  dis- 
pleasing to  the  auditor ;  varied 
by  'LET  ME  DIE!'  'GOOD 

Cany  on. 



NIGHT  ! '  etc.,  as  also  by  '  CARRY 


LEAVE     ME     IN    THE    GUTTER  !  ' 

A  writer  in  Notes  and  Queries 
[2  S.,  iii.,  387]  states  it  to  have 
been  in  use  circa  1780.  [The 
origin  is  obscure,  but  some  derive 
it  from  the  Nunc  dimittis  (Luke 
ii.  29).] 

1857.  Notes  and  Queries,  16  May, 
p.  387,  col.  2.  CARRY  ME  OUT  AND  BURY 
ME  DECENTLY.  Do  any  of  your  corres- 
pondents recollect  to  have  heard  this 
phrase  ? 

1861.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown  at 
Oxford,  ch.  xlv.  And  so  the  president 
comes  out  to  see  the  St.  Ambrose  boat  row  ? 
Seldom  misses  two  nights  running.  Then 
.  .  Don't  be  afraid.  I  am  ready  for  any- 
thing you  like  to  tell  me. 

1864.  The  Reader,  Nov.  12.  Mr. 
Hotten  has  CARKY  ME  OUT.  Well  the 
equivalent  '  Federal '  is  '  D'you  tell  ? ' 

CARRY  ON,  verbal  phr.  (colloquial). 
— To  make  oneself  conspicuous  by 
a  certain  line  of  behaviour ;  to 
conduct  oneself  wildly  or  reck- 
lessly ;  to  joke  or  frolic  ;  als  >  in 
a  special  sense  applied  to  open 
flirtation  on  the  part  of  both 

French  equivalents  are  ca- 
narder  (based  on  canard  —  a 
'  take  in,'  an  extravagant  or 
absurd  story) ;  faire  du  jardin 

1856.       WHYTE     MELVILLE,     Kate. 
Coventry,   ch.   iii.       With    lynx-eyes  she 
notes  how  Lady  Carmine's   eldest  girl  is 
CARRYING  ON  with  young  Thriftless. 

1876.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Golden 
Butterfly,  ch.  xxxv.  '  She  and  1  CARRIED 
ON  for  a  whole  season.  People  talked. 

1884.  M.  TWAIN,  Huckleberry  Finn, 
ch.  xxii.,  222.  And  all  the  time  that  clown 
CARRIED  ON  so  it  most  killed  the  people. 

ABOUT  ONE,  verbal  phr.  (Ameri- 

can). —  To  neglect  the  finger 
nails  till  they  show  a  black 
rim  ;  to  go  so  unwashed  as  to 
display  a  considerable  amount 
of  what  Palmerston  called 
'  matter  in  the  wrong  place. ' 

1877.  JOSEPH  HATTON,  in  Belgravia, 
April,  p.  221.  We  looked  at  the  hands  of 
several  of  the  gamblers,  and  found  that 

they   CARRIED   THEIR    REAL    ESTATE   with 



CARRY  THE  STICK,  verbal  phr. 
(Scotch  thieves'). — To  rob  in  the 
manner  described  in  quotation. — 
See  also  TRIPPING  UP. 

1870.  Times.  21  Sept  [Maryborough 
Street  Police  Court  Report.]  Police 
Sergeant  Cole  said  the  prisoner's  plan 
was  for  the  woman  to  go  up  to  well-dressed 
elderly  or  drunken  men,  to  get  them  into 
conversation,  and  rob  them.  The  male 
prisoner  would  then  come  up,  and,  pretend- 
ing to  be  a  detective,  make  a  disturbance, 
so  as  to  enable  the  woman  to  escape.  The 
and  i 


:tice  was  called  in  London  'trippingup,' 
in  Scotland,  where  it  is  also  practised, 

CARSEY,  subs,  (thieves').— A  house, 
den,  or  crib.  [From  the  Lingua 
Franca  casa  =  a  house.]  For 
synonyms,  see  KEN. 

CART,  verb  (University). — To  de- 
feat :  in  a  match,  a  fight,  an 
examination,  a  race,  &c.  We 
CARTED  them  home  =  we  gave 
them  an  awful  licking. 

IN     THE     CART,     or     CARTED, 

phr.  (racing). — I.  An  employee 
is  said  to  put  an  owner  IN  THE 
CART  when,  by  some  trick  or 
fraud,  his  horse  is  prevented  from 
winning.  Also  IN  THE  BOX. 

1889.  Evening  Standard,  25  June. 
[Sir  Chas.  Russell's  speech  in  Durham- 
Chetwynd  case.]  It  was  alleged  that  in 
two  races  run  by  Fullerton  in  1887,  Sir 
George  Chetwynd— to  use  a  vulgarism — 
had  been  put  IN  THE  cart  by  his  Jockey. 

Carl  Grease. 


2.  (common).  —  '  In  the  know'; 
'in  the  hunt.' 

1883.  Referee,  i  April,  p.  i,  col.  i. 
No  one,  not  even  the  previously  most 
authoritative—  and  most  IN  THE  CART— 
seems  at  all  astonished  at  the  success  of 
Knight  of  Burghley. 

3.  (gaming).  —  The  lowest  scorer 
at  any  point  is  said  to  be  IN  THE 
CART  ;  sometimes  ON  T.HE  TAIL- 

TO  WALK  THE  CART,  phr. 
(racing).  —  To  walk  over  the 

TO  CART  OFF  Or  OUT,  or  AWAY, 

phr.  (colloquial).  —  To  remove. 

CART-GREASE,  subs,  (common).  — 
Butter  ;  in  the  first  instance  bad 

grease  ;  Thames  mud  ;  cow-oil  ; 
spread  ;  scrape  ;  smear  ;  ointment  ; 

FRENCH  SYNONYM.  Le  fondant 

lin%  (Schmier'vs,  properly  'grease,' 
especially  *  wheel-grease,'  also 

*  oin'ment.'      The  term  is,  there- 
fore,   practically    identical    with 
cart-grease)  ;  Schmtmk  (used   by 
knackers  .      Schmunki%    signifies 

*  fat  '  of  any  kind,  but  especially 
that  of  horses). 

CARTS,  subs,  (common).  —  A  pair  of 
shoes.  For  synonyms,  see 

CART-WHEEL,  subs,  (popular)  — i. 
A  five-shilling  piece.  A  variant 
is  COACH  -  WHEEL,  and  both 
forms  are  often  contracted  into 
WHEEL.  For  synonyms,  see 

1871.  London  Figaro,  15  Feb. '  Morn- 
ings at  Mutton's.'  'I  he  coin  of  the  realm 
in  question  was  the  largest  that  we  have 
known  in  the  present  century — so  large, 
that,  in  the  slang  language  of  thieves  and 
costermongers,  it  is  called  a  CART- 
WHEEL, '  coach-wheel '  and  '  thick-'un.' 
It  was,  in  fact,  a  crown-piece. 

2.  (popular). — A  broad  hint. 

3.  (popular).  —  A    continuous 
series  of  somersaults  in  which  the 
hands  and  feet  alternately  touch 
the  ground,  the  appearance  pro 
duced  being  similar  to  the  spokes 
of  a  cart  wheel  in  motion.    Other- 
wise     called      a       CATHARINE 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  II.,  p.  562.  We  either  do 
the  CAT'I/NWHEEL  (Sic)  or  else  we  keep 
before  the  gentleman  and  lady,  turning 
head-over-heels.  Ib.,  p.  564:  at  night  I 
go  along  with  the  others  tumbling.  I 
does  the  CAT'ENWHEEL.  (Sic.) 

1864.  SALA,  in  Daily  Telegraph,  Dec. 
23.  I  saw  a  little  .  .  .  blackguard  boy 
turning  CARTWHEELS  in  front  of  the 
Clifton  House. 

CARVER  AND  GILDER,  subs.  phr. 
(common).  —  A  match  maker. 
Cf.,  FINGERSMITH,  a  midwife. 

CASA. — See  CASE. 

CASCADE,  subs.  (Australian). — i.  In 
Tasmania  beer  is  called  CASCADE 
because  manufactured  from 
' cascade  '  water.  Cf.,  ARTESIAN. 
For  synonyms,  see  SWIPES  and 

2.  (theatrical).  —  Explained 
by  quotation.  Another  name  for 
the  same  effect  is  HANG  OUT. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and  Lon. 
Poor,  III.,  p.  156.  The  principal  distinc- 
tion between  pantomimes  and  ballets  is 
that  there  are  more  CASCADES,  and  trips, 
and  valleys  in  pantomimes,  and  none  in 
ballets.  A  trip  i«  a  dance  between 
Harlequin  and  the  Columbine,  aid 
CASCADES  and  valleys  are  trundling  and 




gymnastic  performances,  such  as  tumbling 
across  the  stage  on  wheels,  and  catching 
hold  of  hands  and  twirling  round. 

Verb   (old). — To    vomit, 
synonyms,  see  ACCOUNTS, 


1771.  SMOLLETT,  Humphry  Clinker, 
III.,  Oct.  4,  iii.  She  CASCADED  in  his 

1836.  M.  SCOTT,  Tom  Cringle's Log, 
ch.  ii.  I  daresay  five  hundred  lank  and 
file,  at  the  fewest,  were  all  CASCADING  at 
one  and  the  same  moment. 

CASE,  subs,  (colloquial). — I.  A  cer- 
tainty in  fact,  an  accentuated 
or  abnormal  instance  in  character. 
When  two  persons  fall  in  love,  or 
are  engaged  to  marry,  it  is  said  to 
be  a  CASE  with  them.  An 
eccentric  person  is  likewise  a 
CASE.  [As  a  designation  for 
persons,  CASE  probably  had  its 
origin  in  Journalese  and  Police- 
court  English  ;  e.g. ,  a  CASE  of 

1848.  BARTLETT,  Dictionary  of  Ame- 
ricanisms. CASE  :  a  character,  a  queer 
one  ;  as  '  That  Sol  Haddock  is  a  CASE.' 
'What  a  hard  CASE  he  is,'  meaning  a 
reckless  scapegrace,  mauvais  sujet. 

1859.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Geoffrey  Ham- 
lyn,  ch.  xlii.  Tossed  from  workhouse  to 
prison,  from  prison  to  hulk — every'  man's 
hand  against  him — an  Arab  of  society. 
As  hopeless  a  CASE,  my  lord  judge,  as 
you  ever  had  to  deal  with. 

1868.  O.  W.  HOLMES,  Guardian 
Angel,  ch.  iv.,  p.  35  (Rose  Lib.).  'It 
was  a  devilish  hard  CASE,'  he  said,  '  that 
old  Malachi  had  left  his  money  as  he  did.' 

1872.  Miss  BRADDON,  To  the  Bitter 
End,  ch.  xlviii.  They  have  only  been 
engaged  three  weeks  ;  but  from  the  day 
we  first  met  Lord  Stanmore  at  a  hunting 
breakfast  at  Stoneleigh,  the  business  was 
settled.  It  was  a  CASE,  as  you  fast  young 
men  say. 

1880.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Social  Sin- 
ners, ch.  xxiv.  He  saw  people  began  to 
make  way  for  him  when  she  was  con- 
cerned ;  in  short,  that  they  looked  upon 
it  as  a  CASE. 

1887.  Casselfs  Mag.,~Dzc.,  p.  26.  It 
isn't  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cardewe  he  ^omes  to 

see !  It's  Miss  Amy.  .  .  .  They  have 
met  before;  and  in  my  opinion  it's  a 
CASE  ! 

2.  (thieves')  — A    bad     five- 
shilling   piece ;    HALF    A    CASE, 
a  bad  half-crown.     Cf.,  CASER. 
In    America  a    dollar,    good    or 
bad.      [There    are   two   sources, 
either  of  which   may  have  con- 
tributed   this   slang    term.      (i.) 
Caser,    the    Hebrew   word  for  a 
crown;  (2.) silver  coin  is  frequently 
counterfeited  by  coating  or  CASING 
pewter    or    iron   imitations   with 
silver.  — Hotten.  ] 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant,  3 
ed.,  p.  444.  Bad  five  shillings — CASE. 

3.  (old). — A  house,  respectable 
or  otherwise.      Subsequently  re- 
stricted   to    a    brothel,    and,   by 
derivation,  a  '  water-closet.'  [Pre- 
sumably from  the  Italian  casa,  a 
house,  through  the  Lingua  Franca. 
It    is    found    in    various   forms, 


CARSEY,  the  last  a  phonetic 
rendering  of  the  usual  pronunci- 
ation of  CASA.]  For  synonyms, 
see  KEN. 

1678.  MARVELL,  wks.  (1875)  III.. 
497.  A  net  ...  That  Charles  himself 
might  chase  To  Caresbrook's  narrow  CASE. 

1690.  B.E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.  CASE  : 
a  House,  Shop,  or  Ware-house. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet,  of  Vul.  Tongue. 
CASE  :  a  house,  perhaps  from  the  Italian 
casa.  In  the  canting  lingo  it  meant  store 
or  warehouse,  as  well  as  dwelling  house. 
Tout  that  CASE  :  mark  or  observe  that 
house.  It  is  all  bob,  now  let's  dub  the 
gigg  of  the  CASE  :  now  the  coast  is  clear, 
let  us  break  open  the  door  of  the  house. 

1883.  Echo,  Jan.  25,  p.  2,  col.  3. 
From  the  I  talian  we  get  the  thieves'  slang 
term  CASA  for  house. 

4.  (Westminster     School). — 
The   discussion   by   Seniors    and 
Upper      Election     preceding     a 
TANNING  (y.v.),  and  the  tanning 




A  CASE  OF  CRABS,  subs.  phr. 
(colloquial). — A  failure. 

A  CASE  OF  PICKLES,  stibs.  phr. 
(colloquial). — An  incident ;  a  bad 
break-down  ;  a  break  up. 

A  CASE  OF  STUMP,  subs.  phr. 
(colloquial). — Said  of.  one  abso- 
lutely guiltless  of  the  possession 
of  coin. 

CASEINE,  subs.  (rare). — The  correct 
thing.  A  variant  of  THE  CHEESE 
(q.v.)  Cf.,  CASSAN. 

1856.  C.  KINGSLEY,  Letter,  May. 
Horn  minnow  looks  like  a  gudgeon,  which 
is  the  pure  CASEINE. 

CASER,  subs,  (thieves'). — Five  shil- 
lings.— See  CASE  and  CAROON. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mag.,  XL.,  501.  One  morning  I  found  I 
did  not  have  more  than  a  CASER  (55.). 

CASE-VROW,  subs.  (old). — A  prosti- 
tute in  residence  in  a  particular 
brothel ;  now  called  a  DRESS- 
LODGER  (q.v.}.  [From  CASE(^.Z/.), 
a  house,  +  Dutch  vrow,  a  woman.] 

CASEY,  subs,  (thieves'). — Cheese. — 


EQUAL  TO  CASH.  —  Of  un- 
questionable merit.  In  allusion 
to  the  fact  that  paper  currency  is 
largely  a  medium  of  exchange. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i  S., 
chap.  xvi.  Though  I  say  it,  that  shouldn't 
say  it,  they  [the  U.S.  Americans]  fairly 
take  the  shine  off  creation — they  are  actilly 


subs.  phr.  (colloquial). — To  get  a 
prescription  made  up. 

1890.  The  Scots  Observer,  p.  399, 
col.  2.  The  Socialist,  with  an  ear  for 
Ibsen,  and  an  eye  for  Wagner,  and  A 
PRESCRIPTION  in  his  pocket  that  only 
needs  TO  BE  CASHED  for  the  world  to 
forget  its  past,  and  belie  its  present,  and 
bidevil  its  future. 

CASH  ELS,  subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
• — Great  Southern  and  Western 
of  Ireland  Railway  Stock.  [Said 
to  be  derived  from  the  fact  that 
the  line  originally  had  no  station 
at  Cashel.] 


verbal  phr.  (American).  To  die. 
Derived  from  the  game  of  poker, 
where  counters  or  CHECKS,  pur- 
chased at  certain  fixed  rates,  are 
equivalent  to  coin.  The  euphe- 
mism is  drawn  from  the  analogy 
between  settling  one's  earthly 
accounts,  and  paying  in  dues  at 
the  end  of  the  game. 

!?(?).  JOHN  HAY,  Jim  Bludsoe  of  the 
Prairie  Belle.  '  How  Jimmy  Bludsoe 
PASS'D  IN  HIS  CHECKS  The  night  of  the 
Prairie  Belle.' 

1870.  BRET  HARTE,  Outcasts  Poker 
Flat.  Beneath  this  tree  lies  the  body  of 

J.    O.    who    .    .    .    HANDED    IN    HIS    CHECKS 

on  the  jth  December,  1850. 

1872.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('  Mark  Twain'), 
Roughing  It,  p.  332.  '  You  see,1  said  the 
miner,  '  one  of  the  boys  has  PASSED  IN 
HIS  CHECKS,  and  we  want  to  give  him  a 
good  send  off.' 

1882.  DODGE,  Plains  of  the  Great 
West.  As  close  a  shave  as  I  ever  made  to 
PASSING  IN  MY  CHECKS  was  from  a  buffalo 

1888.  New  York  Sun.  Well,  I  owned 
the  mule  for  several  years  after  that,  and 
when  he  finally  PASSED  IN  HIS  CHECKS 
I  gave  him  as  decent  a  burial  as  any 
pioneer  ever  got. 

CASH -Up,  verb  (colloquial). — To 
liquidate  a  debt  by  the  transfer 
of  money,  i.e.,  cash,  or  its 
equivalent.  For  synonyms,  see 

1837.  BARHAM,  I.  L.(M.  of  Venice). 
And  Antonio  grew  In  a  deuce  of  a  stew, 
For  he  could  not  CASH  UP,  spite  of  all  he 
could  do. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzleivit, 
I.,  p.  213.  '  When  my  father's  executors 




CASH  UP  '  he  used  strange  expressions  now 
and  then,  but  that  was  his  way. — '  CASH 
UP'S  a  very  good  expression'  observed 
Martin,  '  when  other  people  don't  apply  it 
to  you." 

1861 .  S  ALA,  Seven  Sons  of  Mammon, 
II.,  p.  197.  '  But  they  may  CASH  UP.' 
'CASH  UP!  They'll  never  CASH  UP  a 
farthing  piece.' 

CASK,  subs.  ( popular  ) .  —  A 
brougham ;  otherwise  a  PILL-BOX 
(q.v.}.  A  French  equivalent  is 
une  bagniole. 


CASSAN,  subs,  (thieves'). — Old 
Cant  for  cheese.  Also  CASS, 
CASEY.  The  oldest  form  is 
CASSAN,  which  is  found  in 
Harman's  Caveat  or  Warening 
for  Common  Cursetors,  the  first 
known  dictionary  of  English  cant 
[1567].  CASS,  chiefly  American 
thieves,  is  a  latter  corruption 
probably  influenced  by  the  Dutch 
kaas,  or  the  M.  Dutch  kdse,  Lat. 
caseus.  [For  suggested  deriva- 
tion, which  corresponds  to  that 
given  in  the  N.E.D.,  see  second 
quot.  ] 

sweaty-toe ;  choke-dog. 

nache  (thieves'  term) ;  une  cotelette 
de  rnenuister,  deperruquier,  or  de 
vAche  (popular  terms  for  a  portion 
of  Brie ;  literally  a  cabinet- 
maker's, hair-dresser's,  or  cow- 
cutlet)  ;  ledureme  (thieves) ;  une 
boussole  de  refroidi  or  de  singe 
(popular  =  a  Dutch  Cheese. ) 

drich  (Old  Cant  appearing  in  the 
Liber  Vagatorum  [1529]  as  Wen- 
derich  or  Wendrich  ;  subsequently 
modified  into  Fiihndruh.  The 

derivation  is  referable,  perhaps, 
to  an  old  practice,  prevalent  in 
North  Germany,  of  using  as  a 
board  sign  \Fah-ne ,  a  flag,  stand- 
ard, banner]  with  three  cheeses 
pictured)  ;  Gewine  (from  the 
Hebrew  gewino) ;  Karnet  or  Kor- 
ntt',  Kawine  (a  variant  of  Gewine); 
Stinkefix  (from  the  O.  H.  G. 
Stinchan,  to  smell,  to  stink ;  this  is 
especially  applied  to  old  cheese). 

(cream  cheese)  ;  maschtrpo ; 
stifello  (literally  a  kind  of  flute, 
in  allusion  to  the  holes  in 
some^  kinds  of  cheese,  notably 

(evidently  a  corruption  of  the 
French  fromage). 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (i86<)\  p.  86. 
She  hath  a  Cacking  chete,  a  grunting 
chete,  ruff  Pecke,  CASSAN,  and  popplarr 
of  yarum. 

1609.  DEKKER,  Lanthorne  and  Can- 
dlelight,   in    wks.     (Grosart)     III.,    195. 
CASSAN   is  cheese,  and  is  a  worde  bar- 
barously   coynd    out    of   the   substantive 
OU*«f,whkh  also  signifies  a  cheese. 

1656.  BROOME,  Jovial  Crew,  Act  H. 
Here's  ruffpeck  and  CASSAN,  and  all  of  the 
best,  And  scraps  of  the  dainties  of  gentry 
cofe's  feast. 

1714.  Memoirs  of  John  Hall  (4  ed.), 
p.  ii.  CASUM  :  cheese. 

1881.  New  York  Slang  Dictionary. 
CASS  :  cheese. 

CASTELL,  verb  (old). — To  see  or 
look.  [It  is  uncertain  as  to 
whether  this  word  is  slang  or 
not.  It  is  not  included  in  the 
N.E.D.~\  For  synonyms,  see  PIPE. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  37  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).    To  CAS- 
TELL :  to  see  or  looke. 

CASTER,  subt.  (old). — i.  A  cloak. 
[Cf.,  CASTOR,  a  hat  ;  there 
seems  to  be  no  historical  im- 
probability for  a  similar  deriva- 

Castieu's  Hotel. 

48          Cast  Sheep's  Eyes. 

Another  Old  Cant  term  for  a 
cloak  was  CALLE  (q.v.),  and  the 
French  have  un  bleu,  whilst  the 
Italian  Fourbesque  has  toppo  and 
manto,  the  latter  probably  mean- 
ing '  a  long  black  veil ' ;  Calao. 
tralha.  The  Germania  renders 
cloak  by  noche  (literally  '  night,' 
and  signifying  also  in  a  canting 
sense  *  sadness '  and  '  sentence 
of  death  ')  ;  nube  (literally  a 
'  cloud  ')  ;  pelosa  (specially  ap- 
plied to  a  cloak  worn  in  the 
morning  ;  literally  '  shaggy  '  or 
'  hairy  ')  ;  btllosa  or  vellosa  (a 
sailor's  cloak). 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  [E.  E.  Text 
Soc.,  1869],  p.  77.  He  walketh  in  softly  a 
nights,  when  they  be  at  their  rest,  and 
plucketh  of  as  manygarmentesas  be  ought 
worth  that  he  may  come  by,  .  .  .  and 
maketh  porte  sale  at  some  conuenient  place 
of  theirs,  that  some  be  soone  ready  in  the 
morning,  for  want  of  their  CASTERS  and 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  37  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  CASTER  :  a 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue  [s.v.]. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicuin  [s.v.]. 

2.  (colloquial).  —  A  cast-off 
or  rejected  person  or  thing.  [From 
CAST,  thrown,  +  ER.] 

1859.  LANG,  Wand,  India,  p.  144. 
The  horse  which  drew  the  buggy  had 
been  a  CASTER  ...  a  horse  considered  no 
longer  fit  for  the  cavalry  or  horse  artillery, 
and  sold  by  public  auction,  after  being 
branded  with  the  letter  R  on  the  near 
shoulder.  [M.] 

CASTIEU'S  HOTEL,  subs.  phr. 
(Australian  thieves'). — The  Mel- 
bourne gaol,  so  called  from  Mr. 
J.  B.  Castieu.  For  list  of  nick- 
names of  this  description,  see 

18(?).  Australian  Printers  Keep- 
sake. He  caught  a  month,  and  had  to 
white  it  out  at  diamond-cracking  in 

CASTLE- RAG,  subs,  (rhyming  slang). 
— A  flag  or  fourpenny  piece.  For 
synonyms,  see  JOEY. 

CAST-OFFS,  subs,  (nautical).  —  i. 
Landsmen's  clothes.  For  syn- 
onyms, see  TOGS. 

2.     In  singular  (general). — A 
discarded  mistress. 

CASTOR,  subs,  (old).—  A  hat.  [From 

Latin  castor •,  a  beaver,  hats 
having  formerly  been  made  of 
beaver's  fur.]  For  synonyms,  see 

1640.  ENTICK,  London,  II.,  175. 
Beaver  hats,  Demi-CASTERS.  [M.] 

1754.  B.  MARTIN,  Eng.  Diet.,  2  ed. 
CASTOR  :  lat.,  i,  a  beaver,  a  beast  like  an 
otter.  2,  a  fine  hat  made  of  its  fur. 

1821.  W.  T.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  ii.,  Sc.  5.  Jerry.  (Walks  about, 
and,  by  mistake,  takes  Logic's  hat,  which 
he  puts  on.)  Damn  the  cards  !  Log.  (Fol- 
lowing Jerry,  and  rescuing  CASTOR.)  Don't 
nibble  the  felt,  Jerry  ! 

1857.  O.  W.  HOLMES,  Autocrat  of 
the  Breakfast  Table,  ch.  viii.  The  last 
effort  of  decayed  fortune  is  expended  in 
smoothing  its  dilapidated  CASTOR.  The 
hat  is  the  ultimutn  morieus  of  '  respecta- 

1860.  Morning  Post,  Jan.  30.  Such 
as  tin  for  money,  CASTOR  for  hat,  brick 
for  good  fellow,  gemman  for  gentleman. 

CAST  SHEEP'S  EYES,  verbal  phr. 
(common). — To  ogle;  to  leer  or 
'  make  eyes '  at ;  formerly  to  look 
modestly  and  with  diffidence,  but 
always  with  longing  or  affection. 
[Probably  in  allusion  to  the  quiet, 
gentle  gaze  of  sheep.]  The 
phrase  has  been  varied  by  to 
CAST  LAMB'S  EYES.  Fr.  ginginer; 
lancer  son  prospecttis,  and  un  oeil 
en  tirelire  =  an  eye  full  of  amorous 

1590.  GREENE,  Francesco's  Fortunes, 
in  wks.  VIII.,  191.  That  CASTING  A 
SHEEFE'S  EYE  at  hir,  away  he  goes  ;  and 
euer  since  he  lies  by  himselfe  and  pines 

Cast-up  Accounts.  49 


1614.  JONSON,  Bartholomew  Fair, 
V.,  iii.  Who  chances  to  come  by  but  fair 
Nero  in  a  sculler  ;  And  seeing  Leander's 
naked  leg  and  goodly  calf,  CAST  at  him 
from  the  boat  A  SHEEP'S  EYE  an'  a  half. 

1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rod.  Random,  ch. 
xvi.  There  was  a  young  lady  in  the  room, 
and  she  THREW  .  .  .  many  SHEEP'S  EYES 
at  a  certain  person  whom  1  shall  not  name. 

1864.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Guy  Living* 
stone,  ch.  vii.  He  would  stand  for  some 
time  CASTING  LAMB'S-EYES  at  the  object  of 
his  affections — to  the  amorous  audacity  of 
the  full-grown  sheep  he  never  soared. 

1881.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Gt.  Tontine, 
ch.  xi.  It  isn't  to  be  expected  a  well-bred 
lass  like  this  is  going  to  knock  under  the 
minute  a  young  fellow  MAKES  SHEEP'S- 
EYES  at  her. 

CAST    UP    ACCOUNT  s. — See 

ACCOUNTS,    to    which    may    be 
added  the  following. 

.  caur — or  son  lest—  sur  carreau 
(general :  literally  to  '  throw  hearts 
or  diamonds  '  or  '  throw  one's 
heart,'  here  meaning  the  stomach, 
'  on  the  floor')  ;  compter  ses  che- 
mises (popular)  ;  debecqueter  (pop- 
ular) ;  dt  border  (popular)  ;  lac  her 
son  Donjon  (general)  ;  Idcher  une 
fusee  (popular). 

1607.  DEKKER,  Westward  Ho,  Actv., 
Sc.  i.  Mist.  Wafer.  I  would  not  have  'em 
CAST  UP  their  ACCOUNTS  here,  for  more 
than  they  mean  to  be  drunk  this  twelve- 

1808.  R.  ANDERSON,  Cumbria.  Ball, 
26.  The  breyde  she  KEST  UP  her  ACCOUNTS 
In  Rachel's  lap.  [M.] 

CAT,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  prostitute. 
For  synonyms,  see  BARKACK- 

[1401.  Pol.  Poems,  II.,  113.  Beware 
of  Cristis  curse,  and  of  CATTIS  tailis.] 

153.5.  LYNDESAY,  Satyre,  468.  Wan- 
tonnes.  Hay  !  as  one  biydlit  CAT,  I  brank. 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.  CAT  : 
a  common  Whore. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.;. 
CAT  (s.)  .  .  .  also  a  cant  word  for  a  lewd, 
whorish  woman,  or  street-walker. 

2.  (popular).  —  A  shortened 
form  of  CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS  (q.V.). 

1788.  FALCONBRIDGE,  Afr.SlaveTr., 
40.  A  CAT  (an  instrument  of  correction, 
which  consists  of  a  handle  or  stem,  made 
of  a  rope  three  inches  and  a  half  in  cir- 
cumference, and  about  eighteen  inches  in 
length,  at  one  end  of  which  are  fastened 
nine  branches,  or  tails,  composed  of  log 
line,  with  three  or  more  knots  upon  each 
branch).  [M.] 

1870.  London  Figaro,  23  Dec.  We 
are  delighted  to  learn  that  Mr.  Baron 
Bramwell,  at  the  Warwick  Assizes,  on 
Saturday,  sentenced  a  batch  of  street 
thieves  to  hard  labour  for  eighteen  months, 
and  twenty  lashes  each,  with  an  instru- 
ment called  the  CAT. 

1889.  Globe,  26  Oct.,  p.  7,  col.  3.  Th* 
'CAT.'  A  companion  of  the  prisoner  was 
convicted  last  session  of  being  concerned 
in  the  assault  and  robbery,  and  was 
sentenced  to  eighteen  months'  hard  labour 
and  to  receive  twenty-five  lashes. 

3.  '(thieves').  —  A  lady's  muff. 
[Muff  =  female  pudendum.  See 
sense  4.] 

1857.  SNOWDEN, 
p.  444.     To  steal  a  muff—  To  free  a  CAT. 

4.  (popular).  —  The     female 
pudendum  ;    otherwise  a  PUSSY  ; 
French,  le  chat. 

5.  (thieves').  —  A    quart    pot. 
Pint    pots    are   called    KITTENS. 
Stealing  these  pois  is  termed  CAT 


1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  II.,  p.  118.  The  mistress 
of  a  lodging-house,  who  had  conveniences 
for  the  melting  of  pewter-pots  (called 
CATS  AND  KITTENS  by  the  young  thieves 
according  to  the  size  of  the  vessels).  Ibid, 
I.,  p.  460.  At  this  lodging-house  CATS 
AND  KITTENS  are  melted  down  ...  A 
quart  pot  is  a  CAT,  and  pints  and  half- 
pints  are  KITTENS. 

6.  (popular).  —  See  TAME  CAT. 

7.  (common).  —  A  monster  in- 
festing lodging  houses,  and  assimi- 




lating,  with  equal  readiness,  cold 
meat  and  coals,  spirits  and  paraf- 
fin, etc.,  etc. 

1827.  R.  B.  PEAKE,  Comfortable 
Lodgings,  Act  I.,  Sc.  iii.  I  wonder  whether 
the  CAT  ever  comes  in  here,  and  knocks 
anything  over?  Sir  Hippington  Miff, 
here's  your  health  !  —  Ladies,  yours  ! 
(Drinks.)  Bless  my  soul !  the  cup's  empty  ! 
I'll  turn  it  over,  and  lay  the  fault  at  pussy's 

1871.  Figaro,  2 July.  'My Landlady.' 
Who  on  my  viands  waxes  fat  ? — Who  keeps 
a  most  voracious  CAT  ! — Who  often  listens 
on  my  mat  ?  My  Landlady. 

FLYING  CAT,  subs.  (old). — An 

1690.  B.  E.,  Dictionary  Canting' 
Crew,  s.v.  Flutter.  An  owl  is  a  FLYING- 


CAT  ;  or  simply,  TO  CAT.  To 
vomit;  generally  from  over  in- 
dulgence in  drink.  —See  ACCOUNTS 

1609.  ARMIN,  Maids  of  More-cl. 
(1880),  70.  He  baste  their  bellies  and  their 
lippes  till  we  haue  IERK'T  THE  CAT  with 
our  three  whippes.  [M.] 

1630.  J.  TAYLOR  ('Water P.'),  Brood 
Cortnor,  wks.  III.,  p.  5,  col.  i.  You  may 
not  say  hee's  drunke  .  .  For  though  he 
be  as  drunke  as  any  rat  He  hath  but 
catcht  a  fox,  or  WHIPT  THE  CAT. 

1830.  MARRYAT,  Kings  Own,  ch. 
xxxii.  I'm  cursedly  inclined  to  SHOOT 

To  WHIP  THE  CAT,  otherwise 

WITH  A  CAT,  phr.  (old).  —  I.  To 

indulge  in  practical  jokes.  [For 
suggested  origin,  see  quotation 

1614.  B.  JONSON,  Barthol.  Fair,  I., 
iv.  [N.].  I'll  be  DRAWN  WITH  A  GOOD  GIB 


1690.  B.  E. ,  Dictionary  CantingCre-w. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
trick  often  practised  on  ignorant  country 

fellows,  vain  of  their  strength  ;  by  laying 
a  wager  with  them,  that  they  may  be 


bet  being  made,  a  rope  is  fixed  round  the 
waist  of  the  party  to  be  catted,  and  the 
end  thrown  across  the  pond,  to  which  the 
cat  is  also  fastened  by  a  pack-thread,  and 
three  or  four  sturdy  fellows  are  appointed 
to  lead  and  whip  the  cat ;  these,  on  a 
signal  given,  seize  the  end  of  the  cord, 
and  pretending  to  whip  the  cat,  haul  the 
astonished  booby  through  the  water. 

2.  (tailors',  etc.). — To  work  at 
private  houses.  In  America  the 
term  is  also  used  by  carpenters 
and  other  itinerants,  especially 
schoolmasters  who  'board  round.' 
At  one  time  it  was  more  con- 
venient to  pay  in  kind  than  in 
currency;  and,  in  rural  New 
England ,  a  school-teacher  would 
be  '  boarded  round  '  amongst  his 
pupils'  parents  as  a  part  of  his  re- 
muneration. (See  Washington 
Irving's  Legend  of  Sleepy  Hollow. ) 
This  was  called  WHIPPING  THE 

1871.  DE  VERB,  Americanisms,  648. 
WHIPPING  THE  CAT  :  an  old  English 
phrase,  used  only  by  tailors  and  carpenters, 
has  maintained  its  existence  in  New  Eng- 
land, Pennsylvania,  and  a  few  other  States, 
where  it  denotes  the  annual  visit  of  a  tailor 
to  repair  the  clothes  of  a  household.  It  is 
said  to  have  originated  in  a  very  rough 
practical  joke,  which  bears  the  same  name 
in  Hampshire,  England,  and  of  which,  it 
is  surmised,  the  tailor  may  have  been  the 
victim  (J.  R.  Lowell).  The  simple  tailors 
of  former  days  liked  thus  to  go  from  house 
to  house  in  the  rural  districts,  providing 
the  families  with  clothing.  The  chief 
romance  for  the  happy  '  Schneider '  was  in 
the  abundant  and  wholesome  cheer  of  the 
farmer  who  employed  him,  and  as  his 
annual  visits  fell  in  the  pudding  and 
sausage  season,  he  was  usually  crammed 
with  that  kind  of  '  vegetables,'  as  he  face- 
tiously called  them,  to  his  heart's  content. 
The  only  objection  made  to  CATWHIPPING, 
was  that  it  afforded  no  opportunity  to 
'  cabbage,'  and  in  former  days  this  was  a 
serious  grievance.  The  introduction  of 
large  manufacturing  establishments,  low- 
priced  ready  -  made  clothing,  and  the 
advent  of  the  sewing-machine,  have  now 
nearly  made  an  end  to  this  itinerant 
occupation.  The  terms  CATWHIPPER  and 
CATWHJPPING  were  often  facetiously,  and 



sometimes  very  irreverently,  applied  to 
other  itinerant  professions  :  even  '  school- 
masters ' — there  were  no  'teachers,'  much 
less  'educators,'  in  those  benighted  days — 
were  called  CATWHJPPERS,  when  they 
boarded,  as  was  quite  usual,  in  turns  with 
the  parents  of  their  scholars.  Itinerating 
preachers  also  were,  by  the  initiated, 
included  in  this  category. 

TO    SEE    HOW    THE    CAT  WILL 

JUMP,  phr.  (common). — To  watch 
the  course  of  events.  An  Ameri- 
can equivalent  is  TO  SIT  ON  THE 
FENCE. — See  FENCE  and  JUMP- 

1827.  SCOTT,  in  Croker  Pap.  (1884), 
I.,  xi.,  319.  Had  I  time,  I  believe  I  would 
come  to  London  merely  TO  SEE  HOW  THB 

CAT  JUMPED.      [M.] 

1853.  BULWER  LYTTON,  My  Novel, 
IV.,  p.  228.  '  But  I  rely  equally  on  your 
friendly  promise."  '  Promise  !  No  —  I 
don't  promise.  I  must  first  SEE  HOW  THE 


1859.  LEVER,  Davenport  Dunn,  III., 
229.  You'll  SEE  with  half  an  eye  HOW 


1874.  Sat.Rev.^.  139.  This  dismays 
the  humble  Liberal  of  the  faint  Southern 
type,  who  thinks  that  there  are  subjects  as 
to  which  the  heads  of  his  party  need  not 


1887.  '  Pol.  Slang,"  in  Comhill  Mag., 
June,  p.  626.  Those  who  sit  on  the  fence 
— men  with  impartial  minds,  who  wait  to 
see,  as  another  pretty  phrase  has  it,  HOW 


KILL  YOUR  DOG,  phr.  (common). 
'Ca  '  me,  'ca '  thee  ;  an  exchange 
in  the  matter  of  '  scratching 
backs ' — in  Fr.  passez  mot  la  casse^ 
et  je  fenverrai  la  senne. 


BAG,  phr.  (common). — To  reveal 
a  secret ;  a  variant  with  a  slightly 
modified  sense  is  TO  PUT  ONE'S 
FOOT  IN  IT.  [This  and  the  kind- 
red phrase  '  to  buy  a  pig  in  a 
poke,'  are  said  to  have  had  their 
origin  in  the  bumpkin's  trick  of 
substituting  a  cat  for  a  young  pig 
and  bringing  it  to  market  in  a 
bag.  If  the  customer  were  wary 


BAG,  and  there  was  no  deal. 

1760.  Land.  Mag  XXIX.,  p.  224.  We 
could  have  wished  that  the  author  .  .  . 
had  not  LET  THE  CAT  OUT  OF  THE  BAG. 

1782.  WOLCOT  ('  P.  Pindar '),  Pair 
of  Lyric  Epistles  To  the  Reader  But.  to 
use  a  sublime  phrase,  as  it  would  be  LET- 


1811.  C.  K.  SHARPE,  in  Correspon- 
dence (1888),  I.,  475.  She  has  LET  a 
wicked  CAT  OUT  OF  THE  BAG  to  G.  M. 
respecting  his  mother. 

1855.  MRS.  GASKELL,  North  and 
South,  ch.  xliv.  You  needn't  look  so 
frightened  because  you  have  LET  THE 

CAT    OUT    OF    THE    BAG    tO    a    faithful    old 

hermit  like  me.      I  shall   never  name  his 
having  been  in  England. 

1888.  MACDERMOTT  [on  the  case  of 
Crawford  v.  Dilke],  This  noble  represen- 
tative of  everything  good  in  Chelsea,  He 
LET  THE  CAT,  the  naughty  cat,  RIGHT  OUT 
OF  THE  Gladstone  BAG. 


phr.  (common).  —  A  gentleman 
whose  larder  was  frequently  broken 
by  bargees,  had  a  cat  cooked  and 
placed  as  a  decoy.  It  was  taken 
and  eaten,  and  became  a  standing 
jest  against  the  pilferers. 

phr.  (popular). — To  quarrel  night 
and  day.  Said  of  married  (or  un- 
married) couples. 

TO  TURN  CAT  IN  THE  PAN,  phr. 

(old). — To  '  rat '  ;  to  reverse  one's 
position  through  self-interest ;  to 
play  the  turncoat.  [The  deriva- 
tion is  absolutely  unknown.  The 
one  generally  received — that '  cat ' 
is  a  corruption  of  '  cate '  or 
'  cake' — is  historically  untenable.] 

c.  1559.  Old  Play, '  Mart  iage  of  Witt 
and  Wisdome*  Sc.  3.  Now  am  I  true 
araid  like  a  phesitien ;  I  am  as  very  a 
turncote  as  the  wethercoke  of  Poles;  For 
now  I  will  calle  my  name  Due  Disporte. 
So,  so,  finely  I  can  TURNE  THE  CATT  m 



Cat  aw  an) pus. 

1593.  4  Lett.  Conf.,  in  wks.  (Grosart) 
II.,  286.  If  it  bee  a  home  booke  at  his 
first  conception,  let  it  be  a  home  booke 
still,  and  TURNE  NOT  CAT  IN  THE  PANNE. 

1625.  BACON,  Essays  {of  Cunning), 
p.  441  (Arber).  There  is  a  Cunning, 
which  we  in  England  call,  The  TURNING 
OF  THE  CAT  IN  THE  PAN,  which  is,  when 
that  which  a  Man  says  to  another,  he  laies 
it,  as  if  Another  had  said  it  to  him. 

c.  1720.  Song,  'The  Vicar  of  Bray.' 
'  When  George  in  pudding  time  came  in, 
And  moderate  men  looked  big,  sir,  He 
TURNED  A  CAT-IN-PAN  once  more,  And  so 
became  a  Whig,  sir.' 

1816.  SCOTT,  Old  Mortality,  ch. 
xxxv.  '  O,  this  precious  Basil  will  TURN 
CAT  IN  PAN  with  any  man  ! '  replied 

TO    FEF.L    AS    THOUGH    A   CAT 

phr.     (popular). — To     '  have    a 
mouth'  after  drunkenness. 

Many  other  phrases  and  pro- 
verbial sayings  might,  more  or 
less  justifiably,  be  classed  as  slang 
in  this  connection  ;  e.g.,  TO  FIGHT 
CAT  (the  last  a  reproach  addressed 
to  volunteers),  etc. 

CATAMARAN,  subs,  (colloquial). — A 
vixenish  old  woman  ;  also  a  cross- 
grained  person  of  either  sex.  \_Cf., 
CATAMOUNT.  Probably  associ- 
ated with  the  colloquial  use  of 
CAT,  a  quarrelsome,  vicious 
woman].  For  synonyms,  see 

1833.  MARRY  AT,  Peter  Simple,  ch.  vi. 
The  cursed  drunken  old  CATAMARAN, 
cried  he,  I'll  go  and  cut  her  down  by  the 

1855.  THACKERAY.  Nevucomes,  ch. 
Ixxv.  '  What  a  woman  that  Mrs.  Mac- 
kenzie is  ! '  cries  F.  B.  '  What  an  infernal 
tartar  and  CATAMARAN  !' 

1861.     Macmillan's  Magazine,  June, 
p.    113.      She  was  such  an  obstinate   old 


CAT  O' MOUNTAIN,  subs.  (Ameri- 
can).— A  shrew.  [Q^CATAMARAN 
and  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  use 
of  the  word  for  a  wild  man  from 
the  mountains,  itself  a  transferred 
sense  of  catamount  =  a  leopard  or 

1616.  FLETCHER,  Cust.  of  Country, 
I.,  i.  The  rude  claws  of  such  a  CAT  o' 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i 
S.,  ch.,  xii.  She  was  a  dreadful  cross- 
grained  woman,  a  real  CATAMOUNT,  as 
savage  as  a  she -bear  that  has  cubs. 

CAT  AND  MOUSE,  subs.,  phr. 
(rhyming  slang). — A  house. 

CATASTROPHE, j«fo.  (old). — The  tail 
or  latter  end.  Cf.,  the  Falstaffism 
'  I'll  tickle  your  CATASTROPHE.' 


LY,  adj.  and  adv.  (popular). — With 
avidity  ;  fiercely  ;  eagerly  ;  or 
violently  destructive.  See  CATA- 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.,  xxi.,  216.  There  air  some  CATA- 
WAMPOUS chawers  in  the  small  way  too,  as 
graze  upon  a  human  pretty  strong. 

1853.  LYTTON,  My  Novel,  bk.  X., 
ch.  xx.  If  a  man  like  me  ....  is  to  be 
CATAWAMPOUSLY  champed  up  by  a 
mercenary  selfish  cormorant  of  a  capitalist. 

18(?).  F.  BURNAND,  The  White  Cat. 
Don't  hurt  me  ;  spare  a  poor  unhappy  pup, 
Or  I'll  be  CATAWAMPOUSLY  chawed  up. 

CATAWAMPUS,  subs. — Vermin,  es- 
pecially those  that  sting  and 
bite.  [Apparently  formed  from 
CATAWAMPOUS  (g.v.).~\ 

1880.  MORTIMER  COLLINS,  Thoughts 
in  My  Garden,  vol.  I.,  p.  244.  Look  at 
their  [spiders']  value  in  destroying  wasps 



Catch- em -A  live. 

and  blue-bottles,  gnats,  midges,  and  all 
manner  of  CATAWAMPUSES,  as  the  ladies 
call  them. 

CATCH,  subs,  (colloquial). — A  man 
or  woman  matrimonially  desirable; 
formerly  in  a  canting  sense,  a 
prize  or  booty  [j^quot.  1877].  A 
woman  who  is  '  no  great  CATCH  ' 
is  in  French  argot  termed  line 

1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  Taming  of 
the  Shrew,  Act  ii.,  Sc.  i,  333.  Bap.  The 
gain  I  seek  is — quiet  in  the  match.  Gre. 
No  doubt  but  he  hath  got  a  quiet  CATCH. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.) 
CATCH  (s.)  .  .  .  also  a  cant  word  for  a 
prize,  booty,  etc. 

1842.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  333. 
Angelina  Ampletin  was  one  of  the  prettiest 
girls  in  Pimlico,  and  if  there  was  any 
truth  in  rumour,  very  far  from  one  of  the 

worst  CATCHES. 

1877.  Five  Years  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  244.  Well,  as  it  was  her  CATCH, 
I  thought  as  I'd  consult  along  of  her 
whether  we  should  take  the  ,£200. 

CATCH  or  CUT  A  CRAB,  verbal phr. 
(common). — There  are  various 
ways  of  CATCH  IJ^G  A  CRAB,  as  for 
example,  (i)  to  turn  the  blade  of 
the  oar  or  'feather'  under  water 
at  the  end  of  the  stroke,  and 
thus  be  unable  to  reco\  er  ;  (2)  to 
lose  control  of  the  oar  at  the 
middle  of  the  stroke  by  *  digging ' 
too  deeply ;  or  (3)  to  miss 
the  water  altogether.  An  English 
variant  is  to  '  capture  a  cancer,' 
an  American  form  being  '  TO 

CATCH         A          LOBSTER.'    —   See 


1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vvlg.  Tongue, 

1833.  MARRYAT,  Peter  Simple  [ed. 
1846],  ch  viii.,  p.  206,  s.v. 

1844.  Puck,  p.  134.  Now,  Johnson, 
thou  wilt  surely  rue  !  Didst  ever  pull 
before?  (Brown  had  been  up  to  fish  at 
Kew.  And  CAUGHT — of  CRABS — a  store. 

1849.  JOHN  SMITH  (J.  D.  Lewis) 
Hark,  the  gun  has  gone  thrice,  and 

now  off  in  a  trice,  With  the  Johnians  we're 
soon  on  a  level.  When  Hicks,  who's  no 
dab,  with  his  oar  CUTS  A  CRAB?  And  our 
coxswain  he  swears  like  the  Devil. 

1857.  HOOD,  Pen  and  Pencil 
Pictures,  p.  144.  Awful  muff !  Can't  pull 
two  strokes  without  CATCHING  as  many 
CRABS  ;  he'd  upset  the  veriest  tub  on  the 

1872.  Daily  News,  10  Sept.  '  London 
Rowing  Club  Regatta.'  The  excitement 
and  fun  engendered  by  the  numerous 
scrimmages  resulted  in  '  fouls '  and 
CRABS  of  most  portentous  magnitude. 

CATCH  A  TARTAR,  verbal  phr.  ( popu- 
lar).— To  unexpectedly  meet  with 
one's  superior  ;  to  fall  into  one's 
own  trap  ;  having  a  design  upon 
another,  to  be  caught  oneself. 
[Explanation  may  be  found,  per- 
haps, in  the  horror  born  of  the 
atrocities  of  the  Tartar  hordes 
who  devasted  Eastern  Europe  in 
the  reign  of  St.  Louis  of  France. 
Cf.,  TARTAR,  a  person  of  irritable 
temper.]  An  American  variant 

is  TO  CATCH  ON  A  SNAG  (q.V.). 

1682.  DRYDEN,  Prol.  to  King  and 
Queen,  in  wks.,  p.  456  (Globe).  When 
men  will  needlessly  their  freedom  barter 
for  lawless  power,  sometimes  they  CATCH 


1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rod.  Random,  ch. 
xxx.  Who,  looking  at  me  with  a  con- 
temptuous sneer,  exclaimed,  Ah,  ah  !  have 


1778.  FANNY  BURNEY,  Diary,  23 
Aug.  'Ah,'  he  (Johnson)  added,  'they 
will  little  think  what  a  TARTAR  you 
carry  to  them.' 

1857.  O.  W.  HOLMES,  Autocrat  of 
the  Breakfast  Table,  ch.  v.  When  the 
Danish  pirates  made  descents  upon  the 
English  coast,  they  CAUGHT  A  FEW 
TARTARS  occasionally,  in  the  shape  of 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad, '  Unhappy 
Because  it  Can't  Last.'  They  say  two  heads 
are  better  than  one,  so  I  took  a  wife  and 
CAUGHT  A  TARTAR,  and  found  two  of  a 
trade  could  never  agree,  and  proved  the 

Eroverb    that  marry    in    haste   repent    at 

CATCH -'EM -ALIVE,  or  ALIVO,  subs, 
phr.  (common). — i.  A  fly-paper. 


54  Catch  on  a  Snag. 

[In  allusion  to  the  sticky  sub- 
stance smeared  over  the  paper 
which,  attracting  the  flies,  liter- 
ally '  catches  them  alive. '] 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p.  38.  They 
used  to  ...  call  'em  Egyptian  flypapers, 
but  now  they  use  merely  the  word  '  fly- 
papers,' or  '  fly-destroyers,'  or  '  fly- 
catchers,' or  'CATCH  'EM  ALIVE,  OH'S.' 

1857.  DICKENS,  Dorrit,  wks.  I.,  ch. 
xvi.,  122  And  such  coats  of  varnish  that 
every  holy  personage  served  for  a  fly  trap, 
and  became  what  is  now  called  in  the 
vulgar  tongue  a  CATCH-EM-ALIVE,  O. 

1890.  Globe,  16  April,  p.  i,  col  3. 
Typhoid  microbes  take  as  kindly  to 
sluggish  waters  as  flies  do  to  CATCH-EM- 

2.  (common). — A  tooth-comb  ; 
a  'louse-trap.' 

3.  (general). — The  female  pu- 

CATCH -FART,  subs.  (old). — A  foot- 
man, or  page  boy.  [A  com- 
bination of  CATCH,  in  its  ordinary 
sense,  +  FART  (q.v  ).  Fourbesque, 
bologjtino  2ci\&falcone  ('  a  falcon').] 

CATCH  IT,  verb  (colloquial). — To 
get  a  scolding  or  castigation  ;  to 
get  into  trouble  ;  to  '  come  in  for 
it.'  For  synonyms,  see  TAN  and 

1835.  MARRYAT,  Jacob  Faithful,  ch. 
xxxviii.  We  all  thought  Tom  was  about 


1848.  MRS.  GASKELL,  M.  Barton, 
xxxi.  I  shall  CATCH  IT  down  stairs,  I 

1872.  BLACK,  Adv.  Phaeton,  xvi., 
218.  He  CATCHES  IT  if  he  does  not  bring 
home  a  fair  proportion  to  his  wife. 

CATCH  ME  I    or  CATCH  ME  AT  IT! 

phr.  (colloquial). — An  intimation 
that  the  person  speaking  will 
not  do  such  and  such  a  thing. 
An  analogous  phrase  is  DON'T 


1780.  MRS.  COWLEY,  The  Belles 
Stratagem,  Act  Hi.,  Sc.  2.  First  Gent. 
May  I  be  a  bottle,  and  an  empty  bottle, 
if  you  CATCH  ME  at  that !  Why,  I  am 
going  to  the  masquerade. 

1830.  GALT,  La-wrie,  T.,  V.,  iv. 
(1849),  207-  CATCH  ME  again  at  such 
costly  damn. 

1841.  R.  B.  PEAKE,  Court  and  City, 
I.,  i.  Satisfaction  !  CATCH  ME  at  that  ! 

1846.  DICKENS,  Dombey  and  Son,  I., 
p.  112,  col.  3.  'You  have  a  committee 
to-day  at  three,  you  know.'  'And  one  at 
three,  three-quarters,'  added  Mr.  Dombey, 
'  CATCH  YOU  at  forgetting  anything  ! ' 
exclaimed  Carker. 

CATCH  ON,  verb  (colloquial).  — 
To  understand  ;  to  grasp  in 
meaning  ;  to  apprehend  ;  to  at- 
tach or  fix  oneself  to  ;  to  quickly 
seize  an  opportunity  and  turn  it 
to  advantage.  [A  literal  trans- 
lation, in  fact,  into  the  language 
of  slang  of  the  Latin  appre- 
hendere^}  A  French  equivalent 
is  piger,  but  for  synonyms,  see 

1884.  Lisbon  (Dakota)  Star,  27  June. 
Now  is  the  time  to  CATCH  ON  in  order  to 
keep  up  with  the  procession.  [M.] 

1889.  The^  Nation,  19  Dec.,  p.  499, 
col.  i.     ...  The  farmer  knows  only  the 
traffic  of  his  market  town  and  his  county, 
and  he  is  slow  to  CATCH  ON  to  the  new 
and  progressive. 

1890.  Globe,    Feb.    13,   p.    i.   col.  5. 
Well,   assuming   that   the   notion  were  to 
CATCH  ON,  and  the  example  of  this  enter- 
prising mother  to  be  generally  imitated  in 
the  upper  orbits  of  the  social  system,  would 
there   be  a  balance  of  advantage  to  the 
nation  ? 

CATCH  ON  A  SNAG,  verbal  phr. 
(American).— TO  CATCH  A  TAR- 
TAR (q.v.);  to  meet  with  one's 

Queen's  Highway.  In  rough  Western 
parlance  a  man  who  falls  in  with  such  a 
player  (a  man,  who,  bearing  a  high  reputa- 
tion for  all-round  godliness,  is  a  crack 
'  poker  '  player)  CATCHES  ON  A  SNAG,  and 
it  is  said  that  everyone  who  visits  the 

Catch  on  the  Hop. 


Catfish  Death. 

North-West  comes  across,  sooner  or  later, 
the  SNAG  on  which  he  is  TO  CATCH. 

CATCH  ON  THE  HOP,  verbal '•  phr. 
(popular). — Properly  to  CATCH 
or  HAVE  ON  THE  HIP,  as  Gra- 
tiano  catches  Shylock. — See  HOP. 

c.  1869.  The  Chickaleary  Bloke,  sung 
by  Vance.  For  to  GET  ME  ON  THE  HOP, 
or  on  my  '  tibby '  drop,  You  must  wake  up 
very  early  in  the  morning. 

CATCH-POLE,  subs.  (old). — A  war- 
rant-officer ;  a  bum  -  bailiff.  A 
very  old  term  formerly  in  res- 
pectable use,  but  employed 
contemptuously  from  the  six- 
teenth century.  [From  CATCH, 
to  arrest,  or  stop,  +  POLE  or 
POLL,  the  head.]  Fourbesque, 
foco  orfuoco  =  fire.  Cf.,  BUM- 

1377.  LANGL.,  P.  PL,  bk.  XVIII., 
46.  Crucifige,  quod  a  CACCHEPOLLE  I 
warante  hym  a  wicche.  [M.] 

c.  1510.  BARCLAY,  Mrr.  Good  Mann. 
(1570),  G.,  iv.  Be  no  towler,  CATCHPOLL, 
nor  customer. 

1601.  B.  JOHNSON,  Poetaster,  III. 
CATCHPOLE,  loose  the  gentlemen,  or  by  my 
velvet  arms,  etc. 

1751.  SMOLLETT,  Peregrine  Pickle, 
ch.  xcvii.  The  CATCHPOLE,  after  a  diligent 
search,  had  an  opportunity  of  executing 
the  writ  upon  the  defendant. 

1859.  SALA,  Gaslight  and  Daylight, 
ch.  xiii.  You  are  brought  there  by  a 
CATCHPOLE,  and  kept  there  under  lock  and 
key  until  your  creditors  are  paid. 


verbal  phr.  (Irish). — To  quickly 
understand  the  meaning  of  what  is 
said.  For  synonyms,  see  TWIG. 

CATCHY,  adj.  (colloquial). — Vulgar- 
ly or  cheaply  attractive ;  of  a 
quality  to  take  the  eye  or  ear  ; 
easily  caught  and  remembered 
(as  a  tune).  Wrongly  used  in 
quot.  1885. 

1831.  Frasers  Mag.,  III.,  679.  A 
CATCHY,  stage-like  effect.  [M.] 

1885.  S.  O.  ADDY,  in  N.  andQ.,  6  S., 
xii.,  143.  This  seemed  to  be  like  one  of 
those  CATCHY  questions  which  examiners 
in  law  and  history  are  said  to  '  stump '  the 

CATERPILLAR,  subs,  (old).— A  sol- 
dier. For  synonyms,  see  MUD- 

CATERWAUL,  verb  (colloquial). — 
Properly  to  make  a  noise  like 
cats  at  rutting  time  ;  to  woo,  to 
'make  love.'  The  quotations 
show  the  process  of  transition 
from  the  old  figurative  usage  of 
the  word,  to  be  '  in  heat,'  '  to  be 
lecherous,'  to  the  current  sense. 
For  synonyms,  see  FIRKYTOODLE. 

1599.  NASHE,  Lenten  Stuffe,  in  wks. 
V.,  284.  The  friars  and  monks  CATER- 
WAWLD  from  the  abbots  and  priors  to  the 

1700.  CONGREVE,  Way  of  the  World, 
Act  i.,  Sc.  9.  An  old  aunt,  who  loves 
CATTERWAULING  better  than  a  conventicle. 

1771.  SMOLLETT,  Humphry  Clinker, 
1.  64.  I  hope  you  have  worked  a  reforma- 
tion among  them  [servant-maids],  as  I 
exhorted  you  in  my  last,  and  set  their 
hearts  upon  better  things  than  they  can 
find  in  junketting  and  CATERWAULING 
with  the  fellows  of  the  country. 

1884.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Post  to 
Finish,  ch.  xvii.  From  what  I  hear,  you 
came  to  Riddleton  fooling  after  my  daugh- 
ter. Now,  I'll  have  no  CATERWAULING 
of  that  sort. 

CATEVER,  subs.  (common). — A 
queer,  or  singular  affair ;  any- 
thing poor  or  bad.  [From  the 
Lingua  Franca,  and  Italian  cat- 
tivo,  bad.]  Variously  spelled  by 
the  lower  orders. — Hotten. 

CATFISH  DEATH,  subs.  (American). 
—Suicide  by  drowning. 

c.  1889.  Chicago  Press  [quoted  by 
Barrere].  .  .  .  driving  his  sweetheart  to 
lunacy  and  a  CATFISH  DEATH,  by  his 
dime-museum  freaks. 

Catgut-  Scraper. 

Cat  Market. 

CATGUT-SCRAPER,  subs,  (common). 
— A  fiddler.  [From  CATGUT,  the 
material  of  which  fiddle  strings 
are  made,  +  SCRAPER,  one  that 
rubs  or  scrapes.  Sometimes 
simply  SCRAPER  or  CATGUT  ;  the 
latter  of  which  is  also  used  to 
signify  the  music  produced.  Also 

1633.  MASSINGER,  Guardian  IV.,  ii. 
Wire-string  and  CATGUT,  men  and  strong- 
breathed  heautbois.  [M.] 

1785.  BURNS,  Jolly  Beggars.  Her 
charms  had  struck  a  sturdy  caird,  As 
weel's  a  poor  GUT-SCRAPER. 

1796.  WOLCOT  ('  P.  Pindar '),  Tristia, 
wks.  (1812)  V.,  267.  Behold!  the  CAT- 
GUT-SCRAPER with  his  croud  Commands 
at  will  the  house  of  hospitality. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  21.  Or  they 
will  call  to  the  orchestra,  saying,  '  Now 
then  you  CATGUT-SCRAPERS  !  Let's  have 
a  ha'purth  of  liveliness." 

CAT  HARPING  FASHION,  adv.  phr. 
(nautical). — See  quot. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
Drinking  cross  ways,  and  not  as  usual 
over  the  left  thumb. 

CAT  HEADS,  subs.  (old). — The 
paps.  For  synonyms,  see 

CATHEDRAL, subs.  (Winchester  Col- 
lege). —A  high  hat.  [So  called 
because  only  worn  when  going 
to  the  Cathedral.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  GOLGOTHA. 

Adj.     (old)  —  Old-fashioned  ; 

1690.  B.  E.,  Dictionary  Canting 
Crew.  CATHEDRAL  :  old-fashioned,  out 
of  Date,  Ancient. 

1755.  JOHNSON.  CATHEDRAL:  in  low 
phrase,  antique,  venerable,  old. 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CATHEDRAL  :  old-fashioned, 
an  old  CATHEDRAL  !jed*lcai1.  chair,  UL. 

CATHARINE  PURITANS,  subs.  phr. 
(University). — Members  of  St. 
Catharine's  Hall,  at  Cambridge. 
[PURITAN  from  the  pun  on  the 
words  CATHARINE  and  KaOaipeiv 
=  to  purify.]  They  were  also 
called  DOVES  (q.v.). 

CATHERINE  HAYES,  subs.  (Austra- 
lian).— See  quot.  [The  deriva- 
tion may  presumedly  be  traced 
to  the  immense  popularity  of  the 
Irish  singer  at  the  antipodes.] 

1859.  FRANK  FOWLER,  Southern 
Light  and  Shadows,  p.  53.  [A  liquor  con- 
sisting of]  claret,  sugar,  and  nutmeg. 

CAT'S,  subs.  (University). — A  short 
name  for  St.  Catharine's  Hall. 

CAT'S  MEN,  subs.  (University). — 
Members  of  St.  Catharine's  Hall 


CAT-LAP,  subs,  (common). — Thin 
potations  of  any  sort,  especially 
tea.  Such  a  beverage  being  so  feeble 
as  to  be  only  fit  for  women.  For 
synonyms,  see  SCANDAL  BROTH. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CAT-LAP  :  tea,  called  also  scandal  broth. 

1824.  SCOTT,  Redgatmtlet,  ch.  xiii. 
We  have  tea  and  coffee  aboard  .  .  .  You 
are  at  the  age  to  like  such  CATLAP. 

1864.  M.E.BRADDON,  Aurora  Floyd ,^ 
ch.  xvii.  '  I've  mashed  the  tea  for  'ee,' 
said  the  'softy';  'I  thought  you'd  like 
a  coop.'  The  trainer  shrugged  his 
shoulders.  '  I  can't  say  I'm  particular 
attached  to  the  CAT-LAP,'  he  said,  laughing. 

CAT- MARKET,  subs,  (common). — A 
number  of  people  all  talkirg  at 
once.  '  You  make  a  row  like  a 
CAT-MARKET' — a  general  'cater- 

Cat- Match. 


Cats  and  Dogs. 

CAT-MATCH,  subs.  (old). — See  quot. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vuig.  Tongue. 
CAT  MATCH  :  when  a  rook  or  cully  is 
engaged  amongst  bad  bowlers. 

CATOLLER  or  CATOLLA,  subs.  (old). 
— A  noisy,  prating  fellow. — See 

1832.  PIERCE  EGAN,  Book  of  Sports, 
p.  70.  [CATOLLA  is  given  as  a  foolish, 
betting  man.] 

CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS  or  CAT,  subs. 
(common).  —  A  nine  -  lashed 
scourge  now  used  for  the  punish- 
ment of  criminals,  but  until  1 88 1 
the  authorised  means  of  punish- 
ment in  the  British  army  and 
navy.  [From  CAT,  a  beast  with 
claws,  +  o'  +  NINE  TAII  s,  the 
nine  knotted  lashes.  History  is 
against  the  view  of  some  military 
authorities  that  the  CAT-O'-NIXE- 
TAILS  was  a  Batavian  importation 
of  William  III.,  and  that  the 
word  '  cat '  is  derived  from  the 
Sclavonic  kal,  an  executioner,  or 
from  katowae,  to  lash  or  torture. 
Another  theory  is  that  it  was  in- 
troduced at  the  time  of  the  Ar- 
mada (1588),  when  vast  numbers 
of  these  '  straunge  whips '  were 
found  in  the  captured  ships  of  the 
Spaniards.  A  ballad  of  the  period 
declares  of  the  Spaniards  that — 

They  made  such  whippes  wherewith 
nc  man  Would  seeme  to  strike  a  dogge  ; 
So  strengthened  eke  with  brasen  tagges 
.  And  filde  so  roughe  and  thinne,  That  they 
would  force  at  every  lash  The  bloud  abroad 
to  spinne. 

-This  view  is  not  inconsistent 
with  the  quotations,  the  first  of 
which  antedates  the  earliest 
given  in  the  N.E.D.  by  thirty 
years.]  In  pri>on  parlance  the 
CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS  is  known  as 


BRUISER    (q.v.},     the    birch     as 

NUMBER  TWO        .^.)- 

1665.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  28  (1874).  A  CAT  OF  NINE- 
TAILS  (as  he  called  it)  being  so  many 
small  cords. 

1702.  VANBRUGH,  False  Friend, 
prologue.  You  dread  reformers  of  an 
impious  age,  You  awful  CAT-A-NINE  TAILS 
to  the  stage. 

1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rod.  Random,  ch. 
v.  '  I'll  bring  him  to  the  gangway,  and 
anoint  him  with  a  CAT-AND-NINE-TAILS.' 

1837.  CARLYLE,  Fr.  Rev.,  pt.  III.,bk. 
VII.,  ch.  iii.  Rash  coalised  kings,  such 
a  fire  have  ye  kindled  ;  yourselves  fireless, 
your  fighters  animated  only  by  drill-ser- 
geants, mess-room  moralities,  and  the 
drummer's  CAT. 

CAT  -  PARTY  ;  also  BITCH  -  PARTY, 

subs,  (common). — A  party  con- 
sisting entirely  of  women.  [From 
CAT,  a  woman,  +  PARTY.]  Cf., 
STAG-PARTY,  and  see  HEN- 
PARTY for  synonyms. 

CATS,  subs,  (commercial). — Atlan- 
tic Seconds  were  formerly  so- 
called  for  telegraphic  purposes. 

AND  DOGS,  sometimes  extended 

to         AND        PITCHFORKS        AMJ 

SHOVELS,  phr.  (popular).  —  To 
rain  heavily.  [The  French  cata- 
doupe,  a  waterfall,  has  been  sug- 
gested as  the  origin.  Another 
etymon  has  been  found  in  the 
Greek  Kara.  S6%av  in  reference  to 
the  downpour  being  out  of  the 
common.  Possibly  Swift,  who 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  to 
have  used  the  expression,  may 
have  evolved  it  out  of  his  own 
description  of  a  city  shower  (1710). 

Now  from  all  parts  the  swelling  kennels 
flow,  And  bear  their  trophies  with  them  as 
they  go.  .  .  .  Drown'd  puppies,  stinking 
sprats,  all  drench'd  in  mud,  Dead  cats, 
and  turnip-tops,  come  tumbling  down  the 

1738.  SWIFT,  Pol.  Convers.,  dial.  2. 
I  knbw  Sir  John  will  go,  though  he  was 
sure  it  would  rain  CATS  AND  DOGS. 



1819  (Feb.  25).  SHELLEY  to  PEACOCK, 
in  Letters,  etc.  (Camelot),  p.  264.  After 
two  months  of  cloudless  serenity,  it  began 
raining  CATS  AND  DOGS. 

1837.  B  ARM  AM,  /.  L.  (Blasphemers 
Warning).  But  it  rains  CATS  AND  DOGS 
and  you're  fairly  wet  through  Ere  you 
know  where  to  turn,  what  to  say,  or  to  do. 

CAT'S  FOOT,  phr.  (old). — To  be 
under  petticoat  government  ; 
hen  -  pecked.  Cf.,  APRON  • 

CAT'S  HEAD,  subs.  (Winchester  Col- 
lege).— The  end  of  a  shoulder 
of  mutton  ;  further  explained  by 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School-Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  84.  His  meal 
[dinner]  took  place  at  six  o'clock  p.m.  in 
College  (in  Commoners'  it  was  at  one)  ;  it 
was  ample  in  quantity,  and  excellent  in 
quality.  That  of  the  Praefects  was  nicely 
served  in  joints,  that  of  the  Inferiors  was 
divided  into  portions,  (Dispars  ;  there 
were,  if  I  remember  rightly,  six  of  these 
to  a  shoulder,  and  eight  to  a  leg  of  mutton, 
the  other  joints  being  divided  in  like  pro- 
portion. All  these  'Dispars'  had  different 
names ;  the  thick  slice  out  of  the  centre 
was  called  '  a  Middle  Cut,'  that  out  of  the 
shoulder  a  '  Fleshy,'  the  ribs  '  Racks,'  the 
loin.  '  Long  Dispars  ' ;  these  were  the  best, 
the  more  indifferent  were  the  end  of  the 
shoulder,  or  CAT'S  HEAD,  the  breast,  or 
1  Fat  Flab,'  etc.,  etc. 

CATS  KIN -EARLS,  subs,  (parliamen- 
tary).— The  three  senior  earls  in 
the  House  of  Lords,  viz.,  the 
Earls  of  Shrewsbury,  Derby,  and 
Huntingdon,  the  only  three  earl- 
doms before  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury now  existing,  save  those  that 
(like  Arundel,  Rutland,  etc. ),  are 
merged  in  higher  titles,  and  the 
anomalous  earldom  of  Devon 
(1553),  resuscitated  in  1831.  [A 
correspondent  of  Notes  and 
Queries  (7  S.  ix.,  p.  314)  suggests 
that  the  reason  of  the  application 
may  be  that  in  the  seventeenth  or 
late  in  the  sixteenth  century  an 

order  was  issued  for  the  use  of 
ermine  instead  of  the  skin  of  cats 
— (but  were  such  skins  then  used  ?) 
—  for  the  robes  of  a  peer.  If 
so,  however,  it  is  curious  that 
there  are  not  '  catskin  dukes ' 
and  '  catskin  barons '  as  well. 
There  is  yet  another  theory  :  an 
earl's  robes  consist  (now)  of  but 
three  rows  of  ermine  ;  but  in 
some  early  representations  they 
are  shown  with  four,  the  same  as 
(now)  a  duke  ;  and  it  has  been 
suggested  that  these  four  rows 
(quatre -skins)  may  have  given  the 
name  of  catskin.  ] 

1861-75.  DEAN  HOOK,  Life  of  Car- 
dinal Pole,  vide  note,  p.  264.  The  Earl 
of  Huntingdon  is  one  of  the  three  CAT- 
SKIN  EARLS  of  the  present  day. 

CAT'S-MEAT,  subs,  (common). — 
The  lungs.  [The  '  lights  '  or 
lungs  of  animals  are  usually  sold 
to  feed  cats.] 

CATSO,  subs,  and  intj.  (old). — The 
penis.  Murray  says  :  '  Also 
CATZO.  [a.  It.  cazzo  =  membrum 
virile.  Also  an  exclamation,  Cf. , 
the  English  ejaculation,  BALLS  ! 
Florio  says  :  '  also  as  cazzica,  in- 
terjection, "What  !  God's  me! 
God  forbid  !  tush  !  "  ']  Frequent 
in  seventeenth  century  in  the 
Italian  senses  ;  also  =  rogue, 
scamp,  cullion.  C/l,  Fr.  cut, 
couille  and  couillon  as  terms  of 
contempt  ;  also  see  the  later 

CAT'S-PAW  or  CAT'S- FOOT,  subs. 
(common). — A  dupe  or  tool. 
[A  reference  to  the  fable  (Ber- 
trand  et  Raton]  of  a  monkey 
using  the  paw  of  a  cat,  dog,  or 
fox,  to  pull  roasted  chestnuts  oft 
the  fire,  current  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  but  varying  considerably 
in  details.  The  earliest  printed 

Cat- Sticks. 



version  occurs  in  John  Sambucus' 
Emblemata  (Plantin,  Antwerp, 
1564),  where  the  sufferer  is  a  dog, 
and  not  a  cat.  There  is,  how- 
ever, a  story  of  the  same  kind 
told  (Maiol.  Coll.  vii.,  scil  Simon 
Maiolus,  Astensis,  Episcopus  Vul- 
lurariensis,  Dies  Canicular  es,  h.e. 
Colloquia  XXIII. ,  Physica,  Col- 
log,  vii.,  p.  249,  Ursellis,  1600)  of 
Pope  Julius  II.,  1503-13  {see  N. 
and  Q.,  6S.,  viii.,  35.] 

[1657.  M.  HAWKE.  Killing  is  mur- 
der. These  he  useth  as  the  Monkey  did 
the  CAT'S  PAW  to  scrape  the  nuts  out  of 
the  fire.] 

1782.  GEO.  PARKER,  Humorous 
Sketches,  p.  140.  They  lug  in  Spain,  to 
their  assistance,  a  CAT'S-PAW  made. 

1815.  SCOTT,  Guy  Mannering,  ch. 
Ivi.  Sir  Robert,  who  had  rather  begun  to 
suspect  that  his  plebeian  neighbour  had 
made  a  CAT'S-PAW  of  him,  inclined  his 
head  stiffly. 

1878.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Cloven  Foot, 
ch.  xli.  He  felt  angry  with  himself  for 
having  been  in  some  wise  a  CAT'S-PAW  t'o 
serve  the  young  man's  malice. 

CAT-STICKS,  subs.  (old). — Thin 
legs.  [In  comparison  to  the  stick 
used  by  boys  in  the  game  of  tip- 
cat.] For  synonyms  see  DRUM- 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the 
Vulgar  Tongue,  s.v. 

CAT'S-WATER,  subs,  (common). — 
Gin.  [From  CAT,  a  woman  + 
WATER,  a  white  liquid.]  Cf., 
BITCHES'  WINE  =  champagne. 
For  synonyms,  see  DRINKS. 

CATTIE,  adj.  and  adv.  (printers'). — 
An  imperfect  or  '  smutty '  look  on 
a  printed  sheet,  caused  by  an  oily 
or  unclean  roller. 

CATTING,  verbal  subs,  (common). — 
I.  Vomiting. — See  CAT,  verb. 

2.  (venery).  —  Running  after 
loose  women;  MOLROWING  (q.v.) 
for  synonyms. 

1725.  New  Cant  ing  Dictionary.  CAT- 
TING :  whoring. 

CATTLE,  subs,  (common). — A  term 
of  contempt  applied  to  human 
beings.  Cf.,  QUEER  CATTLE, 
KITTLE  CATTLE.  The  generic 
names  of  the  lower  creation  are 
pretty  generally  used  in  such 
transferred  senses  ;  e.g.,  QUEER 
ROOK,  SAD  DOG,  etc.  In  Eng- 
land mostly  employed  dis- 
paragingly, but  in  the  U.S.A. 
BUG  —  here  the  name  of  one  of 
the  most  offensive  of  vermin,  but 
there  the  common  term  for  all 
varieties  of  beetles — is  used  in  a 
good  sense  ;  e.g.,  BIG  BUG. 

1579.  GOSSON,  School  of  Abuse,  p.  27 
(Arber's  ed.).  We  have  infinite  Poets, 
and  Pipers,  and  suche  peeuishe  CATTEL 
among  vs  in  England  e. 

1600.  SHAKSPEARE,  As  You  Like  It, 
Act  iii.,  Sc.  2,  435.  Boyes  and  women 
are  ....  CATTLE  of  this  colour. 

188(?)  G.  R.  SIMS,  Dagonet  Ballads 
('  Moll  Jarvis').  Queer  CATTLE  is  women 
to  deal  with  ?  Lord  bless  ye,  yer  honour, 
they  are  ! 

[CATTLE  is  often  used  of  horses.  See 
Harrison  Ainsworth's  Rookwood:  Have 
you  any  horses  ?  Our  Cattle  are  all  blown. 
Also  Goldsmith's  '  She  Stoops  to  Conquer.'] 

CATTLE- BUG,  subs.  (American). — 
See  BUG,  subs.,  sense  4. 

CAUDGE-PAWED,  adj.  (old). — Left- 
handed.  — Grose. 

CAUGHT  ON  THE  FLY,  phr.  (Ameri- 
can).— '  Caught  in  the  act.'  .An 
equivalent  of  '  caught  on  the  hop ' 
or  'hip.' — Set  HOP. 

CAULIFLOWER,  subs.  (old). — i.  A 
clerical  wig  supposed  to  resemble 




a  cauliflower  ;  modish  in  the  time 
of  Queen  Anne. 

2.  (old). —The     female    pu- 
dendum.      For      synonyms,     see 

3.  (popular).  —  The    foaming 
head  of  a  tankard  of  beer.     In 
France,  a  glass  of  beer  without 
any  head  is  termed  un  bock  sans 
linge  or  sans  faux-col. 

1882.  Dally  Telegraph,  Oct.  10,  p. 
5,  col.  4.  This  gave  the  porter  a  fine 
frothy  or  CAULIFLOWER  head.  [M.] 

4.  (military).  —  In  plural.  — 
The  Forty-seventh  Regiment   of 
Foot,    so   called   from   its   white 
facings.     It  is  also  known  as  THE 
LANCASHIRE  LADS  from  its  county 

CAULK,  subs,  and  verb  (nautical). — 
i.  Sleep ;  to  sleep.  In  sub- 
stantive form  it  sometimes  ap- 
pears as  CAULKING.  To  CAULK 
formerly  meant  'to  pick  out  a 
soft  plank,'  i.e.,  to  lie  down  on 
deck  ;  to  sleep  with  one's  clothes 
on.  [Cf.,  BUNDLING.] 

1836.  MARRYAT,  Midshipman  Easy, 
ch.  xix.  But  it's  no  go  with  old  Small- 
sole,  if  I  want  a  bit  of  CAULK.  Chambers  Papers,  No.  52,  p. 
30.  Sleeping  upon  deck  is  called,  I  know 
not  why,  CALKING 

2.  Verb. — To  cease  ;  to  shut 
up ;    i.e.,    to   stop   one's  talk  or 
leave   off  talking.      [This  usage 
is    obviously    derived    from    the 
legitimate  meaning  of  the  word, 
to  stop  up  crevices  and  seams.] 
For  synonyms,  see  STOW  IT. 

3.  (common) . — To    copulate  ; 
to   do   the    'act   of  kind.'      For 
synonyms,  see  RIDE. 

CAULKER,  subs,  (common).  — i.  A 
dram;  a  stiff  glass  of  grog  - 

generally  applied  to  a  finishing 
bumper.  When  this  happens 
to  be  sherry  and  follows  the 
drinking  of  red  wines  it  is  called 
a  WHITEWASH  (q.v.).  [There 
are  three  suggested  derivations : 
(i)  that  it  is  a  punning  reference 
to  caulking,  that  which  serves  to 
keep  out  the  wet ;  (2)  because 
such  a  draught  takes  a  deal  of 
swallowing  ;  and  (3)  that  it  is  a 
corruption  of  CORKER  (q.v. ),  a 
regular  stopper.]  For  synonyms, 
see  Go. 

1808.  J.  MAYNE,  Siller  Gun,  89 
(Jam.).  The  magistrates  wi'  loyal  din, 
Tak  off  their  CAU'KERS.  [M.] 

1836.  M.  SCOTT,  Cruise  of  the  Midge, 
ch  vi.  We  .  .  .  finished  off  with  a 
CAULKER  of  good  cognac. 

1849.  C.  KINGSLEY,  Alton  Locke, 
ch.  xxi.  'Take  a  CAULKER?  Summat 
heavy,  then?' 

1871.  A.  FORBES,  My  Experiences  of 
the  War  between  France  and  Germany, 
II.,  p.  201.  The  Mobile  officer  joins  us 
heartily  in  a  CAULKER,  and  does  not  need 
to  be  pressed  to  take  a  little  supper. 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  viii.  The  CAULKER  of  rum 
served  out  under  the  break  of  the  poop  by 
the  light  of  a  bull's-eye  lamp. 

2.  (popular). — A  lie;  any- 
thing surprising  or  incredible. 
For  synonyms,  see  WHOPPER. 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  xxxi.  I  also  took  care  that  she 
should  never  afterwards  be  able  to  charge 
me  with  having  told  her  a  real  CAULKER. 

CAUTION,  subs,  (popular). — A  col- 
loquialism used  both  of  men  and 
things.  Anything  out  of  the 
common,  or  that  conveys  a  warn- 
ing ;  something  wonderful  or 
staggering  ;  something  to  be 
avoided.  Anything  that  causes 
surprise,  wonder,  fear,  or  indeed 
any  uncommon  emotion,  is  a  CAU- 
TION to  this,  that,  or  the  other. 




At  Oxford  in  1865  it  was  em- 
ployed to  designate  a  *  guy '  or 
'  cure. ' 

1835.  C.  F.  HOFFMAN,  Winter  in  the 
West,  p.  234.  The  way  the  icy  blast 
would  come  down  the  bleak  shore  was  a 


1853.  WH.  MF.LVILLE,  Digby  Grand, 
ch.  ii.  'The  way  he  cleaned  out  a 
southerner,  a  fine  young  Carolinian,  who 
made  a  series  of  matches  with  him,  was, 
as  the  Squire  himself  would  have  said,  a 

1861.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  Good  for 
Nothing,  ch.  i.  Such  a  clench  of  the 
slender  hand  and  stamp  of  the  slender  foot 
as  constitute  what  our  American  friends 
term  a  CAUTION. 

CAUTIONARY,  adj.  (American). — 
Pertaining  to  that  which  is  a 

CAUTION    (q.V.). 

1843-4.  HALIBURTON,  Sam  Slick  in 
Rngland.  Well,  the  way  the  cow  cut  dirt 
was  CAUTIONARY  ;  she  cleared  stumps, 
ditches,  windfalls,  and  everything. 

subs.  (old). — Sexual  intercourse. 
[From  the  Lingua  Franca  cavolta^ 
the  equivalent  of  HORSING  or 
RIDING,  both  of  which  are  fre- 
quently used  in  the  same  sense. 
Italian  cavaliero  =  a  rake  or  de- 
bauchee.] Cf.,  CAVORT.  For 
synonyms,  see  GREENS. 

CAVAULTING  SCHOOL,  subs,  (old). — 
A  house  of  ill-fame.  —  See  CA- 
VAULTING, and  for  synonyms,  see 

CAVE  or  CAVE  \N,verb  (American). 
— To  give  way  when  opposition 
can  no  longer  be  maintained  ;  to 
break  down  ;  to  '  turn  up.'  [De- 
rived from  the  practice  of  navvies 
in  digging  earthworks,  when  the 
lower  part  is  undei  mined  until  it 
can  no  longer  sustain  the  over- 
hanging mass.  Murray  says  all 
the  earliest  instances  of  CAVE  IN, 

in  print,  are  from  America,  and 
its  literary  use  appears  to  have 
arisen  there ;  but,  as  the  word 
is  given  as  East  Anglian  by 
Forby  [1830],  and  is  widely  used 
in  Eng.  dialects,  it  is  generally 
conjectured  to  have  reached  the 
U.S.  from  East  Anglia.]  The 
French  has  barrer ;  the  Spanish 
acomodarse ;  and  the  Fourbesque 

knuckle  under ;  knock  under ; 
give  in  ;  sing  small  ;  turn  it  up  ; 
chuck  it  up  ;  jack  up ;  climb  down 
(g.v. ), throwupthesporge;  chuck 
it ;  go  down  ;  go  out  ;  cut  ii  ; 
cut  the  rope  (pugilistic),  etc. 

1837-40.  HALIBURTON,  Sam  Slick, 
Hum.  Nat.,  55  (Bartlett).  He  was  a 
plucky  fellow,  and  warn't  a  goin'  to  CAVE 
IN  that  way. 

1862.  BROWN  ('  Artemus  Ward '),  His 
Book.  I  kin  CAVE  IN  enny  man's  head 
that,  etc. 

1869.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('  Mark  Twain '), 
Innocents  at  Home.  In  the  meantime  the 
tropical  sun  was  beating  down  and 
threatening  to  CAVE  the  top  of  my  head 


1883.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Hard  Lines, 
ch.  xxii.  '  The  Russians  will  CAVE  when 
they  find  we  are  in  earnest.' 

CAVE!  intj.  (Eton  College).— 
'  Beware  ! '  A  byword  among 
boys  out  of  bounds  when  a  master 
is  in  sight.  [From  the  Latin. 
The  modern,  '  beware  of  the  dog  ' 
was  rendered  cave  canem  by  the 
Romans.  ] 

CAVIARE,  subs,  (literary). — The 'ob- 
noxious matter  '  blacked  out '  by 
the  Russian  Press  Censor.  Every 
foreign  periodical  entering  Russia 
is  examined  for  objectionable 
references  or  '  irreligious  '  matter, 
the  removal  whereof  is  accom- 
plished in  'two  ways.  If  the 
articles  or  items  are  bulky, 




they  are  torn  or  cut  out 
bodily.  If  they  are  brief,  they 
are  '  blacked  out '  by  means  of  a 
rectangular  stamp  about  as  wide 
as  an  ordinary  newspaper  column, 
and  '  cross-hatched '  in  such  a 
way  that,  when  inked  and  dabbed 
upon  the  paper,  it  makes  a  close 
network  of  white  lines  and  black 
diamonds.  The  peculiar  mottled 
or  grained  look  of  a  page  thus 
treated  has  suggested  the  attribu- 
tive CAVIARE :  a  memory  of 
the  look  of  the  black  salted 
caviare  spread  upon  a  slice  of 
bread  and  butter.  A  verb  has 
been  formed  from  the  noun,  and 
every  Russian  now  understands 
that  '  to  caviare  '  =  to  'black  out.' 
Of  course  as  long  as  the  Russian 
Government  permits  the  entry  of 
letters  without  censorial  exami- 
nation, any  citizen  of  St.  Peters- 
burg or  Moscow  can  write  to 
Berlin,  Paris,  or  London,  and  ask 
to  have  cut  out  and  forwarded  in 
a  sealed  envelope  either  a  particu- 
lar article  that  has  been  CAVI- 
ARED,  or  all  articles  relating  to 
Russia  that  may  appear  in  any 
specified  newspaper  or  magazine. 

1890.  St.  J antes  s  Gaz..  25  April,  p.  7, 
col.  i.  Every  one  of  Mr.  Kennan's 
articles  in  the  Century  has  been  CAVIARED. 

CAVORT,  verb  (American). — To 
prance  ;  to  frisk  ;  to  run  or  ride 
in  a  heedless  or  purposeless  man- 
ner. [From  the  Lingua  Franca 
cavolta  —  prancing  on  horseback. 
Some,  however,  derive  it  from 
'  curvetting '  =  capering  for  show  ; 
there  are  also,  as  possible  sources, 
the  Spanish  cavar^  the  pawing  of 
a  spirited  horse  ;  and  the  French 
courbetter.~\ — See  CAVAULTING. 

1848.  Major  Jones  s  Courtship,  41 
(Bartlett).  A  whole  gang  .  .  .  came 
ridin'  up,  and  reinin'  in,  and  pranciu',  and 

1883.  BRET  HARTE,  In  the  Car- 
quinez  Woods,  ch.  i.  '  If  we  had'nt  been 
CAVORTING  round  this  yer  spot  for  the 
last  half-hour  I'd  swear  there  was  a  shanty 
not  a  hundred  yards  away/  said  the 

1889.  Puck's  Library,  April,  p.  12. 
Being  an  educated  man,  I  feel  ten 
thousand  woes  CAVORTING  for  the  popu- 
lace In  illustrated  clothes. 



Awkward;  not  dexterous,  ready 
or  nimble.  —  Grose  [1785]. 

CAXTON,  stibs.  (theatrical). — A  wig. 
[A  corruption  of  CAXON,  a  kind 
of  wig.]  In  Grose's  time  a  CAXON 
signified  an  old  weather-beaten 
wig.  Cf.y  CAULIFLOWER. 

CAYUSE,  subs.  (American). — A  nick- 
name given  by  Mormon  girls  to 
young  '  Latter  Day  Saints  '  :  the 
*  Yahoos '  of  the  Gentiles. 
[The  CAYUSE  is  properly  the 
common  Indian  pony.  In 
explanation,  it  must  be  noted 
that  there  exists  among 
Americans  a  passionate  love  of 
horses.  A  near  and  dear  friend, 
an  old  companion,  or  men  and 
women  whose  traits  of  character 
command  respect  and  homage, 
are  familiarly  '  horses.'  A  dis- 
tinguished Kentuckian  carried 
away  by  enthusiasm  for  Miss 
Kemble's  acting,  started  to  his 
feet,  and  with  tremendous  energy 
roared  out,  '  By  heaven  she's  a 
"  horse."  ']  See  OLD  HOG. 

CAZ,  subs,  (thieves'). — Cheese. — 
[See  C  ASS  AN.] 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Dictionary. 
CAZ:  cheese;  'As  good  as  CAZ,'  i.-,  a 
phrase  signifying  that  any  projected  fraud 
or  robbery  may  be  easily  and  certainly 



CAZE,  subs,  (venery). — The  female 

CEDAR,  subs.  (Eton  College). — I. 
A  pair-oared  boat  inrigged,  with- 
out canvas,  and  very  'crank.' 
[From  the  material.] 

2.  (prison). — A  pencil.  [This, 
like  the  foregoing,  is  derived  from 
the  wood  of  which  both  are 

CELESTIAL  POULTRY,  subs,  (popu- 
lar).— Angels.  [An  allusion  to 
the  mythological  wings  of  '  men 
out  of  the  body.'] 

CELESTIALS,  subs,  (military).— The 
Ninety-seventh  Regiment  of 
Foot.  [So  nicknamed  from  its 
facings  of  sky  blue.] 

1856.  Notes  and  Queries,  2  S.,  ii., 
p.  215.  The  97th  too  is  not  mentioned  by 
your  correspondents  as  far  as  I  have  seen, 


1871.  Chambers'  Journal,  Dec.  23, 
p.  801.  '  CELESTIALS  ' — the  facings  of  the 
.  .  .  corps  being  sky  blue. 

2.  sing,  (common). — A  '  turn- 
up' or  '  pug '  nose.   For  synonyms, 
see  CONK. 

3.  (colloquial). — The   Chinese. 
The  Chinese    Empire  is  spoken 
of  as  the  Celestial  Empire. 

CELLIER,  subs.  (old). — An  out-and- 
out,  unmitigated  lie.  [A  word  of 
great  interest,  illustrating  the 
temporary  use  for  certain  purposes 
of  the  name  of  a  certain  person, 
as  in  the  cases  of  BURKE,  BOY- 
(q.v.\  The  Meal-tub  Plot  in 
1680  was  the  concoction  of 
Thomas  Dangerfield  and  Eliza- 
beth Cellier,  a  Roman  Catholic 
midwife.  Forged  documents 

which  Dangerfield  hid  in 
Colonel  Mansel's  lodgings  were 
upon  his  deposition  found 
there  by  Government  officers ; 
but  the  fraud  was  soon  discovered, 
and  Dangerfield  was  committed 
to  Newgate.  On  his  trial  he 
endeavoured  to  throw  the  entire 
blame  on  Mrs.  Cellier,  and 
asserted  that  the  original  papers 
were  all  to  be  found  in  her  house 
hidden  in  a  meal  tub.  This 
turned  out  to  be  true,  and  Mrs. 
Cellier  was  committed  to  prison. 
On  her  trial  she  managed  to 
prove  that  Dangerfield  was  wholly 
unworthy  of  credit,  and  her 
marvellous  impudence  and  vigor- 
ous mendacity  led  to  her  own 
acquittal,  and  made  her  name 
for  the  time  the  equivalent  of 
'an  out-and-out  lie.'  After  her 
trial  she  thanked  the  jurors  for 
giving  her  a  good  deliverance, 
and  offered  to  '  serve  their  ladies 
with  the  same  fidelity  in  their 
deliveries.']  For  synonyms,  see 

1 682.  Popes  Harbinger,  p.  79.  That's 
a  CELIER,  Sir,  a  modern  and  most  proper 
phrase  to  signifie  any  Egregious  Lye. 

CELLAR- FLAP,  subs,  (common). — 
A  step  or  dance  performed 
within  the  compass  of  (say)  a 
CELLAR-FLAP.  The  object  of 
the  Whitechapel  artist  in  the 
dance  is  to  achieve  as  many 
changes  of  step  as  possible  with- 
out shifting  his  ground :  his 
action  being  restricted  to  the  feet 
and  legs.  An  old  equivalent  is 
SHUFFLE  (q.v.). 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  219.  Others  again  would  in- 
dulge in  a  breakdown,  or  CELLAR-FLAP 
dance,  dreadfully  to  the  discomfort  of  the 
men  in  the  cells  below. 




CENT.  NOT  WORTH  A  CENT, phr. — 
See  CARE  and  FIG. 

CENT  PER  CENT,  subs,  (common). — 
A  usurer.  [Literally  one  who 
charges  an  exorbitant  rate  of 
interest,  here  symbolized  as  a 
hundred  for  every  hundred. 
Quoted  by  Grose  (1785).]  For 
synonyms,  see  SIXTY  PER  CENT. 

CENTRE-OF-BLISS,  subs,  (common). 
— The  female  pudendum.  For 
synonyms,  see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

CENTURION,  subs,  (cricket).  —  A 
batsman  who  scores  a  hundred 
runs.  [From  CENTURION,  the 
commander  of  a  '  century,'  in  the 
Roman  Army.] 

1886.  Graphic ',  31  July,  p.  107,  col.  2. 
Some  other  CENTURIONS  have  been 
Chatterton  (108)  for  M.C.C.,  Shater  (103, 
not  out)  for  Trent. 

CENTURY,  subs.  (turf). — A  hundred 
pounds;  or  at  cricket,  etc.,  a 
score  of  a  hundred.  Originally 
a  division  of  the  Roman  Army 
numbering  100  men.  In  English 
it  was  and  is  in  common  use  to 
signify  a  group  of  a  hundred. 
Shakspeare,  in  Cymbeline>  iv., 
2,  391  [1611],  writes  a 
'CENTURY'  of  prayers.  See  also 
A.  C.  Swinburne,  A  Century  of 
Rondels  and  W.  E.  Henley, 
A  Century  of  A  rtists  ( 1 889).  Cf. , 
MONKEY,  PONY,  etc. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  131.  '  I'm  open 
to  a  bet.  I'll  lay  you  an  even  CENTURY 
about  Nimrod.' 

1869.  Daily  News,  July  29.  '  Police 
Court  Report.'  After  this  he  said  he 
searched  the  breeches  pockets  that  were 
lying  by  the  side  of  the  bed,  and  took 
HALF  A  CENTURY  worth  of  property  from 

1883.  Echo,  Nov.  i,  p.  4,  col.  2. 
Golding.  .  .  .  purchased  Passaic  from 
F.  Archer  for  a  CENTURY. 

1883.  Graphic,  August  n,  p.  138, 
col.  2.  His  batting  this  year  has  been  of 
the  highest  order,  as  witnesses  among  his 
many  good  performances  that  against  the 
Players,  when  he  marked  his  CENTURY. 

CERT,  subs,  (sporting). — A  certainty, 
of  which  it  is  an  abbrevia- 
tion. With  special  reference 
in  racing  circles  to  events  looked 
upon  as  absolutely  sure.  Vari- 
ants are  A  DEAD,  or  MORAL,  CER- 
TAINTY ;  A  DEAD  'UN  ;  and  A 

1859.  Letter  from  EDWARD  S.  TAYLOR 
to  John  Camden  Hotten,  22  Dec.  This 
edition  will  sell  to  a  DEAD  CERTAINTY. 

1889.  Man  of  the  World,  June  29. 
'  Love-in-Idleness  is  bound  to  take  the 
Rous  Memorial,  and  I  hear  Pioneer  is  a 
CEKT.  for  the  St.  James's.' 

CERTAINTIES,  subs,  (printers'). — 
Infants  of  the  male  sex. — See 

CHAFE,  verb  (old). — To  thrash 
soundly.  [Chafe  =  'to  warm, ''to 
rub  with  the  hand.'  C/., 
ANOINT.]  For  synonyms,  see 

1673.    R.  HEAD,  Canting  Acad.,  p.  36 

1785.     GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.     CHAFED  :   well  beaten. 

CHAFER,  verb  (common). — To 
copulate.  [Probably  a  corruption 
of  CHAUVER.]  For  synonyms,  see 

CHAFF,  subs.  (colloquial).  —  i. 
Ironical  or  sarcastic  banter  ;  fool- 
ing ;  humbug ;  ridicule.  [A  word 
of  uncertain  derivation,  which, 
except  in  two  instances,  both 
doubtful,  does  not  appear  in 
English  literature,  in  either  its 
substantive  or  its  verbal  form, 
before  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century.  Of  the  two  the 
substantive  seems  to  be  the 



earlier.  If  this  be  correct, 
Murray  thinks  it  may  have 
arisen  from  a  figurative  employ- 
ment of  the  orthodox  word,  in  the 
sense  of  *  refuse,'  '  worthless 
matter,'  etc.,  connected  with 
which  is  the  proverb  '  an  old  bird 
is  not  caught  with  chaff.'  On 
the  other  hand  there  is  an  Arabic 
wordya/or  chaf,  '  dry,  withered  ' 
(like  the  Greek  irap^oc),  used 
metaphorically  and  vulgarly  in  a 
sense  similar  to  '  humbug. '  To 
CHAFF  a  man  is  vulgo,  to  humbug 
him  ;  for  humbug,  like  chaff,  is 
what  may  be  scattered  before  the 
wind — what  is  light,  trivial,  or 
unfounded  —  an  act  of  folly  or 
knavery.  — See,  however,  verb, 
sense  I.] 

[Murray  in  dealing  with  this  word 
leads  off  his  illustrative  quotations  with 
one  (see  quot.  1648)  which  he  thinks  may 
be  uncertainly  placed,  as  it  may  mean 
'scolding.'  There  is,  however,  another 
instance,  which,  though  also  uncertain, 
may  be  a  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence. 
In  this  case  CHAFFING  may  bear  its  modern 
slang_  signification,  though  as  has  been 
said,  it  is  open  to  another  reading.] 

For   synonyms,    see  GAMMON, 
sense  I. 

164(?).  The  Downfall  of  C Taring- 
Cross.  Percy  Ballads,  II.,  p.  327  [ed. 
1765].  Undone,  undone,  the  Lawyers  are, 
They  wander  about  the  towne,  Nor  find 
the  way  to  Westminster,  Now  Charing- 
Cross  is  downe  :  At  the  end  of  the  Strand 
they  make  a  stand,  Swearing  they  are  at  a 
loss,  And  CHAFFING  say  that's  not  the  way, 
They  must  go  by  Charing-Cross 

1648.  JENKYN,  Blind  Guide,  iv.,  76. 
You  pretend  to  nothing  but  CHAFFE  and 
scoffes.  [M.] 

1821.  The  Fancy,  vol.  I.,  250.  He 
could  not  of  course  put  up  with  CHAFF  in 
the  streets. 

1853.  Diogenes,  II.,  79.  '  Maxims 
for  Cabmen  '  If  you  want  oats  for  your 
horses  you  must  cease  giving  CHAFF  to 
your  passengers. 

1864.  Athenaum,  29  Oct.,  No.  1931, 
p.  557,  col.  3.  Julius  Caesar  passed  his 
boyhood  in  a  vicious  locality,  where  cant 
phrases  abounded,  but  the  latter  are  not 

recorded.  We  have  heard  of  the  Famee 
non  nimium  bonte  puellte,  Quales  in  media 
sedent  Suburra — but  we  hear  only  faint 
echoes  of  the  CHAFF  that  was  scattered 
thereupon  by  the  passers-by. 

1890.  Globe,  Feb.  13,  p.  5,  col.  2. 
The  extract  you  send  to  me  from  some 
letter  from  Lord  Rosebery  about  the  House 
of  Lords  looks  to  me  very  like  CHAFF,  and 
was  probably  intended  as  such. 

2.  (Christ's  Hospital).  —  A 
small  article  or  plaything,  e.g., 
'  a  pocket  CHAFF.'  Connected 
with  'chattel,'  'chapman,'  etc. 
— Blanch.  Cf.,  verbal  (sense  2), 
adjectival,  and  interjectional 

Verb. — i.  To  banter  ;  to  jest ; 
to  '  gammon  '  or  '  quiz. '  An 
analogous  term  formerly  in  use 
was  QUEER  (q.v.}.  So  al  o 


synonyms,  see  GAMMON,  sense  I. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab  and Lon. 
Poor,  I.,  p.  35.  Though  he's  only  twelve 
years  old  he'll  CHAFF  down  a  peeler  so  un- 
common severe  that  the  only  way  to  stop 
him  is  to  take  him  in  charge. 

1864.  H.  AIDE,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul- 
conbridge,  I.,  279.  '  Pshaw  ! '  said  Sir 
Richard,  with  a  lofty  good  humour,  '  Don't 
CHAFF  your  uncle,  sir.' 

1889.  T.  MACKAY,  on  'Shoeblacks,' 
in  Times,  Aug.,  p.  135.  I  have  known 
courageous  men  who  would  rather  try  to 
CHAFF  a  bus  driver  than  a  shoeblack. 

2.  (Christ's  Hospital).— To  ex- 
change small  articles.  Cf. ,  subs. 

1877.  W.  H.  BLANCH,  Blue-coat 
Boys,  p.  96.  CHAFF  me  your  knife. 

Adj.  (Christ's  Hospital).— 
Pleasant  ;  glad.  Sometimes 
CHAFFY.  Cf.,  subs.,  sense  2. 

Intj.  (Christ's  Hospital). — An 
exclamation  signifying  joy  or 

CHAFF-CUTTER,    subs.    (old).  —  A 
back-biter  or  slanderer. 





CHAFFER,    subs,    (colloquial).  —  i. 
One   given   to    chaffing.     [From 

CHAFF  (. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour 
and  London  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  357.  She 
was  considered  to  be  the  best  CHAFFER  on 
the  road  ;  not  one  of  them  could  stand 
against  her  tongue. 

1877.  Temple  Bar,  p.  536.  An  actor 
of  very  moderate  abilities,  and  so  remark- 
ably ^-favoured  in  person  as  to  be  the 
constant  butt  of  the  CHAFFERS  in  the  pit. 

2.  (popular).  —  The  mouth, 
[i.e.,  the  organ  of  chaff,  or  'ro- 
pery.'] For  synonyms,  see  Po- 
TATO-TRAP.  Also,  the  tongue. 

1821.  W.  T.   MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  ii.,   Sc.  3.     Bob.   Suppose  we 
haves  a  drain  o'  heavy  wet,  just  by  way  of 
cooling  our  CHAFFERS  —  mine's  as  dry  as  a 

1822.  DAVID  CAREY,  Life  in  Paris, 
p.    194.      For  there  you  may  damp  your 
CHAFFER  In  fifty  different  ways. 

phr.  (common).  —  To  drink.  [See 
CHAFFER,  sense  2.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  LUSH. 

CHAFFING-CRIB,  subs,  (old).—  The 
place  where  a  man  receives  his  in- 
timates ;  his  '  den,'  '  snuggery,' 
or  *  diggings.'  [Cf.,  CHAFF. 
From  CHAFFING,  light  talk,  + 
CRIB,  a  place  of  sojourning.]  For 
synonyms,  see  DIGGINGS. 

1821.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and  Jerry, 
Jerry.  CHAFFING  CRIB  !  I'm  at  fault, 
coz,  can't  follow.  Tom.  My  prattling 
parlour  —  my  head  quarters,  coz,  where  I 
unbend  with  my  pals. 

CHAFFY,  adj.  (colloquial).  —  Full  of 
banter.       [From    CHAFF,    sttbs., 

+  Y.] 

1889.  Bird  o'  Freedom,  Aug  7,  p.  3. 
CHAFFY  answers  were  all  he  got  at  first. 


subs.  —  (American).  —  Whiskey    of 
the    vilest    description  —  a    spirit 

'  warranted  to  kill  at  forty  rods.' 

GUT,  and  KILL  -  THE  -  CARTER 

(Scots).  For  synonyms,  see 
DRINKS.  In  the  Western  States 
of  America,  what  is  known  as 
forked  lightning  in  England,  is 
called  CHAIN-LIGHTNING,  from 
its  forming  a  sequence  of  zig-zags. 

1871.  DE  VERB,  Americanisms  p. 
215.  The  worst  of  lickers,  as  the  sign- 
boards often  have  it  in  unconscious  irony, 
is  called  CHAIN-LIGHTNING,  from  its 
terrible  strength  and  stunning  effect. 

CHAIN-GANG,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
Jewellers  ;  watch-chain  makers. 
The  French  argot  has  un  boguiste 
(thieves')  and  un  chainiste. 

phr.  (cab-drivers'). — See  quot. 

1864.  Social  Science  Review,  I.,  408. 
A  Justice's  order  is  sufficient  for  the 
committal  to  prison  of  a  cab  hirer 
(driver)  who  will  not  or  cannot  pay.  .  . 
Some  hirers  who  become  inured  to  prison 
discipline  and  prison  fare  get  altogether 
hardened,  and  boast  of  the  number  of 
owners  whom  they  have  PUT  IN  THE 
CHAIR  or  in  polite  English  neglected  to 

CHAIRMARKING,  verbal  subs,  (cab- 
owners'). — Inserting  the  date  in 
a  cab-driver's  licence  in  words 
instead  of  figures  :  or,  endorsing 
it  in  an  unusually  bold,  heavy 
hand  :  a  hint  to  possible  em- 
ployers that  the  holder  is  un- 
desirable. In  other  trades  it  is 
understood  that  an  unexception- 
able character,  with  the  adjectives 
carefully  underlined,  is  to  be  read 
as  implying  just  the  opposite  of 
what  it  appears  to  say. 

1890.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  Sept.  15. 
A  correspondent  writes  to  protest  against 
the  heading  'A  Cabman's  Odxi  Com- 
plaint,' which  was  given  in  these  columns 
on  Saturday  to  a  paragraph  concerning  the 
CHAIR-MARKING  of  a  licence. 



CHALDESE,  verb  (old). — To  trick, 
cheat,  or  « take  in.'  [Thought  to 
be  from  '  Chaldee,'  in  allusion  to 
astrology.  Cf.,  to  JEW.]  For 
synonyms,  see  STICK. 

16(54.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  II.,  iii., 
ioio.  He  stole  your  cloak  and  pick'd 
your  pocket,  Chows'd  and  CALDES'D  you 
like  a  blockhead. 

1680.  Rem.  (1759),  I.,  24.  Asham'd, 
that  Men  so  grave  and  wise,  Should  be 
CHALDES'D  by  Gnats  and  Flies.  [M  ] 

1697.  DENNIS,  Plot  and  No  Plot,  I. 
I  CALDES'D  a  Judge  while  he  was  taking 
my  Depositions.  [M.] 

CHALK,  subs,  (colloquial). — i.  A 
score,  reckoning  ;  and  (in  a  more 
decidedly  slang  sense)  BY  CHALKS, 


etc.,  i.e.,  '  degrees  '  or  '  marks  '  ; 
also  'credit,'  ^or  'tick.'  Cf.t 

1529.  SKELTON,  El.  Rummyng,  613. 
We're  fayne  with  a  CHALKE  To  score  on 
the  balke.  [M.] 

1592.  NASHE,  P.  Penilesse,  B  j  b. 
Hee  that  hath  no  money  must  goe  and 
dine  with  Sir  John  best  betrust,  at  the 
signe  of  the  CHALKE  and  the  Post. 

1634.  S.  R.,  Noble  Soldier,  v.,  3,  in 
TJullen's  O.  PI.,  I.,  333.  There's  hsse 
CHALKE  upon  you[r]  score  of  sinnes.  [M.] 

1704.  T.  BROWN,  Lat.  on  Fr.  King, 
wks.  (1730)  I.,  60.  I  trespassed  most 
enormously  in  CHALK.  [M.] 

1719.  D/URFEY,  Pills  (1872),  I.,  270. 
This  wheedling  talk  you  fancy  will  rub 
out  my  CHALK. 

1838-40.  HALIBURTON,  The  Clock- 
maker  (ed.  1862),  p.  102.  They  reckon 
themselves  here  a  CHALK  above  us 
Yankees  .  .  . 

1864-5.  EDMUND  YATES,  Broken  to 
Harness,  I.,  p.  174.  '  Can  you  say  that  I 
have  deceived  or  thrown  you  over  in  any 
way?  Never!'  'Thank  God  for  that!1 
says  the  girl,  with  some  bitterness  ;  '  for 
that's  a  CHALK  in  my  favor,  at  least.' 

2.  (nautical). — A  scratch  or 
scar.  Cf.,  verb,  sense  2,  and 
CHALKERS,  sense  i. 

1840.     MARRYAT,  Poor  Jack,  vi.      I 

got  this  CHALK. 

Adj.  (turf).  —  Unknown  or  in- 
competent. [From  the  practice 
at  race-meetings  of  keeping  blank 
slides  at  the  telegraph  board  on 
which  the  names  of  new  jockeys 
can  be  inscribed  in  chalk,  while 
the  names  of  well-known  men  are 
usually  painted  or  printed  in 
permanent  characters.  The  for- 
mer were  called  CHALK-jockeys, 
and  the  general  public  argued  that 
they  were  incompetent,  being  un- 
known. ] 

Verb  (old).—  r.  To  score  up,  or 
tick  off,  in  chalk,  a  material  at  one 
time  handier  than  pen-and-ink. 
Subsequently  in  pugilistic  circles 
merit  marks,  etc.,  were  made  with 
the  same. 

2.  (nautical).  —  To  make  one 
'  stand  treat  '  or  '  pay  his  footing.' 
If  an  old  hand  succeeds  in  CHALK- 
ING the  shoes  of  a  green  hand, 
the  latter  has  to  '  stand  drinks 
all  round.' 

3.   (thieves').—  To  strike, 
CHALKERS,  sense  i. 


1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xvii.  (II.,  p.  84).  CHALK  him  across  the 
peepers  with  your  cheery  [which,  trans- 
lated, means  slash  him  over  the  eyes  with 
your  dagger]. 


UP,  phr.  (common).  —  To  credit, 
or  take  credit  ;  to  put  to  one's 

1597.  Pt.  Return  Parnass.,  I.,  i., 
451.  All  my  debts  stande  CHAUKT  UPON 
the  poste  for  liquor.  [M.] 

1611.  CHAPMAN,  May-Day,  Act  t.,  p. 
278  (Plays,  1874).  Faith,  sir,  she  [hostess] 
has  CHALKED  UP  twenty  shillings  already, 
and  swears  she  will  CHALK  no  more. 

1843.  Punch's  Almanack,  Jan.  .  .  . 
'  When  you  wish  for  beer  resort  freely  to 
the  CHALK,  and  go  on,  getting  as  much  as 
you  can  upon  this  principle,  until  it 
becomes  unproductive,  when  you  may  try 
it  in  another  quarter.' 




TO    BEAT    BY    LONG    Or   MANY 

CHALKS,  phr.  (common).  —  To 
beat  thoroughly  ;  to  show  appre- 
ciable superiority. 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  Ingoldsby 
Legends  (ed.  1862),  p.  447.  Still  Sir 
Alured's  steed  was  BY  LONG  CHALKS  the 
best  Of  the  party,  and  very  soon  distanced 
the  rest. 

1838-40.  HALIBURTON,  The  Clock- 
maker^  p.  26  (ed.  1826).  'Yes,'  says  he, 
'  your  factories  down  East  beat  all  natur  ; 
they  go  ahead  on  the  English  a  LONG 

1856.  C.  BRONTE,  Professor,  ch.  iii. 
1  You  are  not  as  fine  a  fellow  as  your 
plebeian  brother  BY  A  LONG  CHALK/ 

1883.  GRENVILLE  MURRAY,  People  I 
Have  Met,  p.  133.  The  finest  thing  in 
the  world  ;  or,  as  he  himself  would  have 
expressed  it,  '  the  best  thing  out  BY  MANY 


CHALKS,  phr.  (popular). — To 
move  or  run  away  ;  to  be  off. 
[Said  to  be  a  corruption  of  'walk  ! 
you're  chalked,'  the  origin  of 
which  is  found  in  the  ancient  prac- 
tice of  lodgings  for  the  royal  re- 
tinue being  taken  arbitrarily  by 
the  marshal  and  sergeant-cham- 
berlain, when  the  inmates  were 
sent  to  the  right  about,  and  their 
houses  designated  by  a  chalk  mark. 
When  Mary  de  Medicis  came  to 
England  in  1638,  Sieur  de  Labat 
was  employed  to  mark  *  all  sorts  of 
houses  commodious  for  her  re- 
tinue in  Colchester.'  The  same 
custom  is  referred  to  in  the  Life 
and  Acts  of  Sir  William  Wallace, 
To  STUMP  (q.v.}  =  io  go  on  foot.] 
For  synonyms,  see  AMPUTATE. 

1840.  HALIBURTON, Clockmaker,  38., 
ch.  xi.  '  The  way  she  WALKS  HER  CHALKS 
ain't  no  matter.  She  is  a  regular  fore-and- 

1843.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  366.  And 
since  my  future  walk's  chalk'd  out  —  at 

Once  I'll  WALK  MY  CHALKS. 

187 1 .  DE  VERB,  A  mericanisms,  p.  3 18. 
The  President,  in  whom  he  is  dis- 
appointed for  one  reason  or  another,  does 

not  come  up  to  chalk ;  when  he  dis- 
misses an  official,  he  is  made  to  WALK  THE 


fhr.  (popular). — To  be  sober. 
The  ordeal  on  board  ship  of 
trying  men  suspected  of  drunken- 
ness is  to  make  them  walk  along 
a  line  chalked  on  the  deck,  with- 
out deviating  to  right  or  left.  C/., 
LINE  (q.v.}.'] 

MAKING  CHALKS,  phr.  (nauti- 
cal cadets'). — A  term  connected 
with  the  punishment  of  boys  on 
board  ship,  and  in  the  Royal 
Naval  School.  Two  chalk  lines 
are  drawn  wide  apart  on  the 
deck  or  floor,  and  the  boy  to  be 
punished  places  a  foot  on  each 
of  these  lines,  and  stoops,  there- 
by presenting  a  convenient  sec- 
tion of  his  person  to  the  boat- 
swain or  master. 

phr.  (American).  —  To  bribe. 
For  synonyms,  see  GREASE  THE 


1857.  Boston  Post,  March  5.  CHALK- 
ING THE  LAMP  POST.  '  The  term  for 
bribery  in  Philadelphia.' 

There  are  other  expressions 
connected  with  chalk,  such  as 
'  to  know  chalk  from  cheese,' 
'to  chalk  out,'  etc.,  but  these 
hardly  find  a  place  here. 

CHALKERS,  subs.  (old). — i.  Men  of 
wit  in  Ireland,  who  in  the  night 
amuse  themselves  with  cutting 
inoffensive  passengers  across  the 
face  with  a  knife.  They  are 
somewhat  like  those  facetious 
gentlemen,  some  time  ago  known 
in  England  by  the  title  of 
sweaters  and  mohocks. — Grose. 
See  Ireland  Sixty  I  ears  Since 
(p.  IS)- 




2.  sing,  (common). — A  London 
milkman. — See  quot.  [One  who 
mixes  with  chalk  —  an  obvious 
innuendo.]  Cf.,  Cow  WITH  THE 
IRON  TAIL  and  SIMPSON'S  cow. 

1865.  Daily  Telegraph,  Sept.  7  (?). 
It  is  an  ominous  fact  that  London  milk- 
men are  known  in  the  vocabulary  of  slang 

CHALK-  FARM  ,subs.  (rhyming-slang). 
— The  arm. 

hoop-stick  ;  h'n  ;  daddle. 

( popular :  in  old  French  cant 
ause  signified  the  *  ear  ') ;  les 
allumettes  (popular  :  '  the  arms'); 
l\a^aile  or  1\e^  aileron  (popu- 
lar :  in  the  Fourbesque  aid) ; 
les  nageoires  (plural). 

wing ')  ;  barbacana  (literally  a 
kind  of  advanced  fortification)  ; 
tarentule  (the  Italian  has  taran- 
tella, '  a  spider 

remo  (properly  '  an  oar  '). 

CHALK-HEAD,  subs.  (old). — A  nick- 
name for  a  person  with  a  '  good 
head  for  figures.'  Waiters  in 
London  are  very  commonly  so 
called. — See  quot.  1861.  [From 
the  '  chalks '  or  score  formerly 
marked  up  behind  a  tavern  bar, 
the  'tally'  being  'kept  in  the 
head  '  instead  of  being  '  chalked 
up '  on  a  board  or  slate.  ] 

1856.  Punch,  vol.  XXXI.,  p.  134. 
Billy.  You  see,  Billy,  my  heddication 
war  summat  neglected,  and  I  haven't  got 
the  nateral  adwantage  of  a  good  CHALK - 

1861.  Punch,  vol.  XLL,  p.  129. 
Among  tavern  waiters  a  ready  reckoner 
is  called  a  good  CHALK-HEAD. 

CHAM  or  CHAM  MY,  subs,  (popular). 

—  An    abbreviation     of     '  cham- 
pagne.'      For      synonyms,      see 
DRINKS.     Cf.,  BOY. 

1871.  All  the  Year  Round,  Feb.  18, 
p.  285.  '  Let's  have  glasses  round.  Come 
and  have  a  bottle  of  CHAM.' 

CHAMBER  OF  HORRORS,  subs.  phr. 

—  I  .         (parliamentary).  —  The 
Peeresses'  Gallery  in  the  House 
of  Lords.     Cf.,  CAGE,  sense  4. 

1876.  Daily  News.  There  could  be 
no  doubt  as  to  the  inconvenience,  the 
gallery  being  generally  known  as  the 

2.  In  plural  (common).  — 
Sausages.  [From  the  possibility 
of  adulteration  in  this  species 

of         food.          Also          BAGS         OF 

BLOODWORMS.]  In  Fourbesque, 

CHAMMING,  ror£o/.r»&r.  (common). 
—  Indulgence  in  champagne. 
[From  CHAM,  -verb  (on  the  model 
of  'to  wine,'  '  to  beer,'  etc.),  to 
drink  champagne,  +  ING.] 

MAIN  CHANCE,  phr.  (colloquial). 
To  keep  in  view  that  which  will 
result  in  advantage,  interest  or 
gain.  [Thought  to  have  origin- 
ated in  the  phraseology  of  the 
game  of  hazard.]  Murray,  quot- 
ing from  the  Diet.  Cant.  Crewt 
says  that  '  to  have  an  eye  to 
the  main  chance'  was  a 
cant  phrase  in  1699,  and  that 
the  expression  still  partakes  of 
the  character.  All  the  quota- 
tions given  in  the  N.E.D.  prior 
to  1699,  illustrate  a  simpler 
form  of  the  colloquialism,  such 
as  to  '  stand  to  the  main  chance,' 
but  it  will  be  seen  that  TO  HAVE 


is   more    than  a  hundred    years 




1609.  JONSON,  Case  is  Altered,  IV., 
4.  Juniper,  to  the  door  ;  AN  EYE  TO  THE 
MAIN  CHANCE.  \_Retnoves  the  dung,  and 
sheivs  him  the  gold.] 

1693.  DRYDEN,  Persius,  VI.,  158. 
Be  careful  still  of  the  MAIN  CHANCE,  my 
son  ;  Put  out  the  principal  in  trusty 

1711.  Spectator,  No.  196.  I  am  very 
young,  and  yet  no  one  in  the  world,  dear 
sir,  has  the  MAIN  CHANCE  more  in  HER 
HEAD  than  myself. 

1844.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzleiuit, 
ch.  xviii.,  p.    190.     'Was   it  politics?    Or 
was  it   the  price   of  stock?'     '  The  MAIN 
CHANCED  Mr.  Jonas,  the  MAIN  CHANCE,  I 

CHANGER,  subs,  (tailors'). — A  liar. 
Also  an  incompetent  workman: 
i.e.,  one  who  *  chances  '  what  he 
cannot  do. 

phr.  (common). — 'To  have  or  get 
your  man  in  chancery '  is  to  get 
his  head  under  your  left  arm  so 
that  you  can  FIB  (q.v.)  him  with 
your  right  until  he  gets  it  out,  or 
you  GO  TO  GRASS  (q.v.}  together. 
Primarily  pugilistic.  Figuratively 
the  expression  =  in  a  parlous  case,; 
in  an  awkward  fix.  The  French 
have  adopted  the  phrases  meltre 
en  chancellerie  and  coup  ae  chan- 
cel Jerie  which  are  almost  literal 

1819.  THOMAS  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Memorial  to  Congress,  p.  77.  Lord 
St-w-rt's  a  hero  (as  many  suppose)  and  the 
Lady  he  woos  is  a  rich  and  a  rare  one  ; 
his  heart  ib  IN  CHANCERY,  every  one 
knows,  and  so  would  his  head  be,  if  thou 
wert  his  fair  one. 

1845.  Punch,  vol.  IX.,  p.  9.      '  Lord 
Brougham's  Handbook  for  Political  Box- 
ing '     Getting    the  nob  INTO  CHANCERY 
is  a  fine  achievement,  I  once  got  several 
nobs   INTO   CHANCERY  :   and    I    certainly 
gave  several  of  them  severe  punishment. 
This   CHANCERY   manoeuvre    has   been   a 
capital  thing  for  me. 

1860.  Chambers  Journal,  vol.  XIII., 
p.  15.  Marsden  suffered  him  to  approach 
within  distance,  dashed  his  outstretched 

arms  away,  and  received  his  transatlantic 

1883.  Daily  News,  g  Mar.,  p.  3,  col.  7. 
Thinking  the  man  was  a  burglar  he  rode 
up  to  assist,  and  saw  the  constable  hold- 
ing Burtenshaw,  and  striking  him.  The 
constable  had  the  prisoner  IN  CHANCERY. 

CHANCE  THE  DUCKS,  phr.  (com- 
mon).— An  expression  signitying 
'come  what  may.'  [From  the 
colloquial  use  of  CHANCE,  to  risk, 
or  take  one's  chance  of  +  DUCKS 
(q.v.},  probably  a  pleonasm.  Cf., 

1886.  T.  RATCLIFFE,  in  N.andQ., 
7  S.,  i.,  108.  An'  CHANCE  THE  DUCKS — 
this  when  a  man  makes  up  his  mind  to  a 
risky  venture.  He  will  say,  '  I'll  do  it, 
an'  CHANCE  TH'  DUCKS." 

CHANCE  YOUR  ARM,//&r.  (tailors'). 
— '  Chance  it  ! '  '  Try  it  on  ! ' 
etc.— [See  CHANCE  THE  DUCKS, 
— of  which  it  seems  a  variant.] 

CHANEY-EYED,  adj.  (common). — 
One-eyed.  [From  CHANEY,  a 
corruption  of  '  China  '  or 
*  Chinese '  ;  hence,  eyes  as  small 
as  those  of  the  Celestials.]  Cf., 

CHANGE. — This  word,  in  the  sense 
of  coins  of  one  denomination 
given  in  exchange  for  those  of 
another  is  responsible  for  several 
expressive  colloquialisms. 

To  GIVE  CHANGE,  phr.  (com- 
mon). — To  '  pay  out ' ;  to  give 
one  his  deserts.  Cf.,  To  TAKE 

ABOUT  ONE,  phr.  (common). — 
To  be  clever ;  quick-witted  ; 
quite  '  compos  mentis '  ;  with 
'  twelve  pence  to  the  shilling 
about  one.' 

TO  PUT  THE  CHANGE  ON,  phr. 
(old). — To  deceive,  or  mislead. 



Apparently  for  a  long  time  a 
contemporary  variant  of  TO 


1667.  DRYDEN,  Sir  Martin  Marr-all, 
Act  ii.  Warn.  ...  By  this  light,  she 

has     PUT     THE     CHANGE     UPON     HIM  !      O, 

sweet   womankind  !   how    I    love  thee  for 
that  heavenly  gift  of  lying  ! 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  168  (1874).  The  box-keeper 
shall  walk  off,  pretending  some  speedy 
dispatch  of  a  business  concerning  the 
House  of  Office,  etc.,  whilst  your  antago- 
nist Shall  PUT  THE  CHANGE  UPON  YOU. 

1694.  CONGREVE,  Double  Dealer,  v., 
17.  I  have  so  contriv'd  that  Mellefont 
will  presently,  in  the  chaplain's  habit, 
wait  for  Cynthia  in  your  dressing-room  ; 
but  I  have  PUT  THE  CHANGE  UPON  her, 
that  she  may  be  otherwise  employed. 

1821.  SCOTT,  Keniliuorth,  ch.  iii. 
You  cannot  PUT  THE  CHANGE  ON  me  so 
easy  as  you  think,  for  I  have  lived  among 
the  quick-stirring  spirits  of  the  age  too 
long  to  swallow  chaff  for  grain. 

TO  RING    THE    CHANGES,   phr. 

(common). — To  change  a  better 
article  for  a  worse.  [An  allusion 
to  bell-ringing  where  it  signifies 
to  exhaust  the  combinations  of  a 
peal  of  bells.]  In  its  slang 
chiefly  refers  to  the  passing  of 
counterfeit  money.  As  thus  : — 
4  About  five  weeks  ago,  the 
prisoner  went  into  a  tobacconist's 
shop  in  Cheapside,  and  pur- 
chased a  cheroot,  tendering  a 
sovereign  in  payment.  The 
prosecutor,  Mr.  Elkin,  gave  him 
the  change,  half-a-sovereign  and 
95.  6d.  silver.  The  prisoner 
said  he  did  not  want  to  distress 
him  by  taking  away  all  his  silver, 
and  asked  for  another  half 
sovereign.  The  prosecutor  put 
down  half-a-sovereign,  which 
the  prisoner  took  up,  and  the 
latter  then  said  that  if  he  re- 
turned the  sovereign,  he  would 
give  him  back  the  change,  and 
the  prosecutor,  taken  off  his 
guard,  did  so,  and  received  the 

first  half  sovereign  and  the 
95.  6d.  in  silver,  the  prisoner 
walking  out  of  the  shop  with  the 
second  half  sovereign.' 

1661.  Hist.  ofEng .  Rebellion  in  Harl. 
Misc.  (ed.  Park),  II.,  528.  Five  months 
ago,  our  mighty  States  Were  pleas'd  to 
vote  No  King ;  But  two  months  since,  to 
act  new  cheats,  Their  votes  the  CHANGES 

1760.  SMOLLETT,  SirL.  Graves,  vol. 
I.,  ch.  x.  Hugging  in  and  RINGING  OUT 
THE  CHANGES  on  the  balance  of  power, 
the  Protestant  religion,  and  your  allies  on 
the  Continent. 

1828.  JON.  BEE,  Picture  of  London, 
p.  232.     He   found  one  piece  [of  muslin] 
that  was  indeed  real  India,  bargained  for 
and  bought  it,  amidst  continued  attempts  to 
shuffle  it  between  others,  for  the  purpose 
of  RINGING   THE  CHANGES,  as  they  term 
the  nefarious  act. 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  234.  Nothing  easier  than  for 
some  man  to  have  slipped  out  of  bed, 
night  or  day,  and  RUNG  THE  CHANGES 
of  the  bottles. 

1880.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Social  Sin- 
ners, ch.  xli.  The  culprit  had  been  guilty 
of  RINGING  THE  CHANGES  or  other  petty 

OF  [a  person  or  thing],  fhr. 
(common). — To  be  revenged 
upon  ;  to  take  an  equivalent,  or 
quid  pro  quo.  Frequently  used 
inierjectionally  —  TAKE  YOUR 

CHANGE     OUT     OF     THAT  !    With 

a  blow  or  other  rejoinder.  An 
analogous  expression  is  PUT 

IT  ! 

1829.  JOHN  WILSON,  Noctes  Ami'., 
wks.  II.,  174.     Shepherd  (flinging  a  purse 
of  gold  on  the  table).     It'll  require  a  gey 
strang  thaw  to  melt  that,  chiels ;  sae  TAK 

YOUR    CHANGE    OUT     O*    THAT,     3S   Joseph 

[Hume]  says,  either  in  champagne,  or 
jile  ....  just  whatsumever  you  like  to 
devour  best. 

1838.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  2 
S.,  ch.  viii.  'Thinks  I  to  myself,  TAKR 
YOUR  CHANGE ^OUT  o'  THAT,  young  man, 
will  you?' 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  xi.  If  his  ammunition  be 




exhausted    he    betakes    himself    to    the 
bayonet,    and    swears    '  the    beggars    may 


1861.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Ravenshoe,  ch. 
xlvi.  Turn  Lady  Ascot  once  fairly  to 
bay,  you  would  (if  you  can  forgive  slang) 


1863.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Austin  Elliott, 
I.,  185.  Cabman,  log:  '  I  never  said  no- 
think  to  you,  but  without  provocation 
you  tell  me  to  go  to  Putney.  Now,  I 
tell  you  what  it  is,  I 'm  blessed  if  I  don 't 
go,  and  you  may  TAKE  YOUR  CHANGE 
OUT  OF  THAT!'  And  go  he  did.  \Cf., 
'Go  TO  PUTNEY'  (q.v.).} 


(music  hall).— A  performer,  male 
or  female,  who  sings  one  song  in 
one  costume,  retires  for  a  few 
seconds  and  returns  to  sing 
another  in  another  guise,  and  so 

CHANGE-BAGS,  subs.  (Eton).— 
Grey  flannel  trousers  for  cricket, 
and  knickerbockers  for  football. 


verbal  phr.  (colloquial).  —  To 
pass  from  laughter  to  tears,  or  from 
arrogance  to  humility;  to  alter 
one's  mode  ot  speech,  behaviour, 
etc.  Cf. ,  CHANGE  YOUR  BREATH 
(q.v.  under  BREATH). 

1578.  Scot.  Poems,  i6th  c.  (1808),  II. 
185.  Priestes  CHANGE  YOUR  TUNE.  [M.] 

1708.  MOTTEUX,  Rabelais,  V.,  ix. 
I'll  make  him  CHANGE  HIS  NOTE  presently. 


CHANT  or  CHAUNT,  subs.  (old). — 
I.  See  quots. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Dictionary. 
CHAUNT:  a  song  .  .  .  To  throw  off  a  rum 
CHAUNT  is  to  sing  a  good  song. 

1882.  Daily  Telegraph,  19  Oct.,  p  5, 
col.  2.  To  troll  his  jovial  CHAUNTS  .  .  . 
in  a  tavern-parlour.  [M.] 

2.     (old).  —See  quots. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Diet. 
CHAUNT  :  (a  person's)  name,  address,  or 
designation  ;  .  .  .  a  cipher,  initials,  or 
mark  of  any  kind,  on  a  piece  of  plate, 
iinen,  or  other  article ;  anything  so  marked 
is  said  to  be  CHANTED  ...  an  adver- 
tisement in  a  newspaper  or  handbill,  etc. 

1824.  Compl.  Hist.  Murder  Mr. 
Weare.  258.  '  We  may  as  well  look  and 
see  if  ther?.  is  any  CHAUNT  about  the 
money'  — and  they  examined  the  four 
notes,  but  there  were  no  marks  upon 
rtiem.  [M.] 

Verb  (old).  —  i.  To  talk  ; 
sing  ;  relate  the  praises  of ;  to 
'  cry  '  or  '  crack  up.  *  Street  pat- 
terers  and  vendors  CHANT  their 
songs  and  wares,  oftentimes  to  an 
extent  not  warranted  by  their 
quality  :  hence  sense  2.  An 
equivalent  amongst  French  thieves 
is  pousser  la  goualante. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  I.,  p.  240.  A  running 
patterer  .  .  .  who  also  occasionally 

2.  (common). — To  sell  a  horse 
by  fraudulent  representations. 
[Apparently  an  extended  usage  of 
sense  I — 'to  cry  '  or  '  crack  up.'] 
Fr. ,  enrosser  —  to  dissemble  a 
horse's  faults. 

1816.  Sporting  Mag  azine,vo\.  XLIX., 
p.  305.  A  number  of  frauds  have  been 
practised  lately  in  the  disposal  of  horses 
...  by  a  gang  of  ...  swindlers,  who 
technically  call  it  CHAUNTING  horses. 

182o.  English  Spy,  vol.  I.,  pp.  199, 
200.  Here  a  church  militant  is  seen 
Who'd  rather  fight  than  preach,  I  ween, 
Once  major  now  a  parson  ;  With  one  leg 
in  the  grave  he'll  laugh,  CHANT  up  a 
prad,  or  quaintly  chaff  To  keep  life's 
pleasant  farce  on. 

1860.  THACKERAY,  Philip*  ch.  xx. 
You  may  as  well  say  that  horses  are  sold 
in  heaven,  which,  as  you  know,  are 
groomed,  are  doctored,  are  CHANTED  on 
to  the  market,  and  warranted  by  dexterous 
horse-vendors  as  possessing  every  quality 
of  blood,  pace,  temper,  age. 

CHANTER  (generally  HORSE-CHAN- 
TER), subs,  (common). — I.  A 
horse  -jdealer  who  disposes  of 




horses    by    means    of    fradulent 

1821.  W  T.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act.  i.,  Sc.  6.  Grooms,  Jockies, 
and  CHAUNTERS,  to  Tattersall's  bring. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  xlii.,  365. 
'  He  was  a  HORSE-CHAUNTER  :  he's  a  leg 

1845.  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Miscel- 
lanies, !!.('  Leg.  of  the  Rhine'),  p.  88.  He 
is  a  cogger  of  dice,  a  CHANTER  of  horse- 

1857.  DICKENS,  Dorrit,  bk.  I.,  ch. 
xii.,  88.  The  Plaintiff  was  a  CHAUNTER 
— meaning,  not  a  singer  of  anthems,  but 
a  seller  oi  horses. 

1884.  Daily  News,  August  23,  p.  5, 
col.  i.  It  is  for  the  CHANTER  and  his 
attendant  bonnet,  who  officiates  as  groom, 
to  place  the  stock. 

1890.  W.  E.  HENLEY.  Views  and 
Reviews,  p.  137.  An  apple  woman  to 
mystify,  a  horse-CHANTER  to  swindle,  a 
pugilist  to  study,  etc.,  etc. 

2.  (vagrants'). — A  street  pat- 
terer.        More    commonly    spelt 

CHAUNTER  (q.V.). 

3.  (Scots), — The  penis. 

CHANTEY  or  SHANTY,  subs,  (nauti- 
cal).— A  song  sung  by  sailors  at 
their  work. — See  CHANTEY-MAN. 
[Obviously  a  diminutive  of 
CHANT,  a  song.] 

1869.  Chambers'  Journal,  n  Dec., 
pp.  794-6.  [Article  on  '  Sailors'  SHANTIES 
and  Sea-Songs.'] 

1883.  W.  CLARK  RUSSELL,  Sailors' 
Language,  preface,  xi.     But  the  lack  of 
variety  is  no  obstruction  to    the   sailor's 
poetical   inspiration  when    he  wants    the 
'  old  man '   to  know  his   private  opinions 
without  expressing  them  to  his  face,  and 
so  the  same  CHANTEY,  as  the  windlass  or 
halliard    chorus   is   called,   furnishes    the 
music   to  as  many  various   indignant  re- 
monstrances as  Jack  can  find  injuries  to 
sing  about. 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  iii.     '  Then  give  us  one  of  the 
old     CHANTEYS,'    exclaimed     my     uncle. 
'Haul      the      Bowline,'      or     'Whiskey, 

CHANTEY-MAN,  subs,  (nautical). — 
A  singer  of  CHANTLYS  (q.v.). 

1887.  Saturday  Review,  27  August. 
A  shanty,  or,  as  pedants  call  it,  'chanty,' 
is  a  song  sung  by  sailors  at  their  work. 
The  music  is  'to  a  certain  extent 
traditional, '  the  words  —  which  are 
commonly  unfit  for  ears  polite— are 
traditional  likewise.  The  words  and 
music  are  divided  into  two  parts — the 
'  shanty '  proper,  which  is  delivered  by  a 
single  voice,  with  or  without  a  fiddle 
obligato,  and  the  refrain  and  chorus, 
which  are  sung  with  much  straining  and 
tugging,  and  with  peculiar  breaks  and 
strange  and  melancholy  stresses,  by  a 
number  of  men  engaged  in  the  actual 
performance  of  some  piece  of  bodily  labour. 
The  manner  is  this.  We  will  suppose  for 
instance,  that  what  is  wanted  is  an  anchor 
song.  The  fugleman  takes  his  stand, 
fiddle  in  hand,  and  strikes  up  the  melody 
of  '  Away  Down  Rio."  Then,  everything 
being  ready,  he  pipes  out  a  single  line  of 
the  song,  and  the  working  party,  with  a 
strong  pull  at  the  capstan-bars,  answers 
with  a  long-drawn  ''Away  Down  Rio. 
He  sings  a  second  verse,  and  this  is 
followed  by  the  full  strength  of  the 
chorus.  .  .  .  And  so  on,  through 
stave  after  stave,  till  the  anchor's 
weighed,  and,  the  work  being  done,  the 
need  for  song  is  gone  by. 

1890.  W.  E,  HENLEY.  Views  and 
Reviews,  p.  153.  He  goes  down  to  the 
docks  and  loiters  among  the  galiots  and 
brigantines  ;  he  hears  the  melancholy 
song  of  the  CHANTEY-MAN. 

CHANTIE,  subs.  (Scots). — A 
chamber  -  pot.  For  synonyms, 
see  IT. 

CHANTiNG(more  commonly  HORSE- 
CHANTING),  verbal  subs,  (com- 
mon).— i.  Tricking  into  the 
purchase  of  unsound  or  vicious 

1825.  English  Spy,  vol.  I.,  pp.  199, 
200.  The  servant  was  a  confederate,  and 
the  whole  affair  nothing  more  than  a  true 
orthodox  farce  of  HORSE-CHAUNTING  got 
up  for  the  express  purpose  of  raising  a 
temporary  supply. 

1870-2.  Gallery  of  Comicalities.  If 
I  have  got  an  -'orse  to  sell,  You'll  never 
find  that  Dick  is  wanting ;  There's  few 
that  try  it  on  so  well,  Or  beat  me  at  a  bit 


Chapel  of  Ease. 


2.    (vagrants'). — Street  ballad- 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  I.,  p.  297.  There  is  a  class 
of  ballads,  which  may  with  perfect  pro- 
priety be  called  street  ballads,  as  they  are 
written  by  street  authors  for  street  singing 
(or  CHAUNTING)  and  street  sale. 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  Feb,  8,  p.  3, 
col.  i.  '.The  bitterest  sort  of  weather  is 
their  [cadgers']  weather,  and  it  doesn't 
matter  if  it's  house  -  to  -  house  work  or 
CHANTING,  or  mud-plunging,  it's  cold 

CHAPEL  or  CHAPEL  OF  EASE,  subs. 
(common). — A  water-closet.  For 
synonyms,  see  BURY  A  QUAKER 
and  MRS.  JONES. 

phr.  (thieves') — The  police  sta- 
tion or  cells. 

1871.  Daily  Telegraph,  27  Jan.  [See 
short  leader  ;  also  25  Jan.] 

1889.  Answers,  9  Feb.  A  fourth 
kind  of  torture  was  a  cell  called  LITTLE 
EASE.  It  was  of  so  small  dimensions,  and 
so  constructed,  that  the  prisoner  could 
neither  stand,  walk,  sit,  nor  lie  in  it  at  full 
length.  He  was  compelled  to  draw  him- 
self up  in  a  squatting  posture,  and  so 
remain  during  several  days. 

CHAPPED  or  CHAPT,///-  a(lj-  (old). 
—  Parched  ;  '  dry  ' ;  thirsty. 
[From  CHAP,  to  crack  (as  the 
lips)  from  want  of  moisture,  + 

1673.  R.  HEAD,  Canting  Acad.,  37. 
CHAP'D,  Dry,  or  Thirsty. 

1725.     New  Canting-  Dictionary,  s.v. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CHAPT  :  dry  or  thirsty. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

CHAPPIE  or  CHAPPY,  subs. 
(familiar).  —  The  latest  (1890) 
variety  of  man  about  town  ;  a 
term  of  intimacy.  [From  CHAP, 
a  chum,  +  IE,  a  diminutive.] 
For  synonyms,  see  DANDY. 

1882.  Punch,  vol.  LXXXII.,  p.  69, 
col.  i.  I'll  sing  you  a  fine  new  song,  all 

about  a  fine  young  spark,  Who's  a  fine 
young  London  gentleman,  quite  up  to  ?ny 
lark,  Who  takes  supper  very  early,  and 
breakfasts  in  the  dark  ;  Who's  a  real  'dear 
old  CHAPPIE,'  as  I  needn't  perhaps  remark. 

1883.  G.  A.  S[ALA],  in  Illustr.  Lon- 
don News,  March  24,  p.  290,  col.  i.  Lord 
Boodle,  a  rapid  CHAPPIE  always  ready  to 
bet  on  everything  with  anybody. 

CHARACTER,  subs,  (colloquial). — 
A  man  or  woman  exhibiting  some 
prominent  (and  usually  contemp- 
tible) trait  ;  an  eccentric  ;  a  CASE 
(g.v. ).  Generally  used  with  such 
adjectives  as  'low,'  'queer,' 
'comic,'  etc. — [From  CHARACTER 
=  a  personage  in  history  or  fiction : 
one  who  has  distinguished  him- 
or  herself.  ]  For*  synonyms,  see 

1773.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stoops  to 
Conquer,  II.,  i.  A  very  impudent  fellow 
this !  but  he's  a  CHARACTER,  and  ^I'll 
humour  him. 

1820-33.  C.  LAMB,  Essays  of  Elia, 
p.  163.  You  are  fond  of  having  a  CHAR- 
ACTER at  your  table,  and  truly  he  is  one. 

CHARACTERED,  ppl.  adj.  (old).— 
Burnt  on  the  hand  ;  otherwise 
LETTERED  (q.v.).  [From  the 
legitimate  meaning  of  the  word,  = 
'  marked  or  inscribed  with  char- 
1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  T.t  s.v. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  They 
have  palmed  the  CHARACTER  upon  him. 

CHARING-CROSS,  subs,  (rhyming 
slang). — A  horse.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  PRAD. 

CHARIOT,  subs,  (thieves'). — An 
omnibus.  In  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury CHARIOT  =  a  vehicle  of 
any  kind,  and  in  the  eighteenth 
a  light  four-wheeled  carriage. 
French  thieves  call  an  omnibus 
une  onmicroche,  or  un  four  banaf, 
which  last  =  also  a  pocket  or 

Chariot-Buzzing.  75 


CHARIOT-BUZZING,  subs,  (thieves'). 
—  Picking  pockets  in  an  omni- 
bus. [From  CHARIOT  (q.v.),  an 
omnibus,  +  BUZ,  verb  2  (q.v.),  to 
pick  pockets,  +  ING.]  French 
z'rtf  Fomnicroche. 

CHARLES,    His     FRIEND,      subs. 
(theatrical).  —  See  FRIEND. 

CHARLEY  or  CHARLIE,  subs.  (old). 
—  i.  A  night  watchman,  A  popu- 
lar name,  prior  to  the  introduction 
by  Sir  R.  Peel,  in  1829,  of  the 
present  police  force  ;  since  when 
it  has  fallen  into  desuetude.  The 
CHARLIES  were  generally  old 
men  whose  chief  duty  was  crying 
the  hour  on  their  rounds.  Box- 
ing a  CHARLEY  was  a  favourite 
amusement  with  young  bucks 
and  bloods,  who,  when  they 
found  a  night-watchman  asleep 
in  his  box,  would  overturn  it, 
leaving  the  occupant  to  escape 
as  best  he  might.  [The  origin  of 
the  term  is  uncertain.  Some 
trace  it  to  Charles  I.,  who  re- 
organised the  watch  system  of 
the  metropolis  in  1640.  If  this 
be  tenable  it  is  curious  that  so 
long  a  period  elapsed  between 
the  event  and  its  recognition  in 
slang.  The  earliest  appears  to 
be  that  given  infra.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BEAK  and  COPPER. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Dictionary. 
CHARLEY  :  a  watchman. 

1823.  CHARLES  WESTMACOTT,  Points 
of  Misery,  p.  28.  A  regular  chase  between 
me  and  the  CHARLEYS  all  the  way  to  I  .ad 

1845.  HOOD,  Tale  of  a  Trumpet, 
st.  55.  That  other  old  woman,  the  parish 

1852.  Bentley's  Miscellany,  i  June, 
p  620.  Oh,  those  dear  old  CHARLIES  of 
the  Dogberry  school  !  How  their  husky 
cries  of  the  passing  hour  mingled  with 
our  dreams,  letting  us  know  that  they 
were  at  least  wide  awake  to  the  thievings 
of  time  ! 

1865.  G.  F.  BERKELEY,  My  Life,  etc., 
I.,  106.  The  night's  entertainment  ending 
in  the  morning  before  a  magistrate,  when 
the  roughly  used  CHARLEYS,  as  the  night- 
policemen  were  called,  preferred  charges 
of  assault  supported  by  black  eyes  and  a 
few  loose  teeth  caiefully  preserved  for 
the  purpose,  and  the  offenders  thought 
themselves  lucky  if  they  got  off  with  only 
a  moderate  fine.  \Tentp.  George  IV. 1 

1889.  Daily  News,  Sep.  28,  p.  2,  col. 
5.  THE  LAST  OF  THE  CHARLEYS.  In  the 
person  of  Mr.  William  Mason,  who  died 
on  Wednesday  at  the  age  of  89,  we  lose 
the  last  survivor  of  the  CHARLEYS  who 
used  to  patrol  the  streets  prior  to  the 
establishment  in  1849  of  the  City  Police 

2.  (common). — A  small,  pointed 
beard,  fashionable  in  the  time  of 
Charles  I.  ;  an  'imperial';  in 
America  a  GOATEE  (q.v.  for  syno- 

1824.  Gentleman's  Magazine,  March 
i,  p.  295,  col.  2.  With  white  pantaloons, 
watch  chains,  and  Wellingtons,  and  a 
CHARLEY  at  their  under  lip. 

1841.  HOOK,  Widow,  x.,  145.  He 
.  .  .  wore  ...  a  CHARLEY  on  his  under 

1861.  TAYLOR,  Antiq.  Falkland,  43. 
That  square,  short  man  .  .  .  wearing  a 
moustache  and  CHARLIE  is  William 

18(?).  R.  M.  JEPHSON,  Girl  He  Left 
Behind  Him,  ch.  i.  Dolly  himself  was 
occupied  in  nursing  a  tuft  of  hair  on  his 
chin  termed,  grandiloquently,  an  imperial, 
familiarly,  a  CHARLEY. 

3.  (hunting). — A   fox.      Four- 
besque,  graniera. 

1857.  HUGHES,  Tom  Browns  School- 
days, ch.  i.,  p.  8.  A  nice  little  gorse  or 
spinney  where  abideth  poor  CHARLEY, 
having  no  other  cover  to  which  to  betake 
himself  for  miles  and  miles,  when  pushed 
out  some  fine  November  morning  by  the 
old  Berkshire. 

1859.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Geoffrey  Ham 
lyn,  ch.  xxviii.  'And  all  after  a  poor  little 
fox  ! '  '  You  don't  know  CHARLEY,  I  can 
see,'  said  Halbert ; '  poor  little  fox  indeed  ! 

4.  (American      thieves').  — A 
watch.      [Possibly   a    pun   upon 
CHARLEY,  sense   i,  a  watch  or 

Charley  Bates  Farm.       76  Charter  the  Bar. 

watchman.]      For  synonyms,  see 

5.  (tailors').  — The     nap     on 
faced  on  glossy-surfaced  cloth. 

6.  (tailors').  —  A       round- 
shouldered  figure. 


CHARLEY-LANCASTER,  subs,  (rhym- 
ing slang). — A  '  handkercher. ' 

CHARLEY- PITCHER,  subs,  (thieves'). 
— A  prowling  sharper  who  en- 
tices greenhorns  to  take  a  hand 
in  thimble-rigging,  the  three- 
card  trick,  prick  the  garter,  etc. 

1859.  G.  A.  SALA,  Twice  Round  the 
Clock  (2  p  m.,  par.  10),  p.  160.  Even  at 
remote  country  race-courses,  you  may  find 
remnants  of  the  whilom  swarming  tribe 
of  CHARLEY-PITCHERS,  the  knavish  gentry 
who  pursue  the  games  of  '  under  seven  or 
over  seven,'  .  .  ,  or  inveigle  the  unwary 
with  '  three  little  thimbles  and  one  small 

1^51-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Lot.  Poor,  IV.,  32,  note.  A  CHARLEY- 
PITCHER  seems  to  be  one  who  pitches  to 
the  Ceorla  or  countryman,  and  hence  is 
equivalent  to  the  term  Yokel-hunter. 

1877.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Son  of 
Vulcan,  pt.  I.,  ch.  ix.  With  them  marched 
the  CHARLEY-PITCHERS,  who  gained  an 
honourable  livelihood  with  the  thimble 
and  the  pea. 

CHARLEY- PR  ESCOT,  subs,  (rhym- 
ing slang). — A  waistcoat.  For 
synonyms,  see  FAN. 


CHARLEY-WAG     (school-slang). — • 

I.  To  absent  oneself  from  school 
without  leave ;  to  play  truant. 
Variants  are  To  MOUCH  ;  TO 
WAG  ;  Fr.,  tailler  or  caler  lecole  ; 
Spanish,  hacer  novillos,  and  andar 
a  la  tuna. 

1876.  C.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adven- 
tures of  a  Cheaj>  Jack,  p.  57.  Nothing 
could  be  done  with  him  at  school  .  .  . 

Joe  being,  in  spite  of  all  entreaties,  the 
greatest  rapscallion  and  ringleader  of  all 
mischief,  and  at  all  times  readier  TO 
PLAY  THE  CHARLEY  WAG  than  to  be  the 
first  in  any  prominent  position  in  his 
class  or  form. 

2.  (common).  —  To  disappear 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon  s 
Straight  Tip  to  all  Cross  Coves.  It's  up 
the  spout  and  CHARLEY-WAG  With  wipes 
and  tickers  and  what  not.  Until  the 
squeezer  nips  your  scrag,  Booze  and  the 
blowens  cop  the  lot. 


CHARLIES,  subs,  (popular).  —  i. 
The  paps.  For  synonyms,  see 

2.  (Winchester  College).  — 
Thick  gloves  made  of  twine. 
[Introduced  by  a  Mr.  Charles 
Griffith  ;  hence  the  name.]  Ob- 

CHARM,  subs,  (old).—  i.  A  pick- 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1811.    Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 
1381.     New  York  Slang-  Diet.,  s.v. 

CHARMS,  subs,  (old), — The  paps. 
Fr.,  les  appas.  Once  in  literary 
use,  but  now  impossible  except  as 
=  showing  her  paps. 

2.  (American).  —  A  generic 
term  for  money.  For  synonyms, 
see  ACTUAL  and  GILT. 

1875.  American  English,  in  Chant. 
Journal,  25  Sept.,  p.  610.  Money  has 
forty  or  fifty  different  names  ;  such  singu- 
lar terms  as  ...  shadscales,  and  CHARMSJ 
figuring  in  the  list. 


verbal phr.  (American). — To  buy 
up  the  whole  of  the  liquor  at  a 
bar  and  stand  drinks  all  round  as 




long  as  it  lasts.  This  freak  is  not 
infrequent  in  the  West.  In 
Australia  a  similar  expression 


18(?).  J.  G.  BALDWIN,  David  Bolus, 
Esq.  Bolus  was  no  niggard.  He  would 
as  soon  treat  a  regiment,  or  CHARTER 
THE  GROCERY  for  the  day,  as  any  other 

CHASING,  verbal  subs,  (workmens'). 
See  quot. 

1884.  RAE,  Cont.  Socialism,  361. 
This  is  shown  ...  in  their  prohibition 
of  CHASING  .  .  .  i.e.,  of  a  workman  ex- 
ceeding a  given  average  standard  of  pro- 
duction. [M.] 

CHASSE,  verb  (society)*  —  To  dis- 
miss.    [From  the  French  chasser.~\ 

1847.  THACKERAY,  Lords  and  Liv., 
III.  He  was  CHASSED  on  the  spot.  [M.] 

1868.  YATES,  Rock  Ahead,  I.,  p.  185. 
If  Lord  Ticehurst  married,  more  than  half 
Gilbert  Lloyd's  influence  would  be  gone, 
if  indeed  the  turf  were  not  abandoned, 
and  the  confederate  CHASSED. 

CHAT,  subs,  (thieves').—  i.  A  house. 
For  synonyms,  see  DIGGINGS. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mag.,  XL.,  501.  I  piped  a  slavey  (ser- 
vant) come  out  of  a  CHAT  (house). 

2.  (common).  —  The     female 
ptidendurn.     (From  French  chat, 
a   cat,    and    by    implication    the 
*  pussy,'] 

3.  (common).  —  The  truth  ;  the 
real  state  of  a  case  ;   the  proper 
words  to  use  ;  the  '  correct  card.  ' 

1819.  THOMAS  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Memorial  to  Congress,  p.  6.  And,  setting 
in  case  there  should  come  such  a  rumpus, 
As  some  mode  of  settling  the  CHAT  we 
must  compass,  With  which  the  tag-rag 
will  have  nothing  to  do,  What  think  you, 
great  swells,  of  a  royal  set-to? 

1862.  TROLLOPE,  Orley  Farm,  ch. 
yi.  Has  the  gentleman  any  right  to  be 
in  this  room  at  all,  or  has  he  not  ?  Is 
he  commercial,  or  is  he—  miscellaneous? 
That's  the  CHAT  as  I  take  it. 

4.  (low).  —  Gabble  ;  chatter  ; 
impudence  ;  e.g.,  None  of  your 
CHAT,  or  I'll  give  you  a  shove  in 
the  eye. 

Verb. — To  hang. — See  CHATES, 
sense  I.  [This  reading,  however, 
is  problematical.] 

1513.  G.  DOUGLAS,  sEneis,  viii.,  Prol. 
126.  Quod.  I,  churle,  ga  CHAT  the,  and 
chide  with  ane  vthir. 

CHATES,  subs.  (old). — i.  The  gal- 
lows, (Also  CHATTES  and 
CHATS.  )  [Doubtful  as  to  deriva- 
tion, see  quot.  1610.]  For 
synonyms,  see  NUBBING-CHEAT. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
CHATTES  :  the  gallowes. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  37.  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  CHATES, 
the  Gallowes  :  here  he  [Harman,  author  of 
a  Caveat  for  Cursitors-date,  c.  1570,  re- 
printed as  The  Belman  of  London,  con- 
taining list  of  cant  words]  mistakes  both 
the  simple  Word,  because  he  so  found  it 
printed,  not  knowing  the  true  originall 
thereof,  and  also  in  the  compound  ;  as 
for  CHATES  it  should  be  Cheates,  which 
word  is  vsed  generally  for  things,  as  Tip 
me  that  Cheate,  Give  me  that  thing  :  so 
that  if  you  will  make  a  word  for  the 
Callous,  you  must  put  thereto  this  word, 
Treyning,  which  signifies  hanging ;  and 
so  Treyning  Cheate  is  as  much  to  say, 
hanging  things,  or  the  Callous,  and  not 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue^  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874).  CHATS  :  the 

1690,     B.  E.  Diet.  Cant.  Crew,  s<v. 
1706.     E.  COLES,  Eng.  Diet.,  s.v. 
1725.     New  Cant.  Diet.,  s.v. 
1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 
1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s,v. 
1881.     New  York  Slang  Dict.<  s.v. 

2.  (old).— Lice.  (Also  CHATS 
and  CHATTS.)  [Grose  suggests 
that  CHATTS  is  an  abbreviation 
of  chattels  in  the  sense  of  cattle 
— lice  being  the  chief  live-stock 
of  beggars,  gipsies,  and  the  rest 
of  the  canting  crew ;  the  his- 



tory  of  the  word  '  chattel '  ap- 
pears to  bear  out  his  contention. 
The  Norman  catel  passed  later 
into  cattell)  and  these  forms  were 
in  the  sixteenth  century  restricted 
to  live-stock,  chat  tell  passing 
from  legal  French  into  general 
use  for  the  wider  sense — article  of 

1690.     B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Creiv,  s.v. 

1725.     New  Cant.  Diet.,  s.v. 

1812.     J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Diet.,  s.v. 

1864.     HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  s.v. 

citizens  ;  crabs  ;  crumbs  ;  friends 
in  need  ;  back  friends  ;  grey 
backs ;  black  cattle  ;  Scots  Greys  ; 
gentleman's  companions  ;  creep- 
ers ;  gold -backed  'uns  ;  German 
ducks  ;  dicky-birds  ;  familiars  ; 
saddle-backs  ;  Yorkshire  Greys. 

pagnols  (popular  :  formerly  lice 
were  called  'Spanish  bugs,'j&w;c 
espagnols,  to  distinguish  them 
from  the  cintex  lectuarins,  or 
common  bed  bug)  ;  un  cojuillon 
(popular  :  also  '  a  pilgrim  ')  ;  les 
goux  (thieves')  ;  le  garni  >  on 
(pop.  =  garrison)  ;  un  loupate 
( =  poux,  disguised)  ;  un  habitant 
( =  a  householder  or  '  citizen  ')  ; 
un  grenadier  (popular) ;  un  got 
(thieves')  ;  un  mousquetaire  gris 
(pop.  =a  grey  musketeer). 

rerg  selfn  (perhaps  the  nearest 
German  equivalent  to  the  English 
'gentleman's  companion,'  the 
German  word  signifying  '  skin- 
society  ')  ;  Jokel)  or  Jokelche,  Jo- 
kelcher,  Juckel,  fucktler  (sing.  : 
also  =  a  postillion,  '  one  who 
rides,'  the  latter,  however,  being 
more  commonly  rendered  Post- 
Juckel.  Ave-Lallement  derives  it 
from  fcickel  or  Jockel,  diminutives 

of  Jacob,  but  there  are  the 
German  words,  Jucken,  '  to  itch,' 
and  Juckler^  'one  who  itches.' 
It  is  quite  possible  that  the  two 
last  are  later,  historically.  In 
connection,  see  next  example)  ; 
Hans  Walter  (in  Luther's  Liber 
Vagatotum  [1529].  Hanz  liter- 
ally means  Jack,  or  John  [Cf., 
preceding  /okel~\,  the  old  word 
Hansa  refers  to  a  multitude  ;  old 
German  Uanse,  a  society  ;  Hans, 
a  companion);  ICinne,t>l.  Kinnim 
(of  purely  Hebrew  origin;  Kinni- 
machler—-^.  'dirty,  filthy  fellow,' 
or  '  an  avaricious  man,'  literally 
'  a  lice-eater  '  ;  Kinn  inter  ^  a  man 
full  of  lice.  The  Fieselsprache  has 
Kineh  and  Kinehbruder  to  signify 
'  an  intimate  companion,'  or 
'  chum  '  ;  Marschirer  or  die  Mitten 
Maischirer  (Viennese  thieves'  for 
lice  ;  literally  '  the  silent  walkers'); 
Sand  (used  for  vermin  in  general 
and  lice  in  particular  ;  sandig 
sein,  to  be  lousy). 

grisa^lti  ;  guallino. 

(w  ;  a  low  term). 

CHAT-  HOLE,  subs,  (prison).  —  A  hole 
made  by  convicts  in  a  wall, 
to  carry  on  a  conversation. 
[From  CHAT,  an  abbreviation  of 
chatter,  +  HOLE.] 

CHATS,  suds.  (old).  —  i. 

2.  (thieves').  —  See  quot. 

1821.    D.  HAGGART,  L,ife,  Glossary,  p. 
171.     CHATS,  seals. 

3.  (Stock  Exchange).  —  Lon- 
don, Chatham  and  Dover  Railway 

CHATTER-  BASKET,  subs,  (common). 
—  A  prattling   child.     Originally 




dialectical,  CHATTER  -  BASKET 
being  the  Lancashire  form ;  while 
in  West  Somerset  they  say  CHAT- 

and  CHATTER-BLADDER,  subs. 
(common). — Variants  ofcHATTER- 
BOX  (q.v).  For  synonyms,  see 

1842.  DICKENS,  A nterican  Notes,  ch. 
xi.,  p.  94.  That  little  girl  of  fifteen  with 
the  loquacious  chin  :  who,  to  do  her 
justice,  acts  up  to  it  .  .  .  for  of  all  the 
small  CHATTERBONES  that  ever  invaded 
the  repose  of  drowsy  ladies'  cabin,  she  is 
the  first  and  foremost. 

CHATTERBOX,  subs,  (colloquial). — 
An  incessant  talker  ;  used  con- 
temptuously of  adults  and  play- 
fully of  children.  [From  CHAT- 
TER, gabble  +  BOX,  a  receptacle; 
metaphorically,  abox  full  of  chatter 
Cf.,  BAG  OF  BONES.]  A  variant 
is  CHATTERBONES  (q.v.).  For 
synonyms,  see  CLACK-BOX. 

1785.  GROSE,  Dictionary  of  the  Vul- 
gar Tongue.  CHATTER  Box,  one  whose 
tongue  runs  twelve  score  to  the  dozen  ;  a 
chattering  man  or  woman. 

1840.  C.  DICKENS,  Old  Curiosity 
Shop  [C.  D.  ed.],  p.  93.  A  set  of  idle 


1878.  E.  JENKINS,  Haverholme,  p.  52. 
A  mere  political  CHATTERBOX. 

CHATTER-BROTH,  su&s.(old). — Tea; 
the  beverage  and  the  party.  A 
Yorkshire  equivalent  is  CHATTER- 
WATER.  Quoted  by  Grose  [  1 785]. 
Variants  are  CAT-LAP  and  SCAN- 
DAL-BROTH (q.v.). 

CHATTERER,  subs,  (pugilistic). — A 
heavy  blow  upon  the  mouth  :  or, 
says  Peter  Corcoran,  '  a  blow  that 
tells.'  For  synonyms  see  DIG. 

1827.  REYNOLDS  ('  Peter  Corcoran '), 
Sonnet  on  The  fancy.  I've  left  the  Fives- 
Court  rush,  —  the  flash  —  the  rally  The 
noise  of  '  Go  it,  Jack '  —  the  stop  —  the 
blow — The  shout — the  CHATTERING  hit — 
the  check — the  sally. 

CHATTERERS,  subs,  (common). — 
The  teeth.  For  synonyms,  see 

CHATTERY,  subs,  (thieves'). — See 

1821.  D.  HAGGART,  Life,  Glossary, 
p.  171.  CHATTERY,  cotion,  or  linen 

CHATTY,  subs.  (old). — A  filthy  man. 
[From  CHAT  (q.v.),  a  louse, +Y.] 
English  variants  are  CHATTY- 
Amongst  French  equivalents  may 
be  mentioned  un  bifteck  a  maqu- 
art  (Maquart  is  the  name  of  a 
well-known  knacker)  ;  un  sale 
p&tissier  (literally  a  dirty  pastry- 
cook) ;  un  kroumir  /  un  %o>'gniat ; 
un  pe gorier. 

Adj.  (common). — Filthy;  lousy. 
[For  derivation,  see  subs.~\  A 
French  equivalent  is  graphique 
— itself  a  very  'telling,'  'speak- 
ing,' or  '  chatty  '  expression  ;  also 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Dictionary. 
CHATTY  :  lousy. 

CHATTY- FEEDER,  subs.  (old). — A 
spoon.  [A  vague  reference  to 
the  mouth  as  the  place  of  '  chat ' 
or  '  chatter. ']  For  synonyms  see 

1881.  New  York  Slang  Dictionary. 
'  And  where  the  swag  so  bleakly  pinched, 
A  hundred  stretches  hence  ?  .  The 

chips,  the  fawneys,  CHATTY- FEEDERS. 

CHAD  NT,  sztbs.  (old). — A  song. — • 
See  CHANT,  subs.,  sense  i. 

Verb  (vagrants'). — To  sing  bal- 
lads, etc.,  in  the  streets. — See 
CHANT,  verb,  sense  i. 

To  CHAUNT  THE  PLAY,  verbal 
phr.  (thieves'). — To  explain  the 
tricks  and  manoeuvres  of  thieves. 




CHAUNTED,  ppl.  adj.  (streets').— 
Sung  of,  and  celebrated,  in  street 
ballads.  [From  CHAUNT,  to  sing 
street  ballads,  +ED.] — See  CHANT- 
ING, subs.,  sense  2. 

1827.  REYNOLDS  ('  Peter  Corcoran'). 
Lines  to  Philip  Samson  in  The  Fancy. 
'  Be  content  that  you've  beat  Dolly  Smith, 
and  been  CHAUNTED,  And  trained  — 
stripped  —  and  petted,  and  hit  off  ycur 
legs ! ' 

CHAUNTER,  suds,  (vagrants'). — i. 
A  street  singer  of  ballads,  dying 
speeches,  etc.  Rarely  heard  now 
except  in  the  poorest  neighbour- 
hoods. His  practice  is  peculiar. 
One  man  gets  as  far  as  he  can, 
and  when  his  voice  cracks  his 
companion  takes  things  up.  For 
this  reason  the  business  is  con- 
ducted by  a  brace  of  men,  by  a 
man  and  woman,  or  by  a  woman 
andchild. — See  quot.  1851.  [From 

CHAUNT,      tO     Sing,   +  ER.]      Also 

called  a  PAPER-WORKER  (q.v.)  ; 
and  DEATH  -  HUNTER  (q.v.}. 
FRENCH  SYNONYMS  are  un  chan- 
teur  a  la  balade  or  au  baladage  ; 
un  goualeur  or  une  goualeuse  (see 
EUGENE  SUE  Mysteresde  Paris}-, 
une  cigale  (popular:  a  female 
street-singer);  and  un  braillard* 
Fourbesque,  granchetto  (a  term 
also  applied  to  one  who  speaks 
gibberish  or  thieves'  lingo). 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  229.  The 
CHAUNTERS,  or  those  who  do  not  cry,  but 
(if  one  may  so  far  stretch  the  English 
language)  sing  the  contents  of  the  'papers' 
they  vend.  Ibid,  p.  240.  The  running 
patterer  ...  is  accompanied  generally  by 
a  CHAUNTER  .  .  .  The  CHAUNTER  not 
only  sings,  but  fiddles. 

2.  (common), — See  CHANTER, 
sense  I. 

CHAUNTER-COVE,  subs,  (thieves'). 
— A  reporter.  [From  CHAUNT, 
to  '  crack  '  or  '  cry  up,'  +  ER  + 
COVE,  a  man.] 

CHAUNTER-CULL,  subs.  (old). — A 
writer  of  ballads  and  street 
literature  for  the  use  of  CHAUNT- 
ERS or  '  street  patterers.'  They 
haunted  certain  well-known  pub- 
lic-houses in  London  and  Bir- 
mingham, and  were  open  to  write 
ballads  '  to  order  '  on  any  sub- 
ject, the  rate  of  remuneration 
varying  from  half-a-crown  to 
seven-and-sixpence.  The  chaunter 
having  practically  disappeared, 
his  poet  has  gone  with  him. 

1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
Hi,  58.  [Named  and  described  in.] 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CHAUNTER-CULLS  :  Grub  Street  writers, 
who  compose  songs,  carrols,  etc.,  for 
ballad  singers. 

1834.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood, 
bk.  IV.,  ch.  vi.  I  trust,  whenever  the 
CHANTER-CULLS  and  last-speech  scribblers 
get  hold  of  me,  they'll  at  least  put  no 
cursed  nonsense  into  my  mouth. 


(old). — An  advertiser. 



subs.  (old).  —  A  prostitute. 
[From  CHAUVERING,  sexual 
intercourse.  +  DONNA  (q.v.),  a 
woman,  or  MOLL  (q.v.),  a  loose 
female.]  For  synonyms,  see 

CHAW,  subs,  (common). — I.  A 
countryman  ;  a  yokel ;  a  bump- 
kin. [A  contraction  of  CHAW- 
BACON  (q.v.).  In  common  use 
at  Harrow  School.] 

1856.  T.  HUGHES,  Tom  Browns 
School-days,  pt.  I.,  ch.  i.  There's  nothing 
like  the  old  country-side  for  me,  and  no 
music  like  the  twang  of  the  real  old  Saxon 
tongue,  as  one  gets  it  fresh  from  the  veri- 
table CHAW  in  the  White  Horse  Vale. 

2.    (vulgar). — A  mouthful  ;    a 
'  gobbet '  ;  in  the  mouth  at  once  ; 




e.g.,  a  quid  of  tobacco  ;  a  dram  of 
spirits,  etc.  [From  CHAW,  verb, 

1749.  '  Humours  of  the  Fleet,'  quoted 
in  Ash  ton's  The  Fleet,  p.  286.  And  in 
his  nether  jaw  Was  stuff  'd  an  elemosynary 

1772.  Gentleman*  Magazine,  XLII., 
IQI.  The  tars  .  .  .  Took  their  CHAWS, 
hitched  their  trousers,  and  grinn'd  in  our 
faces.  [M.] 

1833.  MARRY  AT,  Peter  Simple,  xiv. 
The  boy  was  made  to  open  his  mouth, 
while  the  CHAW  of  tobacco  was  extracted. 

1838.  GLASCOCK,  Land  Sharks  and 
Sea  Gulls.  If.,  123.  «  I'm  blest  if  I'm  fit 
for  work,  thout  a  raw  CHAW.' 

1864.  Daily  Telegraph,  26  July.  The 
gentleman  have  often  '  that  within  that 
passeth  show,'  to  wit,  a  CHAW  of  tobacco: 
this  is  not  very  conducive  to  volubility  in 

3.  (University).  —  A  trick  ;  de- 
vice ;  or  '  sell.' 

Verb  (vulgar).  —  I.  To  eat  or 
chew  noisily  and  roughly.  To 
bite  (see  quot.,  1890).  Once 
literary  ;  now  degenerate,  and 
vulgarly  applied  ;  specifically  '  to 
chew  tobacco.' 

1890.  T^e  Oont,  RUDYARD  KIPLING 
in  Scots  Observer,  .  .  .  We  socks  him 
with  a  stretcher-pole,  and  'eads  him  off  in 
front,  And  when  we  saves  his  bloomin" 
life,  he  CHAWS  our  bloomin'  arm. 

2.  (University).  —  To  deceive, 
trick,  '  sell,'  or  impose  upon  one. 

To  CHAW  OVER,  verbal  phr. 
(common).  —  To  create  ridicule 
by  repeating  one's  words. 

To  CHAW  wp,phr.  (American). 
—To  get  the  better  of;  to  de- 
molish ;  *  do  for  ';  smash  or 
finish.  CHAWED  TJP  :  utterly 
done  for. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  xvi.,  p.  162,  '  Here's  full  particular? 
of  the  patriotic  loco-foco  movement  yester- 
day, in  which  the  Whigs  was  so  CHAWED 

18fi2.  C.  F.  BROWNE,  Artemus 
Ward:  His  Book,  p.  66.  We  CHAWED 
'em  UP,  that's  what  we  did. 

phr.  (American). — To  retract  an 
assertion ;  '  to  eat  one's  words. ' 

CHAW-BACON,  subs,  (colloquial). — 
A  country  bumpkin.  [From 
CHAW,  a  vulgar  form  of  chew,  to 
masticate  or  chew,  +  BACON,  the 
staple  food  of  agricultural  labour- 
ers.] Other  nicknames  for  a  coun- 
tryman are  bacon-slicer  ;  clod- 
hopper ;  barn-door  savage  ;  clod- 
pole  ;  cart  -  horse  ;  Johnny ; 
cabbage -gelder  ;  turnip-sucker  ; 
joskin  ;  jolterhead  ;  yokel  ;  clod- 
crusher,  etc. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CHAW 
BACON.  A  countryman.  A  stupid  fellow. 

1822.  Black-woods  Magazine,  XII., 
379.  You  live  cheap  with  CHAW-BACONS 
and  see  a  fine,  flat  country.  [M.] 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  v.  'Give  me  the  pail,  you 
lop-eared  buffoon— do  you  call  that  the 
way  to  feed  a  pig?'  and  the  General, 
seizing  the  bucket  from  an  astonished 
CHAW-BACON,  who  stood  aghast,  as  if  he 
thought  his  master  was  mad,  managed  to 
spill  the  greater  part  of  the  contents  over 
his  own  person  and  gaiters. 

CHAWS,  subs,  (venery). — Copula- 
tion. For  synonyms,  see  GREENS. 

CHEAP.  ON  THE  CHEAP,  adv.  phr. 
(colloquial). — At  a  low  rate  [of 
money]  \  economically  ;  keeping 
up  a  showy  appearance  on  small 

1884.  Comhill  Mag.,  June,  p.  614. 
His  being's  end  and  aim,  both  by  day  and 
night,  is  to  obtain  as  much  drink  as  pos- 
sible ON  THE  CHEAP. 

CHEAP  AND  NASTY,  adv.  phr. 
(colloquial). — Said  of  articles 
which,  though  pleasing  to  the 
eye,  are  'shoddy'  in  fact.  For 
special  application,  see  quot. 




1864.  Athenceum,  Oct.  29.  CHEAP 
AND  NASTY,  or,  in  a  local  form,  '  CHEAP 

AND      NASTY,       LIKE       SHORT'S      IN       THE 

STRAND,'  a  proverb    applied   to   the   de- 
ceased founder  of  cheap  dinners. 

To  FEEL  CHEAP,  verb  phr. 
(common). — To  'have  a  mouth 
on  ; '  to  be  suffering  from  a  night's 

adv.  phr.  (colloquial). — Inexpen- 
sive ;  as  cheap  as  may  be.  DOG 
CHEAP  is  the  earliest  form  in 
which  this  colloquialism  ap- 
pears in  English  literature,  DIRT 
CHEAP  not  being  found  earlier 
than  1837. 

1577.  HOLINSHED,  Chron.  Descr.  frel., 
iii.  They  afourded  their  wares  so  DOGGE 
CHEAPE,  that  etc.  [M.] 

1837.  C.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist, 
xxxvii.  '  I  sold  myself,'  said  Mr.  Bumble 
. •  .  .  '  I  went  very  reasonable.  Cheap, 

DIRT    CHEAP  !  ' 


WAY   OF    CHEAPSIDE,/^;.     (old)., 

— That    is    '  he    gave     little   or 
nothing  for  it '  ;  '  he  got  it  cheap. ' 

CHEAT,  subs.  (old). — A  general 
name  for  any  object.  [From 
Anglo-Saxon  ceat,  a  thing.  Cf.^ 
quot.,  1608.]  A  term  which,  with 
a  descriptive  adjective,  appears 
in  a  variety  of  forms  in 

.  Old  Cant.  The  CHEAT  par 
excellence  was  the  gallows,  also 
known  as  the  NUBBING,  TOPPING, 

or      TREYNING  -  CHEAT.  The 

word   is  variously    spelt — CHET, 

CHEAT.     The  following  combina- 
tions   will  serve  to   illustrate   its 
•   use. 

BELLY-CHETE  =  An  Apron. 

BLETING-CHETE  =  A  sheep  or  calf. 

CACKLING-CHETE  =  A  fowl. 

CRASHING-CHEATS  =  The  teeth. 


HEARING-CHETES  =  The  ears. 

Low'lNG-CHETE  =   A  COW. 

LULL  A  BY -CHETE       =  An  infant. 
MOFLING-CHETE       =  A  napkin. 

NUBBING-CHEAT       =  The  gallows. 
PRATTLING-CHETE  =  The  tongue. 

QUACKING-CHETE       =   A  duck. 

SMELLING-CHETE     =  The  nose. 
TOPPING-CHEAT        =  The  gallows. 
TREYNING-CHEAT     =  The  gallows. 
TRUNDLING-CHEAT  =  A  cart  or  coach. 

All  of  which  see. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  [ed.  1869], 
p.  86.  Now  we  have  well  bous'd,  let  vs 
strike  some  CHETE  [that  is],  now  we  have 
well  dronke,  let  us  steale  some  thinge. 

3608.  DEKKER,  Belman  of  London, 
in  wks.  (Grosart)  III.,  117.  The  Cheating 
Law  or  the  Art  of  winning  money  by 
false  dyce.  Those  that  practise  this 
studie  call  themselues  Cheaters,  the  dyce 
Cheaters,  and  the  money  which  they  pur- 
chase Cheates :  borrowing  the  tearme  from 
our  common  Lawyers,  with  whome  all 
casuals  as  fall  to  the  Lord  at  the  holding 
of  his  Leetes,  as  Waifes,  Strayes,  and  such 
like,  are  said  to  be  Escheated  to  the  Lord's 
•vse,  and  are  called  Cheates. 

1611.  SHAKSPEARE,  Winters  Tale, 
iv.,  2,  28.  With  dye  and  drab,  I  purchas'd 
this  Caparison,  and  my  Reuennew  is  the 
silly  CHEATE.  Gallowes,  and  Knocke,  are 
too  powerfull  on  the  Highway. 

1754.  FIELDING,  Jonathan  Wild,  bk. 
IV.,  ch.  ii.  See  what  your  laziness  is 
come  to  ;  to  the  CHEAT,  for  thither  will 
you  go  now,  that's  infallible. 

CHEATS,  subs.  (old). --Sham  cuffs 
or  wristbands.  C/.,  DICKY  and 
SHAMS. — See  also  quot.,  1688. 

1688.  R.  HOLME,  Armoury,  III.,  p. 
96,  col.  i.  A  ...  kind  of  Waistcoats  are 
called  CHATES,  because  they  are  to  be 
seen  rich  and  gaudy  before,  when  all  the 
back  part  is  no  such  thing.  Ibid,  III., 
p.  258,  col.  i.  Such  Gallants  weare  not 
CHEATS  or  half  Sleeves,  but  .  .  .  their 
Waistcoats  are  the  same  clear  throughout. 


1690.  B.  E.,  Dictionary  Canting 
Crew.  CHEATS  .  .  .  also  Wristbands  or 
sham  Sleeves  worn  for  true,  or  whole  ones. 

1785.    GROSE,  Diet.  Vnlg.  Tongue.  ^ 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum.  i 

Sham  sleeves  to  put  over  a  dirty  shift  or 

CHECKS,  subs.  (American). — Money 
in  general ;  cash.  [A  term  de- 
rived from  poker,  in  which  game 




counters  or  CHECKS,  bought  at 
certain  fixed  rates,  are  equivalent 
to  current  coin.]  For  synonyms, 
see  ACTUAL  and  C/.t  CHIPS. 

CHECKS,  pkr.  (American). — See 
ante,  To  CASH  (or  PASS  IN)  ONE'S 
CHECKS.  To  die.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  ALOFT  and  C/.,  CHIPS. 

CHEEK,  subs,  (colloquial). — I.  In- 
solence; jaw;  e.g.,  'none  of 
your  cheek '  or  '  chat '  and  '  none 
of  your  jaw.'  Equivalents  are 
SHILLINGS  ;  the  last  a  corrup- 
tion of  *  nonchalance  ! '  Among 
foreign  equivalents  may  be 
mentioned  the  French  avoir 
un  toupet  de  bceuf ;  and 
the  Spanish  adjectives  cari- 
raido  ( '  impudent ')  and  desol- 
lado  (from  desollar,  '  to  skin, 
flay ') ;  desuellacaras  (m  ;  an  im- 
pudent, shameless  person) ;  pap- 
arrticha  (f.  impertinence). 

1840.  MARRYAT,  Poor  Jack,  xxii. 
The  man,  who  was  a  sulky,  saucy  sort 
of  chap  .  .  .  gives  CHEEK. 

1848.  J.  MITCHELL,  Jailjml.,  July 
20.  I  once  asked  .  .  .  what  fault  a  man 
had  committed  who  was  flogged.  .  ".  . 
1  For  giving  CHEEK,  sir.'  [M.] 

1884.  G.  MOORE,  Mummer's  Wife 
(1887),  p.  133.  If  he  gives  me  any  of  his 
CHEEK  I'll  knock  him  down. 

2.  Audacity  ;  confidence  ;  im- 
pudence ;  '  brass  ' ;  '  face.'  For- 
merly '  brow '  was  used  in  the 
same  sense. — (See  quot.,  1642.) 

1642.  FULLER,  Holy  State,  bk.  IV., 
ch.  xi.  They  were  men  of  more  BROW 
than  brain,  being  so  ambitious  to  be  known, 
that  they  had  rather  be  hissed  down  than 
not  come  upon  the  stage. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  I.,  p.  471.  They  [the 
Crocusses]  'd  actually  have  the  CHEEK  to 
put  a  blister  on  a  cork  leg.  Ibid,  p.  404 


(provided  with)  a  noggin  o'  rum  to  '  give 
him  CHEEK,'  and  make  him  speak  up  to 
his  victims. 

1882.  Daily  News,  Oct.  10,  p.  $,  col. 
6.  Of  this  fact,  I  know  no  more  signal 
instance  than  the  seizing  of  the  Citadel 
of  Cairo.  As  I  stood  on  the  spot  the 
other  day  I  realised  for  the  first  time  the 
— if  you  will  pardon  me  the  use  of  a  vulgar 
but  expressive  colloquialism — astounding 
CHEEK  of  the  feat. 

1889.  Answers,  p.   59,   col.  2.    The 
whole    suggestion   savoured    so   much    of 
what    our     Transatlantic     brothers    call 
MONUMENTAL    CHEEK,     that    the    Duke 
hardly  knew  what   to  say,  or  what  emo- 
tions to  express. 

1890.  Athena-urn,    Feb.    22,    p.  253, 
col.  2.     In  various  disguises  Miss  Palmer 
sings,  dances,  and  exhibits  her  powers  of 
coquetry  and  CHEEK. 

Verb. — To    address    a    person 

1851.    MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London   Poor,    I.,    p.   452.     (They) 
suaded  me  to  go  and  beg  with  them, 
I  couldn't  CHEEK  it. 

1857.  DICKENS,  Our  Vestry,  in  Re- 
printed Pieces,  p.  292.  Dogginson  .  .  . 
informed  another  gentleman  .  .  .  that  if 
he  CHEEK'D  him  he  would  resort  to  the 
extreme  measure  of  knocking  his  blessed 
head  off. 

1890.  Saturday  Review,  Feb.  i,  p. 
151,  col.  i.  Not  only  was  Dick  always 
ready  to  CHEEK  his  employer,  and  by  his 
own  account  usually  capable  of  getting  the 
better  of  him,  but  he  was  on  the  same  sort 
of  terms  with  his  pupils. 

To  ONE'S  OWN  CHEEK,  phr. 
(colloquial).  —  To  one's  own 
share ;  all  to  oneself.  Some- 
times used  in  the  sense  of  allow- 
ance, i.e.,  '  Where's  my  CHEEK  ? ' 

1841.  LEVER,  Charles  O'Malley,  ch. 
Ixxxviii.  And  though  he  consumed  some- 
thing like  a  prize  on  to  HIS  OWN  CHEEK, 
he  at  length  had  to  call  for  cheese. 

1855.  Punch,  vol.  XXVIII.,  p.  10. 
[From  day  to  day,  for  near  a  week,]  '  I 
had  a  boiled  salt  round  of  beef  On  Monday 
ALL  TO  MY  OWN  CHEEK  Whereon  my 
hunger  sought  relief.' 

To  CHEEK  UP,  verbal  phr.  (col- 
loquial).—  =  CHEEK,  to  answer 
saucily.— See  CHEEK,  verb. 

Cheek- A  die. 



1867.  North  Briton,  June  5.  '  Royal 
Dramatic  College."  We  shall  not  soon 
forget  seeing,  during  our  visit  to  the  Fair 
last  July,  a  number  of  ladies  dressed  up 
as  jockeys,  confined,  like  so  many  chat- 
tering monkeys,  in  a  cage,  CHEEKING  UP 
to  gentlemen,  selling  them  '  k'rect  cards,' 

CHEEK-ACHE,  pht .  (common). — 
To  be  made  to  blush  ;  to  be 
abashed.  [From  CHEEK,  the 
face,  +  ACHE,  a  metaphorical 
exaggeration  of  the  pain  of 

CHEEKINESS,  subs,  (colloquial). ^- 
Impudence  ;  effrontery  ;  cool 

1847.  Illustrated  London  News,  28 
Aug.  p.  142,  col.  i.  They  were  beat  .  .  . 
by  their  slow,  loggy  stroke,  and  by  their 

CHEEKINESS.       [M.] 

1854.  MARTIN  AND  AYTOUN,  Bon 
Gualtier  Ballads ,  '  Francesca  da 
Rimini.'  There's  wont  to  be  at 
conscious  times  like  these.  An 
affectation  of  a  bright-eyed  ease,  —  A 
crispy-CHEEKiNESS,  if  so  I  dare,  Describe 
the  swaling  of  a  jaunty  air. 

1857.  A.  TROLLOPE,  Three  Clerks, 
ch.  xliv.  He  lived  but  on  the  CHEEKI- 
NESS of  his  gait  and  habits ;  he  had 
become  member  of  Parliament,  Govern- 
ment official,  railway  director,  and  club 
aristocrat,  merely  by  dint  of  cheek. 

CHEEKISH,  adj.  (collpquial). — 
Audacious  ;  impudent  ;  saucy. 
[From  CHEEK  +  ISH.] 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  I.,  p.  248.  Being  CHEEKISH 
(saucy)  to  the  beadle. 

CHEEKS,  subs.  (old). — i.  Thepos? 
teriors.  For  synonyms,  see 
BLIND-CHEEKS  :  to  which  may 
be  added  toby ;  stern ;  catas- 
trophe ;  latter-end ;  jacksy-pardo; 
and  juff. 
1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulgar  Tongue. 

2.  •  (old). — An  accomplice. 



1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant, 
3  ed.,  p.  448.  I  have  seen  CHEEKS  (a 
flash  name  for  an  accomplice). 

CHEEKS  AND  EARS.  —  A  fantastic 
name  for  a  kind  of  head-dress, 
of  temporary  fashion. 

(?)  Land.  Prod.,  iv.,  3,  Suppl. 
Sh.,  II.,  511,  Fr.  O  then  thou  c; 
tell  how  to  help  me  to  CHEEKS  AND  EARS. 
L.  Yes,  mistress,  very  well.  Fl.  S. 
CHEEKS  AND  EARS  !  why,  mistress 
Frances,  want  you  CHEEKS  AND  EARS? 
methinks  you  have  very  fair  ones.  Fi. 
Thou  art  a  fool  indeed,  Tom,  thou 
knowest  what  I  mean.  Civ.  Ay,  ay, 
Kester;  'tis  such  as  they  wear  a'  their 

CHEEKS  THE  MARINE,  subs.  phr. 
(nautical).  —  Mr.  Nobody.  An 
imaginary  personage  on  board 
ship  created  and  popularised  by 
Captain  Marryat.  The  epithet 
has,  likewise,  passed  into  a  by- 
word as  a  sarcastic  rejoinder  to 
a  foolish  or  incredible  story  — 
'tell  that  to  CHEEKS  THE 

1833.  MARRYAT,  Peter  Simple  (ed. 
1846),  vol.  L,  ch.  vii.,  p.  36.  I  enquired 
who,  and  he  said  CHEEKS  THE  MARINE. 

1878-80.  JUSTIN  MCCARTHY,  History 
ofOurO-wn  7Yw<?.y,II.,ch.xiii.,p.  15(1848). 
CHEEKS  THE  MARINE  was  a  personage 
very  familiar  at  that  time  to  the  readers  of 
Captain  Marryat's  sea  stories,  and  the 
name  of  that  mythical  hero  appeared  with 
bewildering  iteration  in  the  petition. 

1883.  CLARK  RUSSELL,  Sailors'  Lan- 
guage. CHEEKS  THE  MARINE  :  an  imagi- 
nary being  in  a  man-of-war. 

CHEEKY,  adj.  (colloquial).  —  Coolly 
presumptuous  ;  impudent  or 
saucy.  Fr,,  insolpe. 

1859.  H.  Y^wzsim,  Geoffrey  Hamlyn, 
ch.  xxyi.     '  You  will  find,  Sir,'  said   Lee, 
'  that  these  men   in   this   here  hut  are   a 
rougher  lot  than  you  think  for;   very  like 
they'll  be  CHEEKY.' 

1860.  Punch,  vol.  XXXIX.,  p.   30. 
'  The  Volunteer  on  July  fourteenth.'     But 
that  Ass  SNIVENS  —  a  coming  it  as  CHEEKY 
as  could  be.  i 



1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  8  Nov.,  p.  2, 
col.  3.  The  CHEEKY  boy,  with  the  natural 
ingratitude  of  youth,  often  makes  a  long 
nose  at  his  master,  even  when  showing  off 
all  that  the  master  has  taught  him. 

CHEESE.  THE  CHEESE, phr.  (com- 
mon).— i.  Anything  first-rate  or 
highly  becoming ;  the  expression 
runs  up  and  down  the  whole 
gamut  of  cheese  nomenclature  ' 


[It  has  been  variously  traced  to 
the  Anglo  -  Saxon  ceosan,  to 
choose  ;  German,  kiesen  ;  French, 
chose  ;  Persian,  chiz  ;  Hindu, 
cheez,  thing.  Summing  up  the 
evidence,  the  expression — (barring 
a  solitary  reference  in  the  London 
Guide  oi  1818,  where  it  is  referred 
to  a  bald  translation  of  c'est  une 
autre  chose,  i.e.,  that  is  another 
CHEESE,  subsequently  coming 
to  signify  that  is  the  real  thing)— 
appears  to  have  come  into  general 
•  vogue  about  1840.  This  conten- 
tion is  borne  out  in  some  measure 
by  a  correspondent  to  Notes  and 
Queries  (1853,  I  S.,  viii., 
p.  89),  who  speaks  of  it  as 
about  'ten  or  twelve  years  old,' 
a  calculation  which  carries  it  back 
to  the  date  when  it  appears  to 
.  have  started  in  literature.  Yule, 
writingmuch  later,  says  the  expres- 
sion was  common  among  young 
Anglo-Indians,  e.g.,  'my  new 
Arab  is  the  real  ckixj  i.e.,  'the 
real  thing,'  a  fact  which  points  to 
a  Persian  origin.]  For  synonyms, 
see  Ai. 

1835.  HALIBURTON  ('Sam  Slick'), 
The  Clockmaker,  3  S.,  ch.  xiv.  Whatever 
is  the  go  in  Europe  will  soon  be  THE 
CHEESE  here. 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  Ingoldsby 
Legends,  p.  418.  Cries  Rigmaree,  rubbing 
her  hands,  'that  will  please — My  "  Con- 
juring cap  " —  it's  the  thing  ;  —  it's  THE 

1842.  Punch,  vol.  III.,  p.  33.  'I 
hopes  my  love  will  excuse  me  if  I'm  noi 

quite— quite —      '  Comtne  ilfaut,  George.' 
'  I  don't  mean  that,  love— not  quite  THE 


1860.  Punch,  vol.  XXXIX.,  p.  97, 
Were  the  custom  [of  putting  mottoes  on 
garments,  temp.  Rich.  II.]  now  revived 
we  can  conceive  what  stupid  mottoes 
would  be  sported  by  the  CEntish  who 
always  mock  and  maul  the  fashion  of  their 
betters  : — '  /  wish  my  gal  to  please :  O, 
aint  I  just  THE  CHEESE  '  would  doubtless 
be  a  popular  device  for  a  new  shirt  front. 

1863.  CHAS.  READE,  Hard  Cash,  II ., 
186.     '  Who  ever  heard  [said  Mrs.  Dodd] 
of  a  young  lady  being    married  without 
something    to    be    married    in  ? '      '  Well 
[said  Edward],  I've   heard  Nudity  is  not 
THE  CHEESE  on  public  occasions. 

2.  subs,  (schools  and  Univer- 
sity). —  An  adept  ;  one  who 
'  takes  the  shine  out  of  another ' 
at  anything ;  at  Cambridge  an 
overdressed  dandy  is  called  a 
tended usage  based  on  sense  i.] 

1864.  Eton    School-days.      '  Do  you 
know  Homer,  Purefoy  ?  '  asked  Chudleigh. 
'  No,  I  have  not  looked  at  the  lesson  yet.' 
1 1  am  sure  I  don't  know  why  you  ever  do ; 
you  are  such  a  CHEESE.     I  want  you  to 
give  me  a  construe.' 

HARD  CHEESE,  phr.  (common). 
—  What  is  barely  endurable  ; 
hard  lines;  bad  luck. 

TIP-CHEESE.  —  Probably 
same  as  TIP-CAT  (q.v.\ 


1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers, 
p.  282  (ed.  1857).  A11  is  gloom  and  silence 
in  the  house  ;  even  the  voice  of  the  child 
is  hushed  ;  his  infant  sports  are  disregarded 
when  his  mother  weeps  ;  his  '  alley  tors ' 
and  his  '  cotnmoneys '  are  alike  neglected  ; 
he  forgets  the  long  familiar  cry  of '  knuckle 
down,'  and  at  TIP-CHEESE,  or  odd  and 
even,  his  hand  is  out. 

CHEESE  IT  !  phr.  (thieves'). — 
Leave  off !  Have  done  !  Be  off ! 
[Thought  to  be  a  corruption  of 
'  cease  it ! ']  •  For  synonyms,  see 
STOW  IT  !^ 

1811.  Lexicon Balatronictun ,  CHEESE 
IT,  the  coves  are  fly  ;  be  silent,  the  people 
understand  our  discourse. 



Cheese-  Toaster. 

1859.  SALA,  Gaslight  and  Daylight, 
ch.  xxviii.  Two  or  three  '  hallos  !  '  and 
'  now  thens  !  '  accompanied  by  a  strong 
recommendation  to  CHEESE  IT  (i.e.,  act  of 
cessation),  causes  these  trifling  annoyances 
to  cease. 

1864.  Times,  7  December.  He  shouted 
'  Murder  !  '  as  well  as  he  could,  and  the 
cries  he  made  bringing  assistance,  he 
heard  one  of  the  men  just  before  they  let 
go  of  him  call  out  '  CHEESE  IT,  CHEESE 
IT,'  which  a  policeman  said  meant  make 

1871.  London  Figaro,  May  13,  p.  3, 
col.  3.  '  CHEESE  THAT,'  cried  Bill.  'The 
genelman's  agoin'  to  read,  and  I  am  agoin' 
to  listen.' 

CHEESE-  BOXES,  subs.  (American). 
—  A  Confederate  nickname  for 
vessels  of  the  '  Monitor  '  type  ; 
first  applied  during  the  Civil 
War  [1860-65].  £/•»  TINCLADS 

1871.  DE  VERB,  Americanisms,  p. 
335.  The  great  inventor  has  not  made  it 
known  what  induced  him  to  choose  the 
name  ['  Monitor  ']  :  hence  etymologists 
have  evolved  it  out  of  their  inner  con- 
sciousness that  he  must  have  borrowed  it 
from  Gray's  Monitor  Dracaena,  a  large 
lizard  covered  with  impenetrable  armour. 
Irreverent  Confederates  called  the  hideous- 
looking  vessels  CHEESE-BOXES,  and  appar- 
ently one  designation  is,  etymologically, 
though  not  aesthetically,  as  good  as  the 

CHEESECUTTER,  subs,  (common).  — 
I.  A  prominent,  aquiline  nose. 
For  synonyms,  see  CONK. 

2.  (common).  —  A  large,  square 
peak   to   a  cap  ;  the  abat-jour  of 
the  Zouaves. 

3.  (in     plural).  —  Bandy-legs. 
For  synonyms,  see  DRUMSTICKS. 

CHEESE-KNIFE,  subs,  (military).  —  A 
sword.  For  synonyms,  see 

CHEESEMONGERS.  —  A  popular 
name  for  the  First  Lifeguards 
until  the  Peninsular  War.  The 

term  then  fell  into  desuetude  ; 
but  at  Waterloo  the  command- 
ing officer  of  the  regiment  had 
not  forgotten  it,  and  when  lead- 
ing to  the  charge,  he  called 
out,  '  Come  on,  you  damned 
CHEESEMONGERS  ! '  an  invitation 
accepted  so  heartily  that  the 
title  was  restored,  with  the 
difference  that  it  was  no  longer 
a  word  of  reproach.  [Some  say 
that  the  nickname  came  from 
their  exclusive  home  service 
until  the  time  of  the  Peninsular 
War  ;  others  that  it  was  bestowed 
on  account  of  the  old  gentle- 
men in  the  corps  declining  to 
serve  when  it  was  remodelled 
in  1788,  on  the  ground  that 
the  ranks  were  no  longer 
composed  of  gentlemen,  but  of 
CHEESEMONGERS.]  Also  called 

CHEESER,  subs.  (old). — An  eructa- 
tion. The  Spanish  has  una 
pluma  (f;  literally  'a  feather')  ; 
zullenco  (a  common  colloquialism); 
soltar  el  preso  (soltar  —  '  to  un- 
loose,' or  'to  untie';  preso  — 
'  a  prisoner '). 


CHEESE-TOASTER,  sttbs.  (military). 
— A  sword. 

ing-fork ;  toasting  iron  ;  sharp  ; 
knitting  -  needle  ;  iron  ;  cheese- 
knife  ;  toll ;  poker. 

(thieves' :  from  the  German 
Stich}\  F  aiguille  h  tt  icoter  les  cotes 
(military  :  r aiguille  h  tricoter  = 
knitting-needle,  c6tes  =  i\\>s)',  Fen- 
trecdte  (popular)  ;  un  charlemagne 
(military ;  a  bayonet-sabre)  ;  MI 
Bon-Dieu  {military)  ;  une  curette 



(military :  a  cavalry  sword,  as 
also  is  un  bancal) ;  ttne  cdte  de 
b<xuf  ( thieves') ;  un  grand  couteau 
(military :  a  cavalry  sword. 
Literally  'a  large  knife');  un 
fauchon  (popular)  ;  un  fauchon 
de  satou  (a  wooden  sword) ;  une 
gaudille  or  gandille ;  Joyeuse 
(the  name  of  the  sword  of  Charle- 
magne) ;  uneflambe  txflamberge 
(the  sword  of  Roland) ;  une 
faille  de  jer  (  =  cold  steel) ;  une 
latte  (a  cavalry  sword) ;  une 
lardoire  (popular). 

(from  the  Hebrew  michael,  an 
executioner's  sword ;  also  Lang- 


berta  ;  ccntella  (literally  'spark,' 
'  thunder,'  '  lightning  ' )  ;  respeto 
(properly  '  respect ') ;  garrancha  ; 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 
CHEESE-TOASTER  :  a  sword. 

1857-59.  THACKERAY,  Virginians, 
x.  I'll  drive  my  CHEESE-TOASTER  through 
his  body. 

CHEESY,  adj.  (common). — Fine  or 
showy.  The  opposite  of '  dusty. ' 
[From  CHEESE  (q.v.)  +  Y.]  For 
synonyms,  see  UP  TO  DICK. 

1858.  R.  S.  SURTEES,  Ask  Mamma, 
xlviii.,  211.  To  see  him  at  Tattersall's 
sucking  his  cane,  his  CHEESY  hat  well 
down  on  his  nose.  [M.] 

CH EM i LOON,  subs. — Chemise  and 
drawers  in  one  ;  a  COMBINATION 

CHEPEMENS,  s^^bs.  (old).  —  See 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  37  (H.  Club'sRepr.,  1874).  CHEPEMANS  : 
Gheape-side  Market. 

CHEQUE,  phr.  (common). — To 
know  positively  ;  10  be  possesse  d 
of  exact  knowledge  concerning 
a  matter.  For  synonyms,  see 




1599.  SYLVESTER,  Miracle  of  the 
Peace.  Then  those  twins,  thy  strawberry 
teates,  Curled,  purled  CHERRILETS? 

1654.  Witt's  Recreations.  Then 
nature  for  a  sweet  allurement  sets  Two 
smelling,  swelling,  bashful  CHERRYLETS. 

CHERRY,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  young 
girl.  Cf.,  CHERRY-RIPE  and 



CHERRY-COLOURED,  adj.  (com- 
mon).— Either  red  or  black  ;  a 
term  used  in  a  cheating  trick  at 
cards.  When  the  cards  are 
being  dealt,  a  '  knowing 'one  offers 
to  bet  that  he  will  tell  the  colour 
of  the  turn-up  card.  «  Done,' 
says  Mr.  Green.  The  sum  being 
named,  Mr.  Sharp  affirms  that 
it  will  be  CHERRY-COLOUR  ;  and 
as  cherries  are  either  black  or 
red,  he  wins.  Grose  [1785]  has 

CHERRY-COLOURED    CAT   for   one 

either  black  or  white  in  colour. 

•wood.  And  forth  to  the  heath  is  the 
scamps-man  gone,  His  matchless  CHERRY 
BLACK  prancer  riding. 

1886.  ///.  London  News,  Jan.  23, 
p.  78,  col.  2.  A  favourite  hoax  is  the 
great  exhibition,  wherein  a  CHERRY- 
COLOURED  cat  and  a  rose-coloured  pigeon 
(the  meeting  between  Wellington  and 
Blucher),  etc.,  are  to  be  shown.  The 
former  consists  of  a  black  cat  and  a  white 

CHERRY- MERRY,  adj.  (old).  —  i. 
Convivial ;  slightly  inebriated. 

Cherry  Pickers. 


Cheshire  Cat. 

1602.  MIDDLETON,  Blurt,  I.,  i. 
[Tricks,  tricks,  KERRY  MERRY  buff !  ] 

1775.  Cont.  Sterne's  Sent.  four. ,  219. 
That  every  convivial  assistant  should  go 


2.  subs.  (Anglo-Indian). — A 
present  of  money.  CHERRY- 
MERRY-BAMBOO,  a  beating. 

CHERRY-PICKERS,^^,  (military) 


CHERRY-PIE,  subs,  (common).— A 
girl.  [Possibly  only  an  ampli- 
fication of  CHERRY  (q.v.).'}  For 
synonyms,  see  TITTER. 

CHERRY -PIPE,  subs,  (rhyming 
slang). — A  woman,  the  'rhyme' 
being  with  'ripe,'  from  CHERRY- 
RIPE  (q.v.).  For  synonyms,  see 

CHERRY-RIPE,  subs,  (thieves'). — i. 
A  woman.  Cf.t  CHERRY  =  a 
young  girl.  For  synonyms,  see 

2.  (old).— A    '  redbreast '  or 
Bow  Street  Runner.     [So  called 
from  the  scarlet  waistcoat  which 
formed  part  of  the  uniform.] 

3.  (common). — A  footman  in 
red  plush. 

4.  (rhyming  slang). — A  pipe. 

subs.  (military).  —  i.  The 
Eleventh  Hussars.  [From  their 
crimson  overalls.]  Also  CHERRY- 

1865.  Notes  and  Queries,  3  S.,  vii., 
p.  49.  nth  Hussars  —  CHERUBIMS  and 
CHERRY  PICKERS,  having  had  some  men 
taken  while  on  out-post  duty  in  a  fruit 
garden  in  Spain. 

1871.  FORBES,  Exper.  War  between 
France  and  Germany,  II.,  149.  When 
(Lord  Cardigan]  commanded  the  CHERRY- 

BREECHES  there  were  generally  more  sore 
backs  among  them  than  in  any  other 
regiment  in  the  service. 

1871.  Chambers  Journal,  Dec.  23,  p. 
802.  The  nth  Hussars,  the  'CHERUBIMS 

2.  (common). — Peevish  child- 
ren.    [A  facetious   allusion  to   a 
passage   in  the    Te  Deum — '  To 
Thee  cherubin  and  seraphin  con- 
tinually   do    cry.']      Quoted   by 
Grose  [1785]. 

3.  (common). — Chorister  boys. 
[Either  founded  on  the  allusion 
quoted  in  sense  2,  or  in  reference 
to  the  fact  that  little  more  than 
the  heads  of  choristers  is   visible 
to  the  general  congregation.] 

TO    BE     IN    THE    CHERUBIMS, 

phr.  (old). — To  be  in  good  hu- 
mour ;  in  the  clouds  ;  unsubstan- 
tial ;  fanciful. 

1542.  UDAL,  Erasmus's  A pophth.,  p. 
139.  Diogenes  mocking  such  quidificall 
trifles,  that  were  al  IN  THE  CHERUBINS, 
said,  Sir  Plato,  your  table  and  your  cuppe 
I  see  very  well,  but  as  for  your  tabletee 
and  your  cupitee  1  see  none  soche. 


GRAVEL,     EATING      CHEESE,      Or 

EVACUATING  BONES,  is  sometimes 
added],  phr.  (common).  —  To 
laugh  broadly — to  'laugh  all 
over  one's  face.'  Used  disparag- 
ingly. [Origin  unknown.] 

1782.  WOLCOT  ('  P.  Pindar '),  Pair  of 
Lyric  Epistles,  in  wks.  (Dublin,  1795),  vol. 
II.,  p.  424.  Lo,  like  a  CHESHIRE  CAT  our 
Court  will  GRIN  ! 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomes,  ch. 
xxiv.  In  fact,  Mr.  Newcome  says  to 
Mr.  Pendenniy,  in  his  droll,  humourous 
way,  '  that  woman  grins  like  a  CHESHIRE 
CAT  ! '  Who  was  the  naturalist  who  first 
discovered  that  peculiarity  of  the  cats  in 

1859.  Letter  from  EDWARD  S.TAYLOR 
to  John  Camden  Hotten,  22  Dec. 

.  Chest: 



always  heard  'evacuating  bones,'  which 
if  less  decent  is  more  expressive. 

1866.      DODGSON  ('  Lewis    Carroll '), 
A  lice  in  Wonderland,  ch.  viii. 

CHEST,  phr.  (common). — To  pull 
oneself  together ;  stand  firm ; 
'  keep  a  stiff  upper  lip.' 

CHESTNUT,  subs.  (American). — A 
stale  joke  or  story  ;  an  old  '  Joe ' ; 
something  frequently  said  or  done 
before.  As  to  the  variants  of 
this  phrase — their  name  is  legion. 
The  old  songs  are  CHESTNUT 
songs  ;  he  who  would  foist  a  stale 
jest  is  implored  to  spare  the 
CHESTNUT  tree,  not  to  rustle  the 
CHESTNUT  leaves,  not  to  set  the 
CHESTNUT  bell  a-ringing.  [The 
Philadelphia  Press(  1 888)attributes 
the  introduction  of  the  phrase  to 
Mr.  William  Warren,  a  veteran 
Boston  comedian.  In  a  forgotten 
melodrama,  by  William  Dillon, 
called  The  Broken  Swdrd,  there 
were  two  characters,  one  a  Capt. 
Xavier,  and  the  other  the  come'dy 
part  of  Pablo.  Says  the  captain, 
a  sort  of  Munchausen,  '  I  entered 
the  woods  of  Colloway,  sind 
suddenly  from  the  thick  boughs 
of  a  cork  tree  ' — when  Pablo  in- 
terrupts him  with  the  words  :  '  A 
CHESTNUT, captain,  a  CHESTNUT. 
'  Bah  ! '  replies  the  captain. 
'  Booby,  I  say  a  cork  tree.'  { A 
CHESTNUT,'  reiterates  Pablo,  '  I 
should  know  as  well  as  you, 
having  heard  yoil  tell  the  tale 
these  twenty  -  seven  times.' 
Warren,  who  had  often  played 
Pablo,  was  at  a  stage-dinner, 
where  one  of  the  men  told  a 
story  of  doubtful  age  and  origin- 
ality. 'A  CHESTNUT,'  quoth 
Warren,  '  I  have  heard  you 
tell  the  tale  these  twenty-seven 

times.'  The  application  pleased, 
and  when  the  party  broke  up 
each  member  helped  to  spread 
the  story  and  the  commentary. 
This  is  the  most  plausible  of 
many  explanations.] 

1882.  HALKETT  LORD,  in  N.andQ., 
7  S.,  vii.,  53.  I  first  heard  the  word 
[CHESTNUT]  in  1882,  in  a  theatrical  chop- 
house  (Brown's)  in  New  York.  The  ex- 
planation given  to  me  by  Mr.  Brown — 
once  a  well-known  member  of  Wallack's 
company — was  '  CHESTNUT,  because  it  is 
old  enough  to  have  grown  a  beard,' 
alluding  to  the  prickly  bristly  husk  of  the 

1886  Dram.  Rev.,  March  27,  p.  86 
col.  2.  Minnie  Palmer  will  give  ^1000 
to  any  one  who  will  submit  to  her  an  idea 
for  legitimate  advertising  .  .  .  CHESTNUT 
ideas  not  wanted.  [M.] 

1888.  New  York  Sun,  Jan. 24.  'May 
I  venture  to  tell  the  old,  old  story,  Miss 
Maud,'  he  said,  tremulously;  'the  old, 
old,  yet  ever  new,  story  of—'  '  Pardon 
me,  Mr.  Sampson,  if  I  cause  you  pain,' 
interrupted  the  girl,  gently,  '  but  to  me 
the  story  you  wish  to  tell  is  a  CHESTNUT.' 
'A  CHESTNUT?'  'Yes,  Mr.  Sampson, 
I'm  already  engaged  ;  but  I  will  be  a 
sister—'  '  It  isn't  as  wormy  as  that  one,' 
murmured  Mr.  Sampson,  feeling  for  his 

CHETE.— 6*^  CHEAT* 

CHEW,  subs,  (common). — A  small 
portion  of  tobacco  ;  a  quid.  Cf., 
CHEW  THE  curj. 

1880.  JAS.  GREENWOOD,  Gaol  Birds 
at  Large.  A  piece  as  large  as  a  horse- 
bean,  called  a  CHEW,  is  regarded  as  an 
equivalent  for  a  twelve-ounce  loaf  and  a 
meat  ration. 

To  CHEW  ONESELF,  verbal  phr, 
(American). — To  get  angry.  For 
synonyms,  see  NAB  THE  RUST. 

To  CHEW  THE  CUD,  verbal 
phr.  (common). — To  chew  tor 

verbal  phr.  (military).  —  To 




c.  1887.  BRUNLEES  PATTERSON,  Life 
in.  the  Ranks.  Some  of  the  'knowing 
blokes,'  prominent  among  whom  will  be 
the  'grousers,'  will,  in  all  probability,  be 


CHEWALLOP!  intj.  (American). — 
An  onomatopoeia,  representing,  it 
is  thought,  the  sound  of  an  object 
falling  heavily  to  the  ground  or 
into  water — See  CACHUNK. 

1835.  HALIBURTON  ('Sam  Slick'), 
The  Clockmaker,  3  S.,  ch.  ii.  I  felt  .  .  . 
only  one  stop  more  [and  I]  was  over  head 
and  ears  CHEWALLOP  in  the  water. 

1888.  HOPPE,  Englisch  -  Deutsches 
Supplement-Lexikon,  p.  215.  It  means 
'flat  down,'  and  is  a  strong  expression. 
If  a  woman,  for  ex.,  falls  head  over  heels 
and  flat  to  the  ground,  they  say,  'she 

fell   CHEWALLOP.' 

CHEWRE,  verb  (Old  Cant).— To 

CHIC,  subs,  (popular). — Finish  ;  ele- 
gance ;  spirit ;  dash  ;  style — any 
quality  \\hich  marks  a  person  or 
thing  as  superior.  [Originally  a 
French  slang  term  of  uncertain 
origin,  Littre  being  inclined  to 
trace  it  to  chicane,  tact  or  skill. 
The  French  chic  originally  signi- 
fied subtlety,  cunning,  skill ; 
and,  among  English  painters.  TO 

CHIC  UP  A  PICTURE,  or  TO  DO   A 
THING     FROM     CHIC  =  to     work 

without  models  and  out  of  one's 
own  head.] 

1856.  LEVER,  Martins  of  Cro1  M., 
321.  The  French  have  invented  a  slang 
word  .  .  .  and  by  the  expression  CHIC 
have  designated  a  certain  property,  by 
which  objects  assert  their  undoubted 
superiority  over  all  their  counterfeits. 

1866.  YATES,  Land  at  Last,  I.,  p. 
no.  A  certain  piquancy  and  CHIC  in 
her  appearance. 

1871.  London  Figaro,  28  Feb.  Those 
rollicking  break-downs,  those  screeching 
girls  who  are  so  much  admired  for  their 
CHIC,  invariably  give  me  a  headache. 

Adj.  (common).  —  Stylish  ; 
elegant;  'up  to  Dick.'  So  also 
CHICDOM.  [From  CHIC  +  DOM.  ] 

1873.  Daily  News,  9  June.  She 
must  be  ready  to  stick  on  a  bow  here 
and  there,  to  give  herself  an  air  of  CHIC- 
DOM.  The  youthful  student,  however, 
must  not  go  too  far  in  the  direction  of 
CHIC,  .  .  .  the  chief  thing  which  dis- 
tinguishes the  dress  of  a  lady  is  the 
absence  of  those  prominent  and  inharmo- 
nious decorations,  etc. 

CHICKABIDDY,  subs,  (costers'). — A 
young  girl.  —  See  BIDDY.  [A 
nursery  name  for  a  chicken,  com- 
monly used  as  an  endearment.] 
For  synonyms,  see  TITTER. 

CHICK-WOMAN. — See  *  Much 
Ado  about  Nothing.'  Act  I,  Sc. 

CmcKALEARYCovEor  BLOKE, subs, 
phr.  (costers'). — An  '  artful  mem- 
ber,' otherwise  a  DOWNY  COVE 
(q.v.t  for  synonyms). 

c.  1869.  VANCE,  Broadside  Ballad. 
I'm  a  CHICKALEARY  COVE,  with  my  one, 
two,  three  ;  Whitechapel  was  the  village 
I  was  born  in. 

CHICKEN,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  pint 
pot.  Cf.,  HENS  AND  CHICKENS 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  I.,  p.  276.  The  HENS 
AND  CHICKENS,  of  the  low  lodging-houses 
are  the  publican's  pewter  measures  ;  the 
bigger  vessels  are  hens,  the  smaller 


No  CHICKEN,  adv.  phr.  (com- 
mon). —  Elderly.  [The  term 
CHICKEN  is  often  applied  to  chil 

1720.  SWIFT,  Stellas  Birthday.  Pur- 
sue your  trade  of  scandel-picking,  Your 
hints  that  Stella  is  NO  CHICKEN. 

1738.  SWIFT,  Polite  Conversation 
(conv.  i).  I  swear  she's  NO  CHICKEN  ;  she's 
on  the  wrong  side  of  thirty  if  she  be  a 

1742.  FIELDING,  Joseph  Andrews, 
bk.  II.,  ch.  ix.  Adams,  who  was  NO 
CHICKEN,  and  could  bear  a  drubbing  as 
well  as  any  boxing  champion  in  the 



1771.  SMOLLETT,  Humphry  Clinker, 
1.,  68.  The  knight  swore  he  was  NO 
SUCH  CHICKEN,  but  a  tough  old  rogue, 
that  would  live  long  enough  to  plague  all 
his  neighbours. 

1717  -  1797.  HORACE  WALPOLE, 
Letters,  III.,  308.  I  made  a  visit  yesterday 
to  the  Abbess  of  Panthemont,  General 
Oglethorpe's  niece,  and  NO  CHICKEN. 

1859.  SALA,  Gaslight  and  Daylight, 
ch.  v.  I  am  NO  CHICKEN  (though  not  the 
gray-headed  old  fogy  that  insulting  Squirrel 
presumes  to  call  me). 



verbal  phr.  (colloquial).  —  To 
reckon  beforehand  upon  a 
successful  issue.  The  Latins  said, 
'  Don't  sing  your  song  of  triumph 
before  you  have  won  the  victory ' 
'  Don't  hallo  till  you  are  out  of 
the  wood  '  has  a  similar  meaning, 
and  in  French,  to  lose  a  game  as 
good  as  won  =  la  perdre  belle.  The 
expression  was  doubtless  popular- 
ised by  Butler  in  his  Hudibras 
[see  quot.,  1664],  but  it  was 
known  long  prior. 

1579.  GOSSON,  Ephem.,  iga.  I  woulde 
not  have  him  TO  COUNTE  HIS  CHICKENS 
so  soone  BEFORE  THEY  BE  HATCHT.  [M.] 

1664.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  II.,  iii., 
923.  To  swallow  gudgeons  ere  they're 
catch'd.  And  COUNT  THEIR  CHICKENS 

CHICKEN-BUTCHER,  suds. (old). — A 
poulterer ;     also     a    sportsman's 
term  for  anyone  shooting  imma- 
ture game. 
1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

CHICKEN -FixiNGS,.mfo.(  American). 
— Properly  a  hash,  stew,  or  fri- 
cassee of  chicken,  but  the  term  is 
now  applied  to  any  fare  out  of 
the  common,  and  also  to  show  of 
any  kind.  French,  la  gueulardise. 

1864.  A  Trip  to  the  South.  An 
extraordinary  sight  were  the  countless 
waiters,  held  up  to  the  car-windows  at 

Gordonsville  by  turbaned  negro-women, 
filled  with  coffee-cups,  eggs,  and  the  in- 
evitable CHICKEN-FIXINGS,  which  it  was 
henceforth  our  fate  to  meet  at  every  rail- 
way depot,  till  we  reached  New  Orleans. 

18(?).  CARLTON,  Neiv  Purchase,  vol. 
II.,  p.  240.  These  preachers  dress  like 
big  bugs,  and  go  ridin'  about  on  hundred- 
dollar  horses,  a-spungin'  poor  priest-ridden 
folks,  and  a-eaten  CHICKEN-FIXINS  so 
powerful  fast  that  chickens  has  got  scarce 
in  these  diggins. 

CHI-IKE  or  CHY-ACK,  subs,  (cos- 
ters').— A  street  salute  ;  a  word 
of  praise. — See  Coo  EY. 

c.  1869.  VANCE.  The  Chick-a-leary 
Cove.  Now  my  pals  I'm  going  to  slope,  see 
you  soon  again,  I  hope,  My  young  woman 
is  availing,  so  be  quick,  Now  join  in  a 
CHYIKE,  the  'jolly'  we  all  like. 

1885.  Daily  Telegraph,  April  6,  p.  6, 
col.  i.     A  prosperous  butcher  .  .  .  gives 
him  what  Mr.  Poleaxer  calls  a  CHI-HIKE 
at  his  gate  as  he  passes  that  way  in  his 
cart,  between  five  and  six  a.m. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Dictionary, 

Verb. — i.     To  salute  or  hail. 

1886.  Sporting  Times,  17  July,  j,  2. 
There     was     no    charge    for    admission. 
Enough.     They  came,  they  saw,  and  they 


2.  (tailors').  —  To  chaff  un- 
mercifully. For  synonyms,  see 
GAMMON,  sense  i. 


CHILL  OFF,  phr.  —  To  scold  ; 
abuse.  For  synonyms,  see  WIG. 




liquids],  verb  (popular).  —  To 
warm.  CHILL  is  a  contraction 
of  the  fuller  phrase. 

1835.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Boz,  p. 
264.  A  pint  pot,  the  contents  of  which, 
were  CHILLING  on  the  hob. 




(popular). — An  expression  of  (i) 
dissent,  (2)  depreciation,  or  (3) 
disbelief.  A  variant  of  OVER 
THE  LEFT  (q.V.). 

CHIME,  verb  (thieves'). — To  praise  ; 
extol ;  puff ;  canoodle  :  especi- 
ally with  a  view  to  personal 

CHIMNEY,  subs,  (common). — A 
great  smoker  ;  Fr.,  un  locomotive. 

CHIMNEY  CHOPS,  subs.  (old). — A 
negro.  [An  allusion  to  colour.] 
For  synonyms,  see  SNOWBALL. 

CHIMNEY-POT,  sub's,  (common).— 
The  silk  hat  worn  by  men,  as 
also  by  women  on  horseback. 
Also  called  a  STOVE  -  PIPE, 

BEAVER,    BELL-TOPPER,   etc.,   but 

for  synonyms,  see  GOLGOTHA. 
[An  allusion  to  shape  and 
colour.]  The  French  has  une 

1861.  Punch,  vol.  XLI.,  p.  258. 
'  The  Riding-Hat  Question.'  Lucy.  '  Now 
tell  me,  Mary,  which  is  the  best  ?  '  Mary 
(who  is  rather  horsey).  '  Well,  dear,  for 
tea  in  the  arbpur  and  that  sort  of  thing, 
perhaps  the  little  found  one ;  but  if  you 
want  to  look  like  going  across  country, 
the  CHIMNEY-POT  all  to  nothing.' 

1864.  Spectator,  p.  356.  The  CHIM- 
NEY-POT hat,  for  the  power  of  ifs  trans- 
cendant  ugliness  beat  all  the  artists, 
penmen,  and  men  of  taste  in  England,  ten 
years  ago. 

1871.  Echo,  z  March.  '  London 
Trades  — Hatters.'  The  shape  of  the 
CHIMNEY-POT  is  constantly  changing,  as 
we  all  know. 

1880.  Punch's  A  Intanack,  p.  10.  Now, 
why  should  not  gentlemen  content  them- 
selves with  mere  underclothing,  and  dis- 
card the  hideous  CHIMNEY-POT,  Frock 
Coat,  and  Trousers  of  the  Period,  so  fatal 
to  Pictorial  Design  ? 

1890.  Daily  Graphic,  Jan.  7,  p.  9, 
col.  4.  Then  the  crowd  go  mad.  Up  fly 
head-gear,  CHIMNEY-POT,  and  wide-a-wake 
alike,  their  owners  careless  of  their  fate. 

CHIMNEY-SWEEP,  subs,  (common), 
—i.       A    black   draught.       Cf., 

2.  A  clergyman.  [In  allu- 
sion to  the  black  wear  of  '  the 
cloth.']  For  synonyms,  see 
DEVIL  -  DODGER.  Sweeps  are 
nicknamed  CLERGYMEN. 

CHIN,  subs.  (American  thieves'). — 
A  child.  [  ?  A  corruption  of 
kinchin. ~\ 

Verb  (American).  —  i.  To 
talk ;  to  chatter. 

1883.  Bread-winners  (1884),  161.  You 
haven't  done  a  thing  but  .  .  .  eat  pea  nuts 
and  hear  Bott  CHIN.  [M.] 

1887.  New  York  World.  They  CHIN 
about  the  best  methods  of  relieving 
poverty.  [M.] 

18(?)-  FRANCIS,  Saddle  and  Moccasin. 
He  was  a  worker,  and  liked  nothing  better 
than  to  get  into  a  circle  of  young  cow- 
punchers,  and  CHIN  and  josh  with  them. 

2.  To  talk  or  act  with  brazen 

CHINAS,  subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
Eastern    Extension   Australasian 
and  China  Telegraph  Shares. 

CHIN-CHOPPER,  subs,  (pugilists'). 
—A  drive  under  the  chin.  For 
synonyms,  see  DIG. 

CHINK,  subs.  (old).  —  i.  Money; 
ready  cash  ;  also  CHINKERS,  or 
JINK.  For  synonyms,  see  ACTUAL 
and  GILT, 

1557.  TUSSER,  Husbandrie,  ch.  Ivii., 
St.  43,  p.  134  (E.D.Si):  To  buie  it  the 
cheaper,  haue  CHINKES  in  thy  purse. 

1595.  SHAKSPEARE  Romeo  and 
Juliet,  Act  i.,  Sc.  5.  I  nursed  her 
daughter,  that  you  talk'd  withal ;  I  tell 
you  he  that  can  lay  hold  of  her  Shall  have 
the  CHINKS. 

1603.  JOHN  DAY,  LaivTrickes,  Acti. 
They  know  me  rich,  Horatio, — 
CHINKE,  CHINKE  !  Whilst  this  holds  out, 
my  cause  shall  never  sincke 




1630.  JONSON,  New  Inn,  I.  Where 
every  jovial  tinker,  for  his  CHINK,  May 
cry,  Mine  host,  to  crambe  !  '  Give  us 

1754.  B.  MARTIN,  Eng.  Diet.,  2  ed., 

18(?).  Miss  WETHERELL,  Glenham- 
Family,  ch.  xxviii.  '  I  guess  it's  some- 
thing else, — she  had  CHINK  enough  to  buy 
shoes  with,  /  know.' 

2.  (general).  —  The  female 
pudendum.  For  synonyms,  see 

CHINKERS,  subs,  (old).-^i.  Money 
— See  CHINK. 

1834.  TAYLOR,  Ph.  van  Artevelde, 
pt.  II.,  Hi.,  i.  We're  vile  crossbow-men, 
and  a  knight  are  you,  But  steel  is  steel, 
and  flesh  is  still  but  flesh,  So  let  us  see 
your  CHINKERS. 

1887.  BAUMANN,  A  Slang  Ditty. 
Rum  coves  that  relieve  us  of  CHINKERS 
and  pieces,  Is  gin'rally  lagged,  Or,  wuss 
luck,  they  gits  scragged. 

2.  (thieves')* — Handcuffs  uni? 
ted  by  a  chain.  [Derivation  ob- 
vious.] For  synonyms,  see 

CHIN-MUSIC,  subs.  (American). — 
Talk  ;  chatter ;  oratory.  Cf., 
CHIN-WAG.  The  French  say 
casser  un  mot. 

1872.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('  Mark  Twain'), 
Roughing  It,  p.  332.  The  thing  I'm  now 
on  is  to  roust  out  somebody  to  jerk  a  little 
CHIN-MUSIC  for  us. 

1874.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark  Twain'), 
Gilded  Age.  Whereupon  a  young  sprig 
.  .  .  began  to  sass  [sauce]  the  conductor 
with  his  CHIN-MUSIC. 

1876,  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Golden 
Butterfly,  ch.  xxvi.  'I  am  not,'  said  he, 
'  going  to  orate.  You  did  not  come  here, 
I  guess,  to  hear  me  pay  out  CHIN-MUSIC. 

•'  1883.  Bread-Winners,  77.  If  we 
have  joined  this  order  to  listen  to  CHIN- 
MUSIC  the  rest  of  our  lives. 

CHINNING,  verbal  subs.  (American). 
— Chatting  j  talking, 

CHINNY,  adj.  (American). — Talk- 
ative. [From  CHIN,  verb,  sense 

I,   +  NY.] 

CHINQUA  SOLDI,  subs.  phr. 
(theatrical). — Fivepence.  [From 
the  Italian.] 

CHINSE,  subs. (Winchester  College). 
— a  chance,  [Apparently  a 
corrupted  form  of  the  word.] 

C  H I N  -  W  AG ,  subs .  (common).—  Talk ; 
chatter ;  officious  impertinence. 

1879,  Punch,  No.  2061,  p.  4.  I'd  just 
like  to  have  a  bit  of  CHIN-WAG  with  you 
on  the  quiet. 

CHIP,  subs.  (American).— I.  [In 
plural.]  Items  of  news,  more 
especially  LOCALS  (q.v.), 

2.  A    reporter    who    collects 
CHIPS,  sense  I. 

3.  (common). — A    sovereign. 
— See  CHIPS,  sense  5. 

1883.  Miss  BRADDON,  Phantom 
Fortune,  ch.  xli.  Where  i^heafs  of  bank 
notes  were  being  exchanged  for  those 
various  coloured  counters  which  represented 
divers  values,  from  the  respectable  '  pony 
to  the  modest  CHIP. 

4.       (gaming).  —  See 
subs,  sense  2. 


Verb  (American).— To  underr 
stand.  For  synonyms,  see  TWIG 

18(?).  FRANCIS,  Saddle  and  Moccasin. 
I  knew  at  once  that  they  had  got  scared, 
and  had  trenched  up  like  a  bevy  of  quails  ; 
so  I  said  to  Jim,  '  Now  you  let  me  do  the 
talking,  when  they  begin  to  sing  "  Indians  " 
— don't  you  CHIP?' 

To  CHIP  IN,  verb  (common).—  *. 
To  contribute  one's  share  in 
money  or  kind  ;  to  join  in  an  un* 
dertaking  ;  to  interpose  smartly. 

1884.  BRET  HARTE,  In  the  Tunnel. 
When  you'll  hear  the  next  fool  Asking  of 
Flynn— Just  you  CHIP  IN,  Say  you  knew 




1869.  S.  L.  CLEMENS ('  Mark  Twain '), 
Innocents  at  Home,  p.  22.  Pard,  he  was 
a  great  loss  to  this  town.  It  would  please 
the  boys  if  you  could  CHIP  IN  something 
like  that,  and  do  him  justice. 

1888.  American  Magazine,  Sept. 
A  man  who  won't  CHIP  IN  to  charity  is 
always  an  object  of  suspicion. 

1888.  Star,  12  Dec.,  p.  3,  col.  3. 
Justice  Smith  here  CHIPPED  IN  with  the 
remark  that  counsel  .  .  .  had  not  cur- 
tailed their  cross-examination. 

NOT    TO    CARE   A    CHIP. 

CARE  and  FIG. 


BROTHER  CHIP,  subs.  phr. 
(common). — '  Brother  smut '  ;  one 
of  the  same  trade  or  profession. 


1862.  Penny  Newsman.  '  Mr.  Bernal 
Osborne  on  Pigs  and  Politics.'  I  must 
say  I  never  saw  a  set  of  gentlemen,  \vho 
were  in  such  excellent  condition  without 
verging  upon  obesity  (considerable 
laughter).  I  could  have  wished,  gentle- 
men, that  there  had  been  a  larger  show 
to-day.  At  the  same  time  as  a  BROTHER 
CHIP  (a  laugh) — Oh,  gentlemen,  I  am  a 
farmer  (hear).  I  am  one  of  those  farmers 
that  don't  understand  my  business  as  well 
as  I  ought. 

SAME  OLD,  BLOCK,  sometimes  ab- 
breviated tc  CHIP,  phr.  (common). 
A  person  reproducing  certain  fa- 
miliar or  striking  characteristics. 
CHIP  =  also  a  man  or  thing,  and 
in  this  sense  is  equivalent  to 
BLOKE,  COVE,  CHEAT,  etc.,  all 
of  which  see. 

c.  1626.  Dick  of  Devonshire,  in 
Bullen's  Old  Plays,  ii.,  60.  Your  father 
used  to  come  home  to  my  mother,  and 
why  may  not  I  be  A  CHIPP  OF  THE  SAME 
BLOCKE,  out  of  which  you  two  were  cutt? 

1762.  COLMAN,  Musical  Lady,  II., 
iii.  You'll  find  him  his  father's  own  son,  I 
believe  ;  A  CHIP  OF  THE  OLD  BLOCK,  I 
promise  you  ! 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  xviii.,  p.  189.  'Yes,  yes,  Chuffey, 
Jonas  is  a  CHIP  OF  THE  OLD  BLOCK.  It's 
a  very  old  block  now,  Chuffey,'  said  the 
old  man. 

1860.  Funny  Fellow,  May  7,  p.  i. 
Hollo,  my  kiddy,  stir  your  stumps,  And 
chuck  yourself  about ;  Make  haste,  young 
CHIP,  my  boots  to  shine,  Or  your  shine  I'll 
quick  take  out. 

1865.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Henry  Dun- 
bart  ch.  xxxviii.  I  was  in  love  myself 
once,  though  I  do  seem  such  a  dry  old 



etc.,  phr.  (common). — An  old 
phrase  signifying  a  thing  of  no 
moment ;  a  nonentity. 

1686.  GOAD,  Celest.  Bodies,  I.,  xvii., 
108.  The  Sextile  is  no  CHIP  IN  BROTH 
.  .  .  but  a  very  considerable  Engine.  [M.] 

1688.  Vox  Cleri  Pro  Rege,  56.  A 
sort  of  CHIP  IN  POTTAGE,  which  (he 
hopes)  will  not  do  Popery  much  good,  nor 
the  Church  of  England  much  harm.  [M.] 

1849.  SIR  CHAS.  NAPIER,  as  quoted 
in  N.  and  Q.,  i  S.,  i.,  p.  383.  'The 
reviews  which  the  Commander-in-Chief 
makes  of  the  troops  are  not  to  be  taken  as 
so  many  CHIPS  IN  PORRIDGE.' 

1880.  Church  Times,  25  June.  The 
Burials  Bill  ...  is  thought  ...  to  re- 
semble the  proverbial  CHIP  IN  PORRIDGE, 
which  does  neither  good  nor  harm.  [M.] 

CHIPPER, adj.  (American).- 
active  ;  ready  to  '  chip  in. 


CHIPPY,  adj.  (common). — Unwell; 
seedy.  Generally  used  to  de- 
scribe the  results  of  over-indul- 
gence in  eating,  drinking,  etc. 
Cf.,  CHEAP. 

1877.  Belgra-via,  April,  p.  235.  After 
two  copious  libations  of  the  above  [B. 
and  S.],  a  man  is  apt  to  feel  CHIPPY  next 

1884.  HAWLEY  SMART,  From  Post  to 
Finish  [Ry.  ed.],  p.  157.  A  dozen  cigars 
a  day  make  one  feel  dreadfully  CHIPPY  in 
the  morning. 

CHIPS,  subs.  (old). — I.  A  carpenter, 
Fourbesque  equivalents  are  gan- 
gherino  and  zan°arino,  whilst  the 
Gaunersprache  has  Mepaie. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
A  nick-name  for  a  carpenter. 




J851.  Chambers  Paper,  No.  52,  p.  20. 
The  carpenter,  a  rough  hardy  Swede, 
rejoicing  in  the  name  of  Burstrome,  was 
not  offended  in  the  slightest  degree  at 
being  called  CHIPS  even  by  the  black 
cuddy  servant. 

1883.  CLARK  RUSSELL,  Sailors  Lan- 
guage, pref.  ,  xii.  The  carpenter  is  more 
politely  termed  CHIPS. 

2.  (gaming).  —  Counters    used 
in  games  of  chance.    Cf.t  CHECKS. 

1869.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('  Mark  Twain  '), 
Innocents  at  Home,  ch.  ii.  Don't  put  up 
another  CHIP  till  I  look  at  my  hand. 

3.  (American).  —  Cards.    [Mr. 
C.  Nordhoff  writing  to  Mr.  John 
Camden  Hotten,  on  I  May,  1865, 
states    that    '  CHIPS  =  slang    for 

4.  (common).  —  Money.   [This 
usage  is  derived  through  sense  2, 
and  passes  naturally  to  sense   5 

1877.  W.  BLACK,  Green  Past,  and 
Pice.,  ch.  xlix.  You  kent  fool  away  your 
hand  and  keep  the  CHIPS. 

1885.  Sporting'  Times,  23  May.  '  The 
Chorister'  Promise.'  The  landlady  came 
and  knocked  at  the  door  —  (Sing  Fulham 
Road),  Saying  she'd  have  to  clear  out, 
and  swore  She'd  distrain  on  her  wardrobe 
what  was  more  (Because  of  the  CHIPS  she 

5.  (general).  —  A    sovereign. 
Used  both  in  sing,  and  pi.  —  See 
quot.     under    CHIP,     sense     3, 
and  Cf.,  preceding  sense. 

6.  (Wellington   College).  -A 
kind  of  grill,   so  called  from  its 

To  HAND  IN  ONE'S  CHIPS,  phr. 
(gamblers').  —  To  die.  [For  prob- 
able derivation,  see  CHECKS.] 

CHIRP,  verb  (thieves').  —  I.  To  talk. 
For  synonyms,  see  PATTER. 
Grose  has  CHIRPING  MERRY  = 
exhilarated  with  liquor. 

1884.  J.  GREENWOOD.  The  Little 
Ragamuffins.  I  firmly  resolved  to  CHIRP, 
when  I  was  taken  before  the  magistrate  to 
give  evidence,  as  little  as  possible. 

2.      To    inform, 
nyms,  see  PEACH. 

For    syno- 

CHIRPER,  subs,    (common). — i.    A 

2.  (common).  —  A    glass    or 

1862.  GEORGE  MEREDITH,  Juggling 
Jerry  Poems.  Hand  up  the  CHIRPER  ! 
ripe  ale  winks  in  it ;  Let's  have  comfort 
and  be  at  peace.  Once  a  stout  draught 
made  me  light  as  a  linnet.  Cheer  up  !  the 
Lord  must  have  his  lease. 

3.  (common). — The    mouth. 
For  synonyms,  see  POTATO  TRAP. 

4.  (music-hall). — One    of    a 
gang  frequenting  the  stage  doors 
of  music-halls   to   blackmail  the 
singers.       If    money  be   refused 
them,  they  go  into  the  auditorium 
and  hoot,  hiss,  and  groan  at  the 
performer.    [Cf.,  CHIRRUP,  quot.. 

1889.  Daily  News,  2  July,  p.  2. 
Singularly  enough  the  Canterbury  Music- 
hall  .  .  .  was  mentioned  in  one  of  the  night- 
charges,  two  men  known  as  CHIRPERS  or 
CHIRRIPERS  being  brought  before  Mr. 

CHIRPY,  adj.  (colloquial).— Cheer- 
ful ;  lively.  [P>om  CHIRP  = 
babble  of  birds,  +  Y.] 

1837.  J.  BATES,  in  Ht.  Martineau, 
Soc.  Amer.,  III.,  332.  It  makes  me 
CHIRPY  to  think  of  Roseland. 

1879.  JUSTIN  MCCARTHY.  Donna 
Quixofe,  ch.  xxxv.  To  Charlton  this 
appeared  gravely  ominous  .  .  .  Paulina, 
on  the  other  hand,  was  what  she  would 
herself  have  called  CHIRPY. 

1882.  BESANT  ,  A II  Sorts  and  Condi 
tions  of  Men,  ch.  xx.,  p.  146.  Her  lady- 
ship pu  quite  a  CHIRPY  face  upon  Jt. 



CHIRRUP,  "verb  (music-hall). — To 
cheer  or  applaud  under  a  system 
of  blackmail.  [The  term  appears 
to  have  come  into  vogue  in  the 
early  part  of  1888. — See  quots. 
under  CHIRRUPER  ;  also  Cf.\ 
CHIRPER,  sense  4,  nnd  CHIRRUP- 

CHIRRUPER. — See  CHIRPER,  senses 
I  and  4,  Fr.,  un  intime. 

1888.  Pall  Mall  Gazette^  6  Mar.,  p. 
4,  col.  2.  A  CHIRRUPER  .  .  .  excused 
himself  at  the  Lambeth  Police  Court 
yesterday  by  alleging  that  '  he  thought 
there  was  no  harm  in  it.' 

1888.  J.  PAVN,  in  Illustrated  London 
Ner:vs,  17  Mar.,  p.  268.  The  .  .  .  singers 
in  music-halls  cannot  ...  do  without  him 
(the  CHIRRUPER).  [M.] 

CHIRRUPING,  verbal  subs,  (music- 
hall)  —  Hanging  about  stage 
doors  to  intercept  the  '  artistes,' 
and  extort  money  with  a  state- 
ment that  the  performer  who 
'  parts  '  will  be  applauded.  [For 
suggested,  but  very  dubious,  de- 
rivation, see  quot.,  and  £/>, 
CHIRPER,  sense  4.] 

1888.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  9  March, 
p.  14.  CHIRRUPING.  Mr.  Rintoul  Mitchell 
writing  from  the  Savage  Club  [asks]  to 
add  a  hint  as  to  the  etymology  of  the 
word.  It  is  not  remote.  The  French 
argot  for  blackmail  is  chantage.  Such 
paltry  operations  as  those  reported  from 
the  Lambeth  music-hall  do  not  merit  the 
description  of  singing— they  are  simply 
twittering  or  CHIRRUPING. 


verb  (common).  —  To  cheat. 
[Possibly  an  extension  of  the 
orthodox  meaning  of  the  Verb  in 
the  sense  of  *  to  cut,  shave,  or 
pare  with  a  chisel  to  an  exces.- 
sive  degree.'  Jamieson  (1808) 
gives  CHISEL  as  to  cheat,  or  act 
deceitfully.  Current  during  the 
first  half  of  the  present  century, 

it  seems  first  to  have  appeared  in 
literature  about  1840.  Cf., 
GOUGE,  SHAVE,  SKIN,  and  other 
words  of  a  kindred  type.]  For 
synonyms,  see  STICK. 

1844.  Illustrated  London  News,  25 
May.  'The  Derby.'  They  have  CHISELED 
the  peaman  and  no  mistake  about  that. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  L on.  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p.  78.  When  we 
got  home  at  night  we  shared  zs.  a  piece. 
There  was  five  of  us  altogether ;  but  I 
think  they  CHISSELLED  me. 

1858.  Savannah  Republican,  17  May. 
When  the  books  were  overhauled  by  the 
Committee,  it  was  found  that  .  .  the 
stockholders  would  be  CHISELLED  out  of 
a  pretty  considerable  sum. 

1865.  Saturday  Review,  April.  Mr, 
Hptten  has  given  the  supposed  classical 
originals  of  '  Dickey  '  and  of  '  Skedaddle.' 
He  might  have  traced  the  slang  verb  TO 
CHISEL  to  the  Latin  deascio  and  deruncinc. 

1865.  G.  A,  SALA,  Trip  to  Barbary, 
ch.  xx.  To  '  carrotter '  any  one,  say  an 
uncle  or  a  creditor,  is  to  CHIZZLE  or 
'  chouse  '  or  '  do  '  him  out  of  his  property 
amidst  assurances  of  high-flown  benevor 
lence  and  exalted  integrity. 

TO     GO      FULL     CHISEL,     phi'. 

(American). — To  go  at  full  speed 
or  '  full  drive ' ;  to  show  intense 
earnestness ;  to  use  great  force  j 
to  go  off  brilliantly. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker 
(1862),  95.  The  long  shanks  of  a  bittern 
.  >  .  a  drivin'  away  like  mad,  FULL  CHISEL 
arter  a  frog. 

1878.  MRS.  STOWE,  Ppganuc  P.,  ix., 
76.  Then  he'd  turn  and  run  up  the  narrow 
way,  FULL  CHISEL.  [M.] 

CHISELLING,  verbal  subs.  Cheating. 
[C/.,  CHISEL,  verb.]  Variants 
are  BAMMING  ;  BITING  ;  BEST- 

'  ING  ;   GOUGING,  etc. 

1871.  DE  VERB,  Americanisms,  p. 
298.  Other  efforts  at  cheating  are  desig- 
nated as  CHISSELLING — not  as  some  have 
believed  from  the  practice  of  CHISELLING, 
that  is,  opening  by  means  of  cold  chisels 
the  safes  of  banks  and  merchants,  since 
the  term  is  much  older  than  the  intro- 
duction of  safes. 



CHIT,  subs.  (Anglo-Indian). — i.  A 
letter ;  corruption  of  a  Hindoo 

1785.  In  Seton-Karr,  I.,  114.  [They] 
may  know  his  terms  by  sending  a  CHIT. 

1887.  Chamb.  /our,,  25  June,  p.  411. 
He  had  brought  a  note  or  CHITTI,  as  they 
call  it  in  those  parts  [Bengal]. 

2.  (society).  —  An    order    for 
drinks  in  clubs,  etc.      [Obviously 
an  extended  use  of  sense  I.     In 
India    the    practice     of    writing 
CHITS  or  notes  on   the  smallest 
provocation     has     always     been 
carried  to  excess.] 

3.  (common). — A  girl,    under 
age  and  undersized.     For  general 
synonyms,  see  TITTER. 

4.  subs.  (Scots).      Food   eaten 
in   the    hand :    as   a    THUMBER 
(g.v.),  a  workman's  lunch,  and  a 
child's  PIECE  (y.v.). 

CHITTERLINGS,  suds.  (old). — The 
shirt  frills  once  fashionable. 
[Properly  the  entrails  of  a  pig, 
to  which  they  are  supposed  to 
bear  some  resemblance.] 

CHITTY,  subs,  (tailors'). — An  assis- 
tant cutter  or  trimmer. 

CHITTY-FACED,  adj.  (old). — Thin; 
weazened  ;  baby-faced.  Cf.,  CnlT, 
sense  3; 

1601.  MUNDAY,  Down/.  R.  Ea*-l  of 
Huntingdon^  I.,  iii.  You  halfe-fac't  groat, 
you  thick  [?  thin]  cheekt  CHITTI-FACE. 


1621.  BURTON,  Anat.  ofMelan,  [2nd 
ed.],  p.  519.  A  thin,  lean,  CHITTY-FACE. 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 

1725.  New  Cant.  Diet. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vuig.  Tongue. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum. 

1859.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet. 

CHIV. — See  CHIVE. 

CHIVALRY,  subs.  (old). — Coition. 
[From  the  Lingua  Franca  or  O.  F. 
chevaulcher.~\  For  synonyms,  see 
GREENS  and  Cf.,  RIDE. 

CHIVE  or  CHIV,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
i.  A  knife.  [The  Gypsy  has 
CHIVE,  to  stab.] 

sas toothpick  (a  bowie  knife)  ; 
cabbage-bleeder ;  whittle  ;  gully  ; 
jocteleg  (a  clasp  knife  :  a  corrup- 
tion of  Jacques  de  Liege)  ;  snick- 
ersnee (nautical);  cuttle ;  cuttle- 
bung  ;  pig-sticker. 

(thieves') ;  un  coupe-lard  (popu- 
lar :  literary  *  a  bacon  slicer,' 
lard  being  used  as  the  English 
'  bacon '  for  the  human  body) ; 
un  coupe-sijflet  (thieves'  :  couper 
le  sifflet  d  quelqu'un  =  '  to  cut 
any  one's  throat ') ;  un  Hngre  or 
lingue  (thieves'  :  from  Langres,  a 
manufacturing  town)  ;  un  trente- 
deux  or  un  vingt-deux  (thieves'  : 
originally  terms  used  by  Dutch 
and  Flemish  thieves')  ;  un  chourin 
or  surin  (thieves'  :  possibly  from 
the  Gypsy  churi,  'a  knife');  un 
pliant  (thieves')  ;  une petite flambe 
(thieves'  :  also  a  sword,  said  by 
Michel  to  be  derived  from  filam- 
berge^  the  name  of  the  sword  of 
Renaud  de  Montauban.  A/ettre 
Jlamberge  au  vent=^<i  to  draw'). 

ling ;  Kaut  (possibly  connected 
with  the  English  '  cut  ')  ;  JMandel 
or  Mandle:  (Viennese  thieves': 
in  the  Gaunersprache  =  '  a  man,' 
especially  a  little  one);  Sackin, 
Sackem,  Sackum,  Zatkin, 
Zacken  (from  the  Hebrew  sochan)-, 
Schorin  or  ^chorie  (from  the  Gypsy 
churi,  which  in  Hanover  appears 
as  Czuri). 




Chiving  Lay. 



1674.  R.  HEAD,  Canting  Academy, 
12.  He  takes  his  CHIVE  and  cuts  us  down. 

1714.  Memoirs  of  John  Hall  (4  ed.), 
p.  n.  CHIEVE,  knife. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet,  of  the  Vulgar 
Tongue ',  s.v. 

1828.  JON.  BEE,  Picture  of  London, 
p.  26.  Some  of  these  accomplices  also 
carry  a  CHIV,  or  knife. 

1837.  DISRAELI,  Venetia,  ch.  xiv. 
'  Berwnu,'  he  shouted,  '  gibela  CHIV  for 
the  gentry  cove.' 

187P.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm, 
Mag.,  XL.,  503.  So  we  had  a  fight,  and 
he  put  the  CHIVE  (knife)  into  me. 

2.     See  CHIVEY. 

Verb.—  To  stab;  lo  'knife.' 

1725.  New  Cant.  Diet.  To  CHIVE 
his  Darbies  :  to  saw  asunder  his  Irons. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Diet.,  s.v. 
To  CHIV  a  person  is  to  stab  or  cut  him 
with  a  knife. 

1868.  CasselFs  Magazine,  May,  p.  80. 
He  [a  bushranger]  was  as  good  a  man  as 
Jackyat  any  weapon  that  could  be  named, 
and  if  Jacky  were  game  for  a  CHIVING 
(stabbing)  match,  he  (Kavanagh)  was 
ready  for  him. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mag.,  XL.,  503.  After  the  place  got  well 
where  I  was  CHIVED. 

CHIVE-FENCER,  subs,  (costers'). — A 
street  hawker  of  cutlery.  [From 
CHIVE,  a  knife,  +  FENCE  or  FEN- 
CER, a  receiver  of  stolen  property.] 

CHIVEY  or  CHIVVY,  subs,  (common). 
— A  shout  ;  greeting  or  cheer. 
Cf.t  CHI-IKE. 

Verb  (common). — To  'guy'; 
to  chase  round  or  hunt  about ;  to 
throw  or  pitch  about.  Also 
CHEVY.  [Mr.  C.  G.  Leland  says 
in  Annandale  (vol.  I.,  460) 
CHIVVY  is  a  common  English 
word,  meaning  to  goad,  drive* 

vex,  hunt,  or  throw  as  it  were 
here  and  there.  It  is  purely 
Gypsy.  Chiv  in  Rommany 
means  anything  sharp-pointed,  as 
a  dagger,  goad,  or  knife.  The 
old  Gypsy  word  chiv  among  its 
numerous  meanings  has  exactly 
that  of  casting,  throwing,  pitch- 
ing, and  driving.  Murray, 
however,  inclines  to  derive  it 
from  Chevy  Chase,  the  scene  of  a 
famous  Border  skirmish  ;  in  any 
case  the  usage  is  modern,  but  see 
quot.,  1821.]  So  also  CHIVIED, 


1821.  M.ONCRiEFF,Tomand/erry,l., 
vii.  Log.  Come  along,  then.  Now, 
Jerry,  CHIVEY  !  Jerry.  CHIVEY?  Log. 
Mizzle!  Jeiry.  Mizzle?  Log.  Tip  your 
rags  a  gallop  !  Jerry.  Tip  my  rags  a 
gallop?  .  .  .  Log.  Bolt!  Jerry.  Bolt? 
Oh,  aye  !  I'm  fly  now.  You  mean  go. 

1.840.  GEN.  P.  THOMPSON,  Exerc. 
(1842),  V.  50.  The  other  side  are  to  blame, 
if  they  do  not,  as  we  should  say  in  the 
dragoons  '  CHEVY  '  them  back  again. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and L on.  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p.  44.  I  never 
had  patience  enough  to  try  and  kill  fleas 
by  my  process  ;  it  would  be  too  much  of  a 
CHIVEY  to  please  me. 

1863.  H.    KINGSLEY,   Austin  Elliot, 
ch.  xxxix.     The  dog  .  .  .  used  to  CHIVY 
the  cats  into  the  window  among  the  bon 
bons,  and  play  the  deuce  and  all. 

1864.  Eton    School-days,    ch.    xiv., 
p.  168.     Burke,  however,  ran  the  faster  of 
the    two,    and     after     a    short    CHIVEY, 
succeeded  in  capturing  him; 

1868.  Miss  BRADDON,  Trail  of  the 
Serpent,  bk.  VI.,  ch.  iv.  The  Board  of 
Health  came  a-CHiVYiNG  of  us  to  take  up 
pur  floorings,  and  limewash  ourselves 

1871.  Daily  frews^  Report,  '  A  Repub- 
lican Demonstration  in  Hyde  Park,  on 
Sunday,  April  17.'  A  comparatively 
decent  man  selling  '  A  History  of  Ireland  ' 
was  mobbed  and  CHIVIED  from  side  to 

CHIVING  LAY,  subs.  phr.  (old). — 
Cutting  the  braces  of  coaches 
behindj  whereupon,  the  coachman 
quitting  the  box,  ah  accomplice 



Choke  Off. 

broke  and  robbed  the  boot.  Also 
cutting  through  the  back  of  the 
coach  to  snatch  the  large  and 
costly  wigs  then  fashionable. 
— Grose.  [From  CHIVE,  a  knife. ] 

CHIVY  or  CHEVY,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
The  face.  For  synonyms,  see 

c.  1886.  Music  Hall  Song;  '  'Aint  he 
got  an  artful  CHEVY.' 

Verb. — To  scold;  to  bullyrag. 
For  synonyms,  see  WIG. 


CHOCK,  verb  (streets').- -To  strike 
a  person  under  the  chin.  [Pro- 
bably a  corruption  of  TO  CHUCK, 
i.e.,  (  chuc"k  under  the  chin.'] — 

CHOCKER,  jtt&r.  (streets'). — A  man. 
Generally  OLD  CHOCKER,  and 
thus  comparable  with  OLD 
CODGER  (q.v.).  The  term  is  not 
however,  used  in  contempt  ; 
presumably,  therefore,  it  signi- 
fies a  manly  man,  i.e.,  one  who 
is  capable  of  l  chocking. ' — See 


WITHOUT    SUGAR,   phr.     (old). — 

To  reprove; — Grose  [1785],  and 
Lexical  Balatronicum  [1811]. 

CHOKE-DOG,  subs,  (common). — 
Cheese ;  especially  that  made  in 

1870.  Good  Words,  March.  As  I 
have  said  before,  the  Dorsetshire  hind  is 
undoubtedly  under-fed.  Bread  and  CHOKE- 
DOG,  as  he  calls  his  county's  cheese,  etc. 
— these,  as  I  have  said  before,  are  the 
thief  items  in  his  bill  of  fare. 

CHOKE  OFF,  verb  (common). — To 
get  rid  off;  to  put  a  stop  to  ;  and 
in  a  milder  sense,  '  to  run  con- 

trary to.'  [In  the  first  instance 
the  idea  was  associated  with  the 
throttling  of  bull-dogs  to  make 
them  loose  their  hold  ;  but  the 
editor  of  a  recent  edition  of  the 
Slang  Dictionary  (Mr.  Henry  M. 
Sampson  of  The  Referee}  adds  en 
parenthese,  'Of  course  by  these 
who  don't  know  the  scientific 
way  used  in  canine  exhibitions 
and  dog-fights — of  biting  their 
tails  till  they  round  to  bite  the 

off;  to  shunt  ;  to  fub  off;  to 
rump ;  to  cold  shoulder.  For 
synonyms  in  a  more  emphatic 
sense,  see  FLOOR. 

quelqu'un  s'asseoir  (popular  :  Cf., 
'  to  set  one  down  ')  ;  arreter  les 
frais  ('  to  put  a  stop  to  proceed- 

1818.  COBBETT,  Pol.  Rfg.,  XXXIII., 
72.  The  Duke's  seven  mouths  .  .  .  made 
the  Whig  party  CHOAK  OFF  Sheridan. 

1848.  New  York  Exp.,  21  Feb. 
(Bartlett).  In  the  House  ...  of  ... 
Representatives.  The  operation  of  CHOK- 
ING OFF  a  speaker  was  very  funny,  and 
reminded  me  of  the  lawless  conduct  of  fight- 
ing school-boys. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  155.  '  That 
will  do,  mother,  he  said  ;  '  I  think  I  have 
had  my  five  shillings'  worth ' ;  but  the 
gipsy  would  not  be  CHOKED  OFF  until  she 
had  finished  the  patter  she  had  learnt  by 

1870.  London  Figaro,  26  November. 
The  hair-oil  vendor  was  proceeding  in 
this  strain  of  eulogium  on  the  virtues  of 
his  particular  invigorating  application 
when  he  was  gently  but  firmly  CHOKED 

1883.  Graphic,  July  7,  p.  u,  col.  2. 
English  dealers  attend  these  fairs  with 
the  object  of  purchasing  these  noble- 
looking  animals,  but  prices  have  now 
risen  to  £20  per  head,  and  the  English 
demand  is  being  CHOKED  OFF. 




CHOKER,  subs,  (common). — i.  A 
cravat  ;  primarily  the  large  neck- 
erchief once  worn  high  round  the 
neck.  Sometimes  WHITE  CHOKER 
(q.v. ),  the  white  neckerchief  pe- 
culiar to  evening  dress. 

inger  ;  tie  (this  is  now  technical, 
but  was  formerly  a  slang  term); 

lier or  cotdant ;  un  blave  or  bla- 
vin  ;  un  epiploon  (students'). 

1848.  THACKERAY,  Book  of  Snobs, 
ch.  i.,  p.  146.  The  usual  attire  of  a  gen- 
tleman, viz.,  pumps,  a  gold  waistcoat,  a 
crush  hat,  a  sham  frill,  and  a  WHITE 


1853.  WH.  MELVILLE,  Digby  Grand, 
ch.  xix.  Cram  oh  a  wrap-rascal  and  a 
shawl  CHOAKER.  Never  mind  the  gold- 
laced  overalls  and  spurs. 

18."3.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('Cuthbert 
Bede'),  Verdant  Green,  pt.  I.,  p.  72.  I'll 
take  off  his  CHOKER  and  make  him  easy 
about  the  neck,  and  then  we'll  shut  him 
up  and  leave  him.  Why,  the  beggar's 
asleep  already. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomesl  ch.  vii. 
There's  Mr.  Brown,  who  oils  his  hair, 
and  weajs  rings,  and  WHITE  CHOKERS — 
my  eyes!  such  WHITE  CHOKERS!  —  and 
yet  we  call  him  the  handsome  snob  ! 

1869.  Orchestra,  20  August.  I  found 
myself  elbowing  a  fellow-countryman  in  a 
button-up  waistcoat,  and  WHITE  CHOKER  ! 

1871.  London  Figaro,  13  May,  p.  3, 
col.  3.  '  Bill  ain't  hungry  this  morning," 
she  repeated ;  '  or  the  cove  with  the 
WHITE  CHOKER  'ud  be  safe  to  collar.  But 
look  ! ' 

2.  (popular).  —  An    all-round 
collar.     Cf.j  ALL-ROUNDER. 

1869.  New  York  Herald,  6  Sept. 
'  Prince  Arthur  in  Canada.'  A  neat  and 
elegant  black  dress  coat,  closely  buttoned, 
pants  of  a  light  drab  hue,  a  CHOKER 
collar  of  enormous  size,  and  a  black  silk 
tile,  were  the  garments  most  conspicuous 

3.  (common). — A  garotter. — 

4.  (thieves'). — A  cell ;  prison  ; 
lock  up. — See  CHOKEY. 

1884.  St.  James  s  Gazette,  Jan.  4, 
p.  12,  col.  He  preferred  to  go  to 


5.  (thieves').  —  The      hang- 
man's rope  or  '  squeezer  '  ;  a  hal- 
ter.    For  synonyms,  see  HORSE'S 


WHITE-CHOKER,  subs,  (com- 
mon).— A  clergyman.  [In  allu- 
sion to  the  white  ties  worn  by  '  the 
cloth.']  For  synonyms,  see  DEVIL- 

1849.  Punch's  Almanack.  The  Swell 
Mobsman's  Almanack.  Plant  about  Exeter 
'All,  in  May  take  old  ladies  on  way  to 
'All,  as  they  generally  hempties  into  the 
plate.  The  VITE  CHOKERS  may  be  fin- 
gured  on  their  way  'ome  as  they  mostly 
brings  hoff  a  pocketful. 

1852.  Comic  Almanack.  '  Modes  of 
addressing  persons  of  various  ranks.'  The 
Clergy  as  a  body,  you  will  speak  of  as 
the  WHITE-CHOKERS,  The  lay  aristocracy 
are  simply  styled  The  Nobs. 

CHOKERED,  ppl.  adj.  (common).— 
Wearing  a  CHOKER  (q.v.). 

1866.  London  Review,  7  April,  p.  388, 
col.  1.  A  whitebait  waiter  is  admirably 


CHOKER,  subs,  (common). — i.  A 
prison.  [Indian  :  from  Hindi 
chaukt,  a  shed,  station,  or  lock- 
up. In  use  from  1698  onwards 
and  transferred  to  English  slang 
early  in  the  present  century.] 
The  Queen's  Bench  prison  has 
been  called  the  QUEEN'S  CHOKEY. 
For  synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

1836.  MICHAEL  SCOTT,  Cruise  of  the 
Midge  (ed.  18),  p.  107.  Lord,  but  it's 


1866.  London  Miscellany,  March  3, 
p.  58,  col.  i.  I've  jist  crept  out  o' 
CHOKEY.  This  is  the  twenty-ninth  time 
I've  been  took  that  way,  and  I'm  jist 
gone  twenty. 




1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  ii.,  p.  131.  Both  were  marched  off 
to  CHOKEE,  and  I  have  no  doubt  got 

1877.     BESANT  AND  RICE,  This  Son 

ulcan,  II.,  ch.  vi.,  p. 
this  stranger,  and,  by  God, 
of  the  peace,  and    I'll 
CHOKEE  for  a  month. 

.  , 

of  Vulcan,  II.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  223.  Find  out 

this  stranger,  and,  by  God,  I'm  a  justice 

of  the  peace,  and    I'll    cool    his  heels    in 

1884.  Daily  News,  Sept.  24,  p.  3, 
col.  i.  Wright  .  .  .  would  get  two  or 
three  days'  CHOKY  (i.e.,  bread  and  water). 

2.  ^  (prison).  —  A  cell,  specially 
a  punishment  cell.  For  synonyms, 
see  CLINCH. 

1889.  Answers,  30  March,  p.  280, 
col.  2.  But  I  am  reminded  that  I  have 
not  yet  described  that  horrible  institution 
known  as  the  dark  cell—  CHOKEY,  we 
convicts  called  it. 

C MONKEYS,  suds,  (common). — See 

ia51-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  208.  CHONKEVS, 
or  a  kind  of  mincemeat  baked  in  crust. 

CHOP,  subs,  (old).— i.  A  blow. 
Once  (in  the  sixteenth  and  seven- 
teenth centuries)  literary ;  and  still 
respectable  in  a  '  chopping  ' — i.e., 
a  beating  '  sea. ' 

„  2.     An    exchange ;    a    barter. 


1876.  C.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Ad-ven- 
tures of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  140.  I  pur- 
chased, or  more  properly  speaking,  had  a 
CHOP  with  a  wooden  bowl  maker  from 

Verb  (colloquial).— i.  To  ex- 
change ;  to  barter  :  as,  TO  CHOP 
LOGIC  =  to  give  argument  for 
argument ;  and  TO  CHOP  STORIES 
=  to  *  cap  '  one  anecdote  with 
another.  Also  to  change  quarters  : 
as  '  the  wind  CHOPPED  round  to 
the  north.'  Cf.,  SWAP, 

1554.  LA  TIMER,  wks,  (1845),  II.,  433. 
Shall  we  go  about  to  CHOP  away  this 
good  occasion,  which  God  offereth  us. 

1693.  SHADWELL,  Volunteers,  IV. 
(1720),  iv.,  467.  Horses  that  are  jades  .  .  . 
may  be  CHOPT  away  or  sold  in  Smith- 
field.  [M.] 

1871.  City  Press,  Jan.  21.  'Curiosities 
of  Street  Literature.'  He  hangs  out  in 
Monmouth  -  court.  And  wears  a  pair  of 
blue-black  breeches,  Where  all  the  '  Polly 
Cox's  crew '  do  resort,  To  CHOP  their 
swag  for  badly-printed  dying  speeches. 

2.  To  eat  a  chop. 

1841.  MRS.  GORE,  Cecil,  xx.  I 
would  rather  have  CHOPPED  at  the  '  Blue 
Posts '  as  I  once  did,  fifteen  years  before. 

1887.  SALA,  Illustrated  London 
News,  Feb.  5,  144.  I  went  one  day  .  .  . 
to  CHOP  at  the  '  Cock.'  [M.] 

3.  (colonial). — See  quot. 

1871.  Sheffield  Telegraph,  April. 
West  African  (New  Calabar)  slang  for 
cannibalistic  practice.  He's  CHOPPED, 
i.e.,  he  is  eaten. 

CHOP  AND  CHANGE,  subs.  phr. 

(colloquial). — Ups  and   downs; 
vicissitudes  ;  changes  of  fortune. 

1759-67.  STERN  a,  Tristam  Shandy 
[ed.  1772],  I.,  ch.  xi.  [Surnames]  which, 
in  a  course  of  years,  have  generally  under- 
gone as  many  CHOPS  AND  CHANGES  as 
their  owners. 

1835.  MARRY  AT,  Jacob  Faithful,  xvi. 
At  last  we  were  all  arranged  .  .  .  although 
there  were  several  CHOPS  AND  CHANGES 
about  until  the  order  ol  precedence  could 
be  correctly  observed. 

1845.  HOOD,  To  Kitchener,  iii.  Like 
Fortune,  full  of  CHOPS  AND  CHANGES. 

1849-50.  TH  ACKER  AY,  Pendennis,  III., 
p.  423.  I  have  heard  of  all  that  has  hap- 
pened, and  all  the  CHOPS  AND  CHANGES 
that  have  taken  place  during  my  absence, 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  II.,  238.  The  accounts  of 
such  transactions  for  a  series  of  years,  with 
all  their  CHOPS  AND  CHANGES^ 

Verbal  phr.,  trs.  and;  intrs.— 
To  barter;  buy  and  sell;  ex- 
change ;  change  tactics  ;  veer 
frequently  from  one  side  to  the 
other ;  vacillate,  etc. 

1485.  Digby  Myst.  (1882),  v.,  641.  I 
.  .  .  CHOPPEANDCHAUNGEwithSymonye, 
and  take  'arge  yiftes.  [M.^ 

Chop- Chop. 

102         Chop  the  Winners. 

1593.  G.  HARVEY,  Pierces  Super.,  in 
wks.  II.,  115.  To  mangle  my  sentences, 
hack  my  arguments,  CHOPP  AND  CHANGE 
my  phrases. 

1672.  WYCHERLEY,  Love  in  a  Wood., 
wks.  V.  (1713),  431.  We  have  CHOP'D 
AND  CHANG'D,  and  hid  our  Christina's  so 
long,  and  often,  that  at  last,  we  have 
drawn  each  of  us  our  own? 

1706.  E.  COLES,  Eng.  Diet.  CHOP 
Church,  CHANGING  of  one  Church  for 

1883.  PRINCIPAL  SHAIRP,  in  Good 
Words,  Jan.,  p.  27.  The  politicians 
seemed  bent  on  making  the  Church  a  tool 
which  they  might  CHOP  AND  CHANGE  as 
the  political  wind  blew. 

etc.  (q.v.}. 

CHOP-CHOP,  adv.  (pidgin). — Im- 
mediately ;  quickly. 

1878.  JAS.  PAYN,  By  Proxy,  ch.  ii. 
1  Chow-chow  is  not  fish,  but  food,'  ex- 
plained Conway,  laughing,  'and  CHOP- 
CHOP  only  means  directly.' 

(pugilistic). — i.  See  quotation. 
For  synonyms,  see  DIG,  BANG, 
and  WIPE. 

1819.  THOS.  MOORE,  Torn  Crib's 
Memorial  to  Congress,  pref.,  p.  30.  A 
CHOPPER  is  a  blow,  struck  on  the  face  with 
the  back  of  the  hand.  Mendoza  claims 
the  honour  of  its  invention,  but  unjustly  ; 
he  certainly  revived,  and  considerably 
improved  it.  It  was  practised  long  before 
our  time — Brpughton  occasionally  used  it  ; 
and  Slack,  it  also  appears,  struck  the 
CHOPPER  in  giving  the  return  in  many  of 
his  battles. 

2.  (trade). — A  sausage  maker. 

1865.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  4  Sept., 
p.  9,  col.  2.  I  was  glad  to  get  it  off  to  a 
CHOPPER  at  last.  .  .  .  Dr.  Letheby 
explained  that  a  CHOPPER  is  the  trade 
term  for  a  sausage  maker. 

TON, o>^,phr.  (printers'). — To  be 
miserable ;  '  down  in  the  dumps  ' 
tfr  in  a  fit  of  the  '  blues.' 

CHOPPING,  adj.  (old). — Sexually 
forward  ;  said  of  girls  unduly 
'vain  and  amatorious.'  [An  ex- 
tension in  sense  of  CHOPPING  = 
strapping,  thumping,  bouncing, 
etc.]  The  French  express  it  by 
avoir  la  cuisse  gate. 

CHOPPING-BLOCK, subs,  (pugilistic). 
—A  man  like  a  butcher's  block, 
i.e.,  who  .takes  an  immense 
amount  of  '  punishment '  in  a 
fight  without  the  science  or  the 
strength  to  return  it. 

(common).  —  See  quots.  [CHOPS 
=  the  mouth,  lips,  jaws.]  Fr., 
les  jaffes. 

1655.  FELLOWES,  tr.,  Milton's  znd 
Defence,  227.  The  sight  of  this  egg  .  .  . 
caused  our  monarchy-men  ,  .  .  to  MCK 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  6.  Manager. 
Of  course  then  the  Tories  wiU  take  office  ? 
Punch.  I  rayther  suspect  they  will. 
Have  they  not  been  LICKING  THEIR  CHOPS 
for  ten  years  outside  the  Treasury  door 
while  the  sneaking  Whigs  were  helping 
themselves  to  all  the  fat  tit-bits  within  ? 

MOUTH,  phr.  (colloquial). — Sad, 
melancholy.  Cf.t  To  HAVE  A 


1830.  SIR  E.  B.  LYTTON,  Paul 
Clifford,  p.  28,  ed.  1854.  '  Vy,  Paul,  my 
kid,  you  looks  DOWN  IN  THE  CHOPS  ; 
cheer  up,  care  killed  a  cat.' 

1868.  BREWER,  Phrase  and  Fable. 
DOWN  IN  THE  CHOPS — i.e.,  down  in  the 
mouth ;  in  a  melancholy  state  ;  with  the 
mouth  drawn  down.  Chop  or  chap  is 
Saxon  for  mouth ;  we  still  say  a  pig's 

CHOP  THE  WHINERS,  verbal phr. 
(thieves').  —  To  say  prayers. 
[From  an  extended  use  of 
CHOP  in  the  sense  of  to 
bandy  words — hence  to  speak  + 
WHINERS  (q.v.),  prayers.]  Fr., 
matiger  sa  paillasse. 



1830.  BULWER  LYTTON,  Paul 
Clifford,  p.  2,  ed.  1854.  I  tells  you,  I  vent 
first  to  Mother  Bussblour's,  who,  I  knows, 
CHOPS  THE  WHINERS  morning  and  evening 
to  the  young  ladies,  and  I  axes  there  for  a 
Bible,  and  she  says,  says  she,  '  I  'as  only 
a  Companion  to  the  //alter  !  but  you'll  get 
a  Bible,  I  think  at  Master  Talkins  the 
cobbler  as  preaches.' 

1857.  Punch,  31  Jan.  For  them 
coves  in  Guildhall  and  that  blessed  Lord 
Mayor,  Prigs  on  their  four  bones  should 
CHOP  WHINERS  I  swear. 

CHORTLE,  verb  (popular). — To 
chuckle  ;  to  laugh  in  one's  sleeve  ; 
to  'snort.'  [Introduced  by 
Lewis  Carrol  in  Through  the  Look- 
ing Glass. — See  quot.] 

1872.  LEWIS  CARROL,  Through 
Looking  Glass,  i.  '  O  frabjous  day ! 
Callooh  !  Callay!'  He  CHORTLED  in  his 

joy.   . 

1876.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Golden 
Butterfly,  xxxii.,  242.  It  makes  the 
cynic  and  the  worldly-minded  man  to 
chuckle  and  CHORTLE  with  an  open  joy. 

1887.  Athena-urn,    3   Dec.,    p.     751, 
col.    i.      A    means     of    exciting    cynical 


1888.  Daily   News,    10  Jan.,    p.    5, 
col.  2.     So  may  CHORTLE  the  Anthropo- 
phagi.    [M.] 


CHOUSE,  subs,  (colloquial). — I.  A 
trick  ;  swindle  ;  sham  ;  or  '  SELL  ' 
(q.v.}.  [From  CHOUSE,  a  cheat, 
trickster,  or  swindler,  through 
the  verb.  The  derivation  is  thus 
discussed  and  weighed  by  Dr. 
Murray  :  'As  to  the  origin  of 
the  Eng.  use,  Gifford  (1814),  in 
a  note  on  the  quot.  from  Ben 
Jonson,  says,  '  In  1609,  Sir 
Robt.  Shirley  sent  a  messenger 
or  CHIAUS  to  this  country,  as  his 
agent  from  the  Grand  Signior 
and  the  Sophy  to  transact  some 
preparatory  business.'  The  lat- 
ter '  CHIAUSED  the  Turkish  and 
Persian  merchants  of  ,£4,000,' 
and  decamped.  But  no  trace  of 

this  incident  has  yet  been  found 
outside  of  Gifford's  note  ;  it  was 
unknown  to  Peter  Whalley,  a 
previous  editor  of  Ben  Jonson, 
1756  ;  also  to  Skinner,  Ilenshaw, 
Dr.  Johnson,  Todd,  and  others 
who  discussed  the  history  of  the 
word.  Yet  most  of  these  re- 
cognised the  likeness  of  CHOUSE 
to  the  Turkish  word,  which 
Henshaw  even  proposed  as  the 
etymon  on  the  ground  that  the 
Turkish  CHIAUS  *  is  little  better 
than  a  fool.'  Gifford's  note 
must  therefore  be  taken  with  re- 
serve.'] The  word  is  also  used 
at  Eton  in  this  sense,  but  see 
sense  2,  which  is  the  commoner. 
Variously  spelt  CHIAUS,  CHEWS, 

1610.  BEN  JONSON,  Alchymist,  I., 
ii.,  25.  ' D.  What  do  you  think  of  ire? 
That  I  am  a  CHIAUSE  ?  Face.  What's 
that?  D.  The  Turk  [who]  was  here.  As 
one  would  say,  doe  you  think  I  am  a 
Turke  ?  ' 

1639.  FORD,  Lady's  Trial,  II.,  i. 
Gulls,  or  Moguls,  Tag,  rag,  or  other, 
hogen-mogen,  vanden,  Skip-jacks,  or 

1672.  WYCHERLEY,  Love  in  a  Wood, 
I.,  i.,  wks.  (1713),  343.     You  are  no  better 
than  a  CHOUSE,  a  cheat. 

1673.  WYCHERLEY,  Gent.  Dane.  Mas- 
ter, III.,  in  wks.  (1713),  295.   Headancing- 
master,   he's  a   CHOUSE,  a  cheat,  a  meer 

1754.     B.  MARTIN,  Eng.  Diet.  (2  ed.). 

2.  (Eton  College). — A   shame'; 
an  imposition. 

1864.  Atheneeum.  When  an  Eton 
boy  says  that  anything  is  '  a  beastly 
CHOUSE,'  he  means  that  it  5s  a  great 
shame ;  and  when  an  Eton  peripatetic 
tradesman  is  playful  enough  to  call  his 
customer  'a  little  CHOUSER,'  he  means  that 
a  leaf  has  been  taken  out  of  his  own  book 
by  one  on  whom  he  has  practised. 

1883.  BRINSLEY  RICHARDS,  Seven 
Years  at  Eton.  The  boy  .  .  .  was  told 
that  what  he  had  done  was  an  awful 




Verb  (colloquial).— To  cheat. 
[For  suggested  derivation,  see 
subs.,  sense  I.]  Synonyms  will 
be  found  under  STICK. 

1659.  SHFRLEY,  Honoria  and  Mam., 
II.,  iii.  We  are  in  a  fair  way  to  be  ridic- 
ulous .  .  .  CHIAUS'D  by  a  scholar !  [M.] 

1663.  PEPYS,  Diary,  May  15.  The 
Portugalls  have  CHOUSED  us,  it  seems,  in 
the  Island  of  Bombay,  in  the  East  Indys. 

1708.  CENTLIVRE,  Busie  Body,  Act 
iii.  You  and  my  most  conscionable 
Guardian  here  .  .  .  plotted  and  agreed, 
to  CHOUSE  a  very  civil,  honest,  honour- 
able gentleman,  out  of  a  Hundred  Pound. 

1742-4.  ROGER  NORTH,  Lives  of  the 
Norths,  I.,  90.  The  judge  held  them  to 
it,  and  they  were  CHOUSED  of  the  treble 

1823.  Hints  for  Oxford,  p.  26,  Every- 
thing in  common  use  at  Oxford,  with 
the  exception,  perhaps,  of  books,  is 
charged  at  an  exorbitant  rate  ;  and,  what 
is  worse  ,  ,  .  you  are  often  having  your- 
self CHOUSED  with  abominable  trash. 

1890.  Academy,  Feb.  22,  p.  125,  col. 
i.  Susan  Burney's  letters,  with  charming 
naivete,  confess  that,  in  the  expectation 
of  an  early  visit  from  the  delightful 
mimic,  she  for  four  mornings  was  up  at 
seven  o'clock,  only  to  find  herself,  bor- 
rowing the  slang  phrases  of  the  day, 
'  CHOUSED,  for  he  nlck'd  us  entirely,  and 
never  came  at  all.' 

So  alsq  CHOUSED,  ppL  q4j.> 
CHOUSING,  verbal  subs.,  and 
CHOUSER,  subs, 

CHOUT,  subs.   (East  London), — An 
entertainment. — flatten. 

CHOVEY,  subs,  (costermongers5).— - 
A  shop.  A  shopman  is  known 
amongst  the  fraternity  as  a  MAN- 
CHOVEY,  and  a  shop<-woman  a$ 


1857.     SNOWDEN,     Mag.    Assistant 
a  ed.X  444-     A  shop— CHOVEV. 

boutogue  (thieves')  ;  une  boutanche 
(thieves') ;  un  boucard  (thieves')  ; 
un  rade  or  radeatt  (thieves')  :  also 
primarily,  a  till. 

(a  market  stall,  the  stock  itself, 
or  a  box  full  of  goods;  Chmwener, 
the  owner  of  such  a  place — a 
merchant  or  shop-keeper). 

CHOW,  subs,  (theatrical). — Talk; 
'  lip  '  ;  jaw  ;  e.g.,  to  have  '  plenty 
of  CHOW'  =  to  have  a  good  deal 
to  say. 

Verb  (theatrical).  —  To  talk 
incessant  jyj  tp  grumble.  A 
variant  is  to  CHIP.  [CHOW  is 
apparently  a  form  of  '  chew,'  now 
fallen  into  desuetude.] 

CHOWDER-HEADED,  adj.  (Ameri- 
can). —  Stupid.  [The  term 
though  only  dialectical  in  Eng- 
land is  pretty  general  in  U.S.A. 
It  is  given  by  Murray  as  a  variant 

Of  CHOLTER-HEADED,    which     in 

turn  is  another  form  for  jolt  or 
JOLTER-HEADED.  Chowder  is 
properly  a  kind  of  hotch-potch, 
and  applied  to  the  intellectuals 
would  imply  '  confusedness,'  and 
hence  idiocy.] 

1819.  SCOTT,  Lett.,  15  April,  in 
Lockhart.  I  hesitate  a  little  about  Raeburn 
.  .  .  [he]  has  twice  already  made  a  very 
CHOWDER-HEADED  person  of  me. 

1851.  H.  MELVILLE,  Whale,™.,  73. 
What's  that  stultifying  saying  about 
CHOWDER-HEADED  people?  [M]. 

18(7).  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark 
Twain  ')i  Launch  of  the  Steamer '  Capital' 
The  Showman  .  .  .  grabbed  the  orchestra 
and  shook  him  up,  and  says,  '  That  lets  you 
out,  you  CHOWDER-HEADED  old  clam.' 

CHRISTEN,  verb  (thieves')  — i.  To 
erase  the  markings  from  a 
watch,  and  substitute  a  fictitious 
inscription,  with  a  view  to 
preventing  identification.  An 
Old  Cant  variant  was  TO 
CHURCH  (q.v.},  the  derivation 
being  analogous.  French  thieves, 
in  speaking  of  a  CHRISTENED 
watch  or  other  '  f#ked'  silver, 
use  fpjwfrf. 




1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society,  II., 
74.  This  alteration  is  called  CHRISTEN- 
ING, and  the  watch  thus  transformed 
faces  the  world  without  fear  of  detection. 

1811.    Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant,  3 
ed. ,  p.  444.  To  alter  the  maker's  name  in  a 
watch — to  CHRISTEN  a  yack. 

1868.  DORAN,  Saint  and  Sinn.,  II., 
290.  The  pietist  thieves  .  .  .  CHRISTEN 
daily  as  soon  as  they  have  stolen  a  watch. 
This  thieves'  CHRISTENING  consists  in 
erasing  the  maker's  name  and  supplying 
another.  [M.] 

1872.  Standard,  '  Middlesex  Sessions 
Report.'  William  Miller,  the  detective 
officer  in  the  case,  being  called  upon  by  the 
judge  to  state  what  he  knew  of  the  prisoner, 
said  he  knew  him  by  his  trade  as  a  baker, 
but  he  mixed  up  with  watch  thieves  an,d 
housebreakers,  and  the  tools  found  in  his 
possession  he  used  for  CHRISTENING  stolen 
watches  and  putting  new  bows  to  them. 

2.  (colloquial). — To  mix  water 
with      wine ;     to     mix      liquors 
generally.        Fr.,    Maquiller    le 
•vitriol  =   to,   adulterate   brandy ; 
monter   sur  le  tanneau    (vinters' 
=  to   add   water   to    a     cask    of 
wine).     A  Spanish  equivalent  is 
exactly  translated  b.autizarel  vino. 
TO  DROWN    THE   MILLER    (q.V.)t 
=  to  add  too  much  water. 

1824.  SCQTT,  Redgauntlet,  let.  xiii. 
We'll  CHRISTEN  him  with  the  brewer 
(here  he  added  a  little  small  beer  to  his 

3.  (low).— To    souse  from   a 
chamber  utensil. 

4.  (common). — To     take     a 
dram ;  or  •  do  a  drain,'  in  cele- 
bration of  something,  as  the  pur- 
chase of  a  new  pair  of  boots,   a 
removal,  etc. 

CHRISTIAN,  subs,  (common).— A 
good  fellow ;  a  decent  or  pre- 
sentable person.  [A  human  being  as 
distinguished  from  the  brute  crea- 
tion, in  which  sense  it  is  used  by 
Shakspeare ;  the  modern  slang 
usage  was  apparently  introduced 

by    Dickens.] — See    quots.     in 
various  senses. 

1595.  SHAKSPEARE,  Two  Gentlemen 
of  Verona,  Act  iii.,  Sc.  i,  272.  Thee 
hath  more  qualities  than  a  Water-Spaniell, 
which  is  much  in  a  bare  CHRISTIAN. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum,  CHRIS- 
TIAN :  a  tradesman  who  has  faith,  i.e., 
will  give  credit. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
xxxiv.  You  must  take  your  passage  like 
a  CHRISTIAN  ;  at  least,  as  like  a  CHRIS- 
TIAN as  a  fore-cabin  passenger  can. 

1859.  Times,  20  April.  Grey  parrot 
for  sale,  the  property  of  a  lady.  She  talks 
like  a  CHRISTIAN,  and  is  in  first-rate  con- 
d,Uion,.  Price,  including  cage.  ,£15.  Apply, 
etc.,  etc. 

Adj.  (common). — Decent;  res- 
pectable, etc. — [See  subs.] 

QHRISTIAN  PONY,  subs.  phr.  (old 
Irish  slang). — The  chairman  or 
president  of  a  meeting. 

CHRISTIANS,  subs.  pi.  (Cambridge 
Univ.). — Members  of  Christ's 
College.  —  [Of  obvious  deriva- 


and    verbal   subs,    (colloquial). — 
Holly  and  mistletoe. 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers, 
p.  228  (ed.  1857).  The  fat  boy  pointed  to 
the  destination  of  the  pies.  '  Wery  good,' 
said  Sam,  'stick  a  bit  o'  CHRISTMAS  in 

1851.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Lon.  P.oor,  vol.  I.,  p.  141.  In  London  a 
large  trade  is  carried  on  in  CHRISTMASING, 
or  in  the  sale  of  holly  and  mistletoe  for 
Christmas  sports  and  decorations.  .  .  . 
'Look,'  said  a  gardener  to  me.,  'what's 
spent  on  a  CHRISTMASING  the  churches  !' 

CHUCK,  subs,  (prison), — I.    Bread; 

"  meat ;     in    fact,    refreshment    of 
any  kind. 

1850.  Lloyds  Newspaper,  Oct.  6. 
'  Inquest  on  murder  of  Rev.  Mr.  Holiest, 
Frimley  Grove,  Surrey.'  Macey,  the 
\illnge  cqnstabje,  stated  that  the'  prisqner, 


1 06 


upon  coming  to  his  cottage  door  had  tried 
hard  to  get  some  CHUCK  out  of  him,  but 
had  failed. 

1877.  Five  Years  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  i.,  p.  4.  Two  large  slices  of  bread, 
.  .  .  the  allowance  given  out  to  some 
prisoner  who  .  .  .  had  forgotten  to  eat 
what  in  prison  slang  is  called  his  '  toke  ' 
or  CHUCK. 

1877.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark  Twain  ') 
Life  on  the  Mississippi,  ch.  Hi.,  p.  463.  i 
wish  i  was  nere  you  so  i  could  send  you 
CHUCK  (refreshments)  on  holidays. 

2.  (common).  —  Scraps      of 
meat;  BLOCK  ORNAMENTS  (g.v.). 
For  synonyms,  see  DUCK. 

1871.  Echo,  ii  Dec.  '  Sunday  amongst 
the  Silk  Weavers.'  Few  regular  butchers 
ply  their  trade  on  Sunday  morning  — 
money  is  only  to  be  made  by  the  vendors 
of  nauseous  substitutes  for  whplespme 
meat  —  the  refuse  portion  of  beef  and 
mutton,  tough,  coarse,  and  meagre  pork, 
flaccid  tripe,  lean  little  sheeps'  CHUKS,  as 
•the  natives  call  thepi,  the  savourless 
saveloy  of  Old  England. 

1887.  Standard,  20  Jan.  'The  Poor 
at  Market.'  From  a  sort  of  ludicrous 
spirit  of  snobbery  a  labourer  wil}  term  a 
fellow  he  dislikes  a  •  beggap  who  gats 
CHUCK,'  CHUCK  being  a  Iqw-priced  part  of 
the  carcase. 

3.  (Billingsgate). — See  quot, 

1851-61.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab.  apd 
Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  73.  Sprats  .  .  .  are 
sold  at  Billingsgate  by  the  '  toss,1  or 
CHUCK,  which  is  about  half  a  bushel,  apd 
weighs  about  40  Ibs.  to  50  Ibs. 

4.  (colloquial). — A     toss    or 

1883.  Punch,  June  2,  p.  264,  col.  i. 
The  average  number  of  CHUCKS  at  cocoa- 
nuts  before  achieving  success  is  six. 

5.  (nautical). — Sea     biscuit. 
Cf.,  senses  i  and  6.     A  sailor's 
variant  is  '  chow-dow. ' 

1864.  Standard,  13  Dec.  Of  naval 
slang  Mr.  Hotten  has  missed  the  words 
CHUCK,  used  by  sailors  for  biscuit,  and 
BARGE,  the  box  or  cask  in  which  the  CHUCK 
is  kept  by  the  messes  on  the  lover  deck. 

6.  (military). — Mealy    bread. 
C/.,  nautical  usage,  sense  5. 

7.  Westminster  School). — A 
schoolboy's  treat. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  p.  101, 

Verb( colloquial).  —  i.  To  throw; 
especially  to  throw  away ;  to 

1593.  Prodigal  Son,  iv.,  112.  Yes, 
this  old  one  will  1  give  you  (CHUCKS  him 
old  hose  and  doublet).  [M.] 

1627.  DRAYTON,  Agincourt,  63.  In 
the  Tauerne,  in  his  cups  doth  rore, 
CHOCKING  his  crownes.  [M.] 

1753.  Adventurer,  No.  43.  I  ... 
was  kicked  about,  hustled,  tossed  up,  and 
CHUCKED  into  holes. 

1771.  SMOLLETT.,  Humphry  Clinker, 
1.  36.  Dirt  and  trash  CHUCKED  into  it  by 
roguish  boys  for  the  joke's  sake. 

_1820.  Co9M  BE,  Dr.  Syntax,  tour  1 1. , 
ch.  i.  Yes,  faith,  as  I've  a  soul  to  save, 
I  will  for  pqthing  dig  her  grave  ;  Yes,  I 
would  do  it  too  as  willing  As  if  her  hand 
had  CHUCK'P  a  shilling, 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xxxix., 
p.  342.  I'm  not  only  ready  but  villin'  to 
do  anythin'  as'll  make  matters  agreeable  ; 
and  if  CHUCKIN'  either  o'  them  sawbonesses 
out  of  winder  u'll  do  it,  I'm  the  man. 

1851.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  150.  Many  a  time 
I  walked  through  the  streets  and  picked  a 
piece  of  bread  that  the  servants  CHUCKED 
out  of  the  door. 

1864.  DICKENS,  Our  Mutual  Friend, 
bk.  IV.,  ch.  i.  '  When  you're  ready  for 
your  snooze,'  said  the  honest  creature, 
'  CHUCK  yourself  on  my  bed  in  the  corner.' 

2.  (vagrants'). — To   eat.  —See 
subs,,   sense    I.      For   synonyms, 
see  QRUB. 

1876.  HJNDLEY,  Life and  Adventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  192.  Mo  and  his 
man  were  having  a  great  breakfast  one 
morning  .  .  .  Mo  exclaimed  to  his  man, 
'  CHUCK  rumbo  (eat  plenty),  my  lad.' 

3.  (pigeon  fanciers'). — To  des- 
patch   a    pigeon.      Cf.,    sense    I, 
and  To  CHUCK  IT  ;  also  HARD 

4.  (general). — To    spend    ex- 
travagantly.     For  synonyms,   see 



Chuck  a  Stall. 

>9.    Daily  Telegraph,  6  Sept.  '  Sea- 
Baden.'    Why  is  it  that  English- 

1876.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Golden 
Butterfly,  ch.  xviii.  Next  to  unlimited 
CHUCKING  of  his  own  money,  the  youthful 
Englishman  would  like  —  what  he  never 
gets  —  the  unlimited  CHUCKING  of  other 

5.  (old). — To  desire  (sexu- 
ally); to  be  'warm,'  or  a  HOT 
MEMBER  (q.V.). 


UP,  verbal  phr.  To  abandon  ; 
4  turn  up ' ;  dismiss  ;  turn  out  of 
doors  ;  to  give  up.  Also  CHUCK 
IT  UP  =' drop  it.'  [From  the 
custom  of  throwing  up  the  sponge 
.  at  a  prize  fight  in  sign  of  defeat. 
Often  corrupted  into  JACK  UP. — 
See  SPONGE.  A  French  equiva- 
lent is  laisser  tout  en  plan. 

son  at 

women  can  never  combine  their  colours, 
or  put  on  their  clothes  ?  Are  their  maids 
used  to  haymaking  when  at  home,  and  do 
they  '  pitch '  on  the  petticoats,  and  give 
three  cheers  and  have  beer  when  they 
finish  the  work  by  CHUCKING  UP  the 
dress  ? 

1883.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Hard  Lines, 
ch,  xxvi.  'But  herej  Cis,  if  you  mean 
business,  take  my  advice  and  CHUCK  that 

1883.  Miss  RRADDOH  ,  Phantom  For- 
tune, ch.  xxv.  She  knows  on  which  side 
her  bread  is  buttered.  Look  how  easily 
she  CHUCKED  you  UP  because  she  did  not 
think  you  good  enough. 

TO   GET   or  GIVE   THE  CHUCK, 

phr. — rTo  dismiss,  or  be  dismissed, 
C/.,  BAG  and  SACK. 

1889.  Sporting  Times  [quoted  in 
Slang,  Jargon,  and  Cant\.  And  I  shall 
GET  THE  blooming  CHUCK  as  well  as 
fourteen  days. 


or  INTO,  phr. — To  move  expe- 
ditiously.  For  synonyms,  see 
Also,  to  fall  into. 

I860.  Funny  Fellow,  7  May,  p.  i. 
Hollo,  my  kiddy,  stir  your  stumps,  And 


CHUCK  HER  up,///r.  (cricket). 
—  An  expression  of  delight. 
[From  the  practice  of  throwing 
the  ball  into  the  air  after  a  suc- 
cessful catch.] 

[The  verb,  TO  CHUCK,  is  attached  in 
an  active  sense  to  any  number  of  objec- 
tives, and  may  be  taken  as  equivalent 
to  '  to  perform  '  or  '  do. '  Thus  '  to  chuck 
a  fag  '  =  to  'give  a  beating ' ;  to  '  chuck  a 
turd  =  to  'rear,'  to  evacuate ;  to  '  chuck  a 
tread  '  =  to  have  intercourse  ;  to  '  chuck 
a  jolly '  =  to  undertake  a  bout  of  chaff ;  to 
'  chuck  a  fit '  =  to  have  an  epileptic,  or 
apoplectic,  seizure  ;  to  '  chuck  a  cram '  or 
'  a  kid'  =  to  lie,  etc.J 

HARD-CHUCK  (pigeon  fan- 
ciers').— A  long  distance  ;  also  a 
trying  flight.  From  Gravesend 
to  London  is  considered  a  HARD- 
CHUCK,  as  the  low,  flat  country 
is  bare  of  landmarks. 

CHUCK  A  CURLY,  verbal  phr.  (mili- 
tary).— To  feign  sickness ;  to 
malinger.  [For  possible  deriva- 
tion, see  general  remarks  on 
CHUCK,  in  a  preceding  paragraph, 
+  CURLY,  '  doubling  up,'  or 
writhing,  as  in  pain.] 

CHUCK  A  JOLLY,  verbal  phr.  (coster- 
mongers'). — To  bear  up  or  '  bon- 
net ' :  as  when  a  costermonger 
praises  the  inferior  article  his 
mate  or  partner  is  trying  to  sell. 
This  process  is  usually  commenced 
with  a  CHI-IKE  (q.v.).  Also  to 
undertake  a  bout  of  chaff. 

CHUCK  ASTALL,zw/5/^r.  (thieves'). 
— To  attract  a  person's  attention 
while  a  confederate  picks  his 
pockets,  or  otherwise  robs  him. 
[STALL  =  an  accomplice;  and  as  a 
verb,  to  keep  watch  or  spy  upon.  ] 

1884.  GREENWOOD,  Seven  Years' 
Penal  Servitude.  I  said  to  my  pal  '  CHUCK 
ME  A  STALL  and  I'll  have  that.'  What 


1 08 


did  I  mean  ?    Why,  keep  close  to  me,  and 
cover  what  I'm  doing. 

CHUCKED  UP,  verbal  phr. 
(thieves'). — I.  To  escape  com- 
mittal ;  to  be  acquitted  or  re- 

1887.  HORSLEY,  Jottings  from  Jail, 
Rit  from  7  dials  ;  remanded  innocent 
on  two  charges  of  pokes,  only  out  2  weeks 
for  a  drag,  expects  to  be  fullied  or  else 

1889.  Evening  News  [quoted  in  Slangy 
Jargon,  and  Cant,  p.  251,  col.  i].  When 
I  was  CHUCKED  UP  they  took  me  to  an  old 
Jew's  in  Dudley  Street  for  my  clothes. 

1889.  Answers,  9  Feb.  He  was  for- 
tunate enough  to  get  CHUCKED,  to  escape, 
that  is  to  say,  as  the  evidence  against  him 
was  not  strong  enough. 

2.  (common).    —    [Generally 
CHUCKED  OUT.]     To  be  forcibly 
ejected.      [From    CHUCK,    Vfro, 
sense      I,  +  ED  +  OUT.]       £/"., 

3.  (common).  —  Slightly    in- 
toxicated.      For     synonyms     see 

1889.  Ally  Slopers  Half-Holiday, 
Aug.  17,  p.  258,  col.  2.  His  back  being 
nearly  broken  from  your  constantly  falling 
over  him  when  you've  been  CHUCKED. 

4.  (prostitutes').  —  Amorous  ; 
and  hence  '  fast. '      French,   gal- 
oper  une  femme  =  to    make   hot 
love  to  a    woman.      Cf.,  MOL- 


FRENCH  SYNONYMS.  S'allurner 
or  allumer  son  petrole  or  son  gaz 
(the  first  of  these  terms  is  in 
general  use,  the  others  being  em- 
ployed chiefly  by  prostitutes); 
battre  du  beurre  (popular  :  used 
more  in  the  sense  of  '  to  be  fast,' 
but  also  =  to  speculate  on 'Change 
and  to  dissemble). 

(to  ogle  prostitutes ;  to  way- 
lay women  in  order  to  make: 

overtures  ;       generally      to    lear 
with  concupiscence). 

tar  (properly  to  tend  cattle)  ; 
desbeber  (  also  =  to  make 
water)  ;  despepitarse  (literally  to 
give  a  loose  to  one's  tongue  or  to 
act  imprudently)  ;  rabanillo  (m  — 
an  ardent  longing). 

5.  (common).—  To  be  disappoin- 
ted ;  put  out  in  one's  calculations  ; 
put  to  shame  ;  '  sold.' 

c.  1879.  Broadside  Ballad.  '  CHUCKED 
again.'  CHUCKED  again,  CHUCKED  again  ! 
Whatever  may  happen  I  get  all  the  blame, 
Wherever  I  go,  it  is  always  the  same  — 
Jolly  well  CHUCKED  again  ! 

CHUCKED-IN,  adv.  phr.  (popular). 
-  Into       the       bargain.       Cf., 
LAGNIAPPE.       [From     CHUCK, 
sense    I,  +  ED  +  IN.] 

1880.  Punch,  No.  2055,  p.  245. 
Happy  thought  !  CHUCKED  IN  an  extra 
chapter  on  Literature. 

1884.  Punch,  Oct.  n.  '  'Any  at  a 
Political  Picnic.'  Went  to  one  on  'em 
yesterday,  Charlie  ;  a  regular  old  up  and 
down  lark.  The  Pallis  free  gratis,  mixed 
up  with  a  old  country  fair  in  a  park,  And 
Rosherville  Gardens  CHUCKED  IN. 

CHUCKER,  subs,  (cricketers').  —  I. 
A  volunteer  who  does  not  keep 
a  promise  to  play. 

2.     A  bowler  who  throws  the 

CHUCKER-OUT,  subs,  (colloquial).— 
A  man  retained  to  eject  or 
*  chuck  out  '  from  public  meetings, 
taverns,  brothels,  and  hells.  —See 
quot.,  i8£o. 

1880.  Punch,  No.  2040,  p.  63.  Lord 
Grey  was  about  to  resume  his  role  of 
CHUCKER-OUT  to  the  proposed  measures  of 
his  own  party. 

1883.  Saturday  Review,  March  31, 
p.  398,  col.  i.  We  hired  a  smiling  but  stal- 
wart assistant  to  act  in  the  capacity  of 


Chuck- Farthing. 

Chuck  the  Dummy. 

1884.  Good  Words,  June,  p.  400,  col. 

1.  He  had  done  twelve  months  [in  prison] 
for  crippling  for  life  the  CHUCKER-OUT  of 
one  of  these  pubs.     [M.] 

1885.  All  the   Year   Round,    Nov., 
^226.     Dens  to  which  Brickey  is  attached 
in  the  capacity  of  CHUCKER-OUT.     [M.] 

1887.  Guardian,  2  March,  p.  343, 
col.  i.  Bogus  meetings,  where  the  chair- 
man, committee,  reporters;  audience,  and 
CHUCKERS-OUT  were  all  subsidised.  [M.] 

1890.     The  Scots  Observer,  p.  394,  col. 

2.  The  result  of  which  was  the  resolution 
to  appoint   a  body  of  CHUCKERS-OUT  to 
keep  delegates  in  order,  and  to  show  the 
Commons  what  to  do  with  its  Healys  and 
its  Tanners. 



subs.  phr.  (common).  —  Games 
played  with  money,  which  is 
PITCHED  at  a  line,  gathered, 
shaken  in  the  hands,  and  TOSSED 
up  into  the  air  so  as  to  fall 
'  heads  and  tails  '  until  the  stakes 
are  guessed  away.  A  parish 
clerk  was  formerly  nicknamed  a 


1690.  B.E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew.  CHUCK 
FARTHING  :  a  Parish  Clerk  (in  the  Satyr 
against  Hypocrites)  also  a  Play  among 

Ballad-Singers,  were  as  busie  at  CHUCK- 
FARTHING  and  Hussle-Cap,  as  so  many 
Rooks  at  a  gaming  Ordinary. 

1712.  Spectator,  No.  509.  The  un- 
lucky boys  with  toys  and  balls  were  whipped 
away  by  a  beadle,  I  have  seen  this  done 
indeed  of  late,  but  then  it  has  been  only  to 
chase  the  lads  from  CHUCK,  that  the 
beadle  might  seize  their  copper. 

1759.  STERNE,  Tristram  Shandy,  vol. 
I.,  ch.  x.  The  spinning-wheel  forgot  its 
round,  —  even  CHUCK  -  FARTHING  and 
shuffle-cap  themselves  stood  gaping  till  he 
had  got  out  of  sight. 

1821.  CLARE,  Vill.  Minstr.,  I.,  174. 
With  CHUCK  and  marbles  wearing  Sunday 

1851.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and  Lon. 
Poor,  II.,  p.  398.  They  frequently  had 
halfpence  given  to  them.  They  played 
also  at  CHUCK  AND  TOSS  with  the  journey- 

men,  and  of  course  were  stripped  of  every 

c.  1868.  'BKOVGK,  Field  of  the  Cloth  of 
Gold.  From  PITCH-AND-TOSS  to  man- 
slaughter's my  game. 

1878.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Cloven  Foot, 
ch.  xlii.  '  I  remember  when  I  was  a  little 
chap,  at  Dr  Prossford's  grammar  school, 
playing  CHUCK-FARTHING.' 

1888.  Illus.  London  News,  Summer 
Number,  p.  26,  col.  i.  Having  replaced 
the  musty  documents  upon  the  shelf,  that 
ingenious  youth  adjourned  to  indulge  in 
the  passionately  exhilarating  game  of 


CHUCK  IN,  verb  (pugilistic). — To 
challenge.  — [From  the  custom 
of  throwing  a  hat  into  the 
ring  ;  a  modern  version  of 
throwing  down  the  gauntlet. 
Also,  '  to  compete ' ;  e.g. ,  I  shall 
have  a  CHUCK  IN  = '  I  shall  try 
my  luck ' — with  a  woman,  a  raffle, 
a  personal  encounter,  and  so  on. 

CHUCKING-OUT,  suds,  (popular). — 
Ejection.  [From  CHUCK,  verb, 
sense  i,  through  CHUCK  UP  (qw.)t 
+  ING  +  OUT.]  Also  as  an  adj. 

1881.     Sportsman,  Jan.  31,  p:  3   col. 
5.     We  were  the  first  to  take  the  part  of  the 

1887.  Pall  Mall  Gaz. ,  Feb.  23,  p.  1 1 , 
col.  i.  Evictions  in  Glenbeigh  .  .  ;  and 
CHUCKINGS-OUT  in  London.  [M.] 

1887.  G.  R.  SIMS,  How  the  Poor  Live, 
p.  83.  It  is  fair  to  say  that  the  youths 
seemed  quite  ready  for  the  emergency,  and 
took  their  CHUCKING-OUT  most  skilfully. 

CHUCKS  1  intj.  (school). — A  boy's 
signal  on  a  master's  approach* 
A  French  schoolboy's  equivalent 
is  Vesse  ! 

CHUCK  THE  DUMMY,  verbal  phr. 
(thieves').  —  To  feign  sickness, 
especially  epilepsy  ;  a  common 
dodge  in  prisons  to  get  an  order 
for  the  infirmary. 

Chuff  It. 

1 10 


CHUFF  IT  I  itttj.  (common). — Be  off! 
Take  it  away  !  For  synonyms, 

CH«L  or  CHULL,  verb  (Anglo-In- 
dian).— See  quot: 

1886.  G;  A.  SALA,  in  ///.  L.  News, 
June  19,  p.  644.  In  Calcutta  CHUL  is  a 
word  that  you  hear  fifty  times  a  day.  A 
lady  tells  you  that  her  new  Ayah  will  not 
CHUL  at  all ;  thfe  proprietor  of  that  popular 
weekly  journal;  the  Hooghly  Dacoit  .  .  : 
tells  you  that  he  is  going  home  for  six 
months  ;  but  that  he  has  ah  able  editor, 
and  that  the  paper  will  CHUL  very  well 
during  his  absence.  The  CHUL,  I  appre- 
hend, means  to  go  on;  to  proceed,  to  do. 

CHUM,  subs-,  (colloquial). —A  close 
companion  j  a  bosom  friend ;  an 
intimate.  Formerly  a  chamber- 
fellow  or  mate;  [Johnson  calls 
it  a  term  used  in  the  Universi- 
ties, and  the  earliest  quot.  seems 
to  bear  hint  out.  The  deriva- 
tion is  unceitain,  and  Dr.  Murray 
says  '  no  historical  proof  connect^ 
ing  it  with  "  chamber-felldw  "  or 
' '  chamber  -  mate  "  has  been 

1684;  CREECH,  Theocritus,  Idyll 'Sill: 
Ded.  to  my  CHUM,  Mr.  Hody  of  Wadham 
College.  [M.] 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
CHUM:  a  Chamber  -  fellow^  or  constant 

1714.  Spectator,  No.  6*7.  Letter 
written  by  University  man  to  a  friend 
begins  '  Dear  CHUM.' 

c.  1750.  Humours  of  the  Fleet,  quot;  in 
Ashton's  Eighteenth  Century  Waifs,  p. 
249.  When  you  have  a  CHUM,  you  pay  but 
fit  teen  pence  per  week  each. 

1828-45;  T.  HOOD,  Poems,  vol.  II.,  p. 
201  (ed.  1846).  The  very  CHUM  that  shared 
my  cake  Holds  out  so  cold  a  hand  to  shake 
It  makes  me  shrink  and  sigh. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Neivcomes,  ch.  v.j 
The  Colonel,  as  has  been  stated,  had  an 
Indian  CHUM  or  companion,  with  whom 
he  shared  his  lodgings; 

1889.  Fall  Mall  Gazette,  Nov.  21, 
p.  6,  col.  2.  His  [Allingham's]  own  chosen 
friend  was  Dante  Gabriel  Rossetti,  his 
CHUMS  the  Pre-Raphaelite  brotherhood. 

pal ;  pard  (American) ;  marrow 
(north  -  country)  ;  cully  (theatri- 
cal) ;  cummer  ;  ben  cull ;  butty  ; 
bo'  (nautical) ;  mate  or  matey  ; 
ribstonej  bloater; 

branche  (literally  a  branch  or 
bough)  }  uti  amar  or  amarre 
(thieves',  Cf.^  amarre^  a  cable, 
rope,  hawser)  ;  un  aminche, 
aminchemar^  or  aminchemince 
(thieves'  :  aminche  d>af '=  an  ac- 
coniplice  or  stallsman)  ;  amis 
comme  mchoiis  (popular,  m.  pi. : 
literally  'as  thick  as  pigs;'  C/i,  AS 
THICK  AS  THIEVES);  un  matelot ; 
uite  coterie  (popular)  ;  tin  bon  at- 
telage  (cavalry  =  a  couple  of  good 
friends  ;  literally  '  a  good  team  ')  ; 
un  artiste_  (popular) ;  tin  camer- 
luche  or  camarluche  (popular)  ; 
vieux  frtre  la  cdte  (sailors')  ;  uh 
camaro  ;  une  fat  idole  (prostitutes' 
=  a  female  pal)  ;  un  fanande,  or 
fanandel  (thieves'). 

GEftMAN  SYNONYMS:  Gleither 
(also  '  a  brother ')  ;  Kineh  or 
Kinehbruaer  (Viennese  thieves'  : 
German  thieves  use  Kinne  ;  from 
the  Hebrew  Kinnim,  '  a  louse  '  ; 
Kinriemachler,  literally  '  lice 
eater  '  =  a  dirty,  filthy  fellow  ; 
also  =  a  miser.  Kinimer  =  a 
man  full  of  lice)* 

=  '  an  imposter,  rogue,  or 
sharper ') ;  foneo ;  calcagno ;  guidoy 
or  guidone  (literally  a  '  guide.' 
Also  a  'dog'  or  'beggar'). 

(m) ;  compinche  (m). 

do  Golpe  (literally  'children  of 
the  crowd  \. 



2.  (military). — A  brother-in- 

1890.  RUDYARD  KIPLING.  Plain 
Tales  (srd  ed.),  p-  264.  Oh  !  where  would 
I  be  when  my  froat  was  dry  ?  Oh  !  where 
would  I  be  when  the  bullets  fly?  Oh! 
where  would  I  be  when  I  came  to  die? 
Why,  Somewheres  anigh  my  CHUM. 

Verb,  trs.  and  intrs.  (colloquial). 
— To  occupy  a  joint  lodging,  or 
share  expenses ;  to  be  on  the 
closest  terms  of  intimacy  with 
another  j  to  be  '  thick  as  thieves ' ; 
or  '  thick  as  hops. '  French  slang 
has  etre  dans  la  chemise  de 
quelqtfun  ;  also  fare  du  dernier 
bien  avec  quelq^£un. 

1730.       WESLEY,  Wks.    (1872)  XII.,  20. 

There  are  .  .  .  some  honest  fellows  in 
College,  who  would  be  willing  to  CHUM 
in  one  of  them.  [M.] 

1762.  CHURCHILL,  The  Ghost,  \>\i.  II. 
Old  Maids  and  Rakes  are  join'd  together. 
Coquettes  and  Prudes,  like  April  weather. 
Wits  forc'd  to  CHUM  with  Common  Sense. 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers, 
p.  339  (ed.  1857).  'Why  I  don't  rightly 
know  about  to  night,'  replied  the  stout 
turnkey.  '  You'll  be  CHUMMED  on  .some- 
body to-morrow,  and  then  you'll  be  all 
snug  and  comfortable:' 

1864.  Temple  Bar,  Nov.,  p.  587.  We 
choose  our  own  carriages,  and  either  leave 
our  fellow  trippers  altogether,  or,  making 
a  selection,  CHUM  in  parties  of  three  or 

1871;  MORTIMER  COLLINS,  Mrq.  and 
Merck.,  II.,  v.,  143.  She  .  .  .  found  her- 
self CHUMMED  upon  a  young  person  who 
turned  out  to  be  ...  a  ...  slattern.  [M.] 

1877.  BESANT  AND  Rick,  With  Harp 
and  Crown,  ch.  xii.  Here  are  City  clerks, 
who,  by  CHUMMING  together,  are  able  to 
afford  one  festive  evening  in  the  week  at 
the  Oxford; 

NEW  CHUM,  subs.  (Australian). 
— A  new  arrival  in  the  colony  } 
a  'greenhorn';  or  'tenderfoot.' 
For  general  synonyms,  see 


1861.  EARLES,  UJ>s  and  Downs  of 
Australian  Life,  p.  199.  'I  suppose  you're 
a  stranger,  or  as  we  calls  'em,  a  NEW 
CHUM,  ain't  you?' 

1886.  E.  WAKEFIELD,  Nineteenth 
Century,  Aug.,  p.  173.  In  these  colonies 
[Australia],  where  pretty  nearly  every  one 
has  made  several  sea  voyages,  that  subject 
is  strictly  tabooed  in  all  rational  society. 
To  dilate  upon  it  is  to  betray  a  NEW  CHUM. 

1889.  Town  and  Country,  16  Feb. 
'Answers  to  Correspondents.'  NEW 
CHUM  (Forbes)  :— The  first  instalment  will 
be  due,  etc. 

CHUMMAGE,  subs.  (old). — Money 
procured  by  the  practice  of 
chumming  together ;  but  various 
extensions  of  meaning  appear  to 
have  been  in  vogue  at  different 
periods. — See  quots.  [The  prao 
tice  alluded  to  in  quot.  1777,  was 
the  rough  music  made  with  pokers, 
tongs,  sticks,  and  saucepans,  for 
Which  oVation  the  initiated  pri- 
soner had  to  pay  or  '  fork  out '  a 
certain  suhi  of  money,  or  submit 
to  being  deprived  of  its  equivalent 
from  among  his  personal  effects  ; 
otherwise  called  CHtMMiNG  UP.] 

1777.  HOWARD,  State  of  Prisons  in 
England  and  Wtiles,  quoted  in  J.  Ashton's 
The  Fleet,  p.  295.  A  cruel  custom  obtains 
in  most  of  our  Gaols,  which  is  that  of  the 
prisoners  demanding  of  a  hew  comer  GAR- 
NISH, FOOTING,  or  (as  it  is  called  in  some 
London  Gaols)  CHUMMAGfe. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CHUMMAGE  :  money  paid  by  the  richer  sort 
of  prisoners  in  the  Fleet  and  King's  Bench 
to  tht?  poorer  for  their  share  of  a  room  .  .  ; 
A  prisoner  who  can  pay  for  being  alohe^ 
chooses  two  poor  chums,  who  for  a  stipu- 
lated price,  called  CHUMMAGE,  give  up 
their  share  of  the  room. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pitkwick,  xlii.  the 
regular  CHUMMAGE  is  two-and-sixpence. 

18,59.  G.  A.  SALA,  Twice  Round  the 
Clock  (1861),  103.  1  he  time-honoured  sys- 
tem of  CHUMVAGE,  or  quartering  two  or 
more  collegians  in  one  room,  and  allowing 
the  richest  to  pay  his  companions  a  stipu- 
lated sum  to  go  out  and  find  quarters 

Also  used  as  an  adjective. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xlii., 
p.  364.  You'll  have  a  CHUMMAGE  ticket 
upon  twenty-seven  in  the  third,  and  them 
as  is  in  the  room  will  be  your  chums* 




CHUMMERY,  subs,  (common^.  — 
Chumhood  ;  also  the  quarters 
occupied  by  'chums.'  [From 
CHUM  +  ERY  ;  cf.y  ROOKERY, 


1877.  BESANT  AND  RICE.  Son  of 
Vulcan,  p.  196.  Jack  and  her  father  lived 
in  bachelor  CHUMMERY. 

CHUMMY,  subs,  (colloquial).  —  I;  A 
chimney-sweep's  climbing  boy.  [A 
corruption  of  '  chimney  '  through 
*  chumley.  '] 

1835.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Boz,  p. 
169.  Vereas  he  'ad  been  a  CHUMMY  —  he 
begged  the  cheerman's  parding  for  using 
such  a  vulgar  hexpression,  etc. 

1844.  THACKERAY,  Greenwich,  wks. 
(1886)  XXIII.,  380.  The  hall  .  .  was 
decorated  with  banners  and  escutcheons  of 
deceased  CHUM  MIES.  [M.] 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
andLond.  Poor,  vol.  II.,  p.  417.  A  CHUM- 
MY (once  a  common  name  for  the  climbing- 
boy,  being  a  corruption  of  chimney). 

1859.  W.  GREGORY,  Egypt,  I.,  154. 
His  shrill  voice,  high  up  aloft,  like  a 
CHUMMY'S  on  a  London  summer  morn. 

2.     A  diminutive  form  of  CHUM 

1864.  GILBERT,  Bab  Ballads,  Eti- 
quette. Old  CHUMMIES  at  the  Charter- 
house were  Robinson  and  he.  [M.] 

3.  (common).—  Alow-crowned 
felt  hat;  For  synonyms,  see  GOL- 

Adj.  (colloquial).  —  Very  inti- 
mate ;  friendly  ;  sociable.  The 
analogous  French  terms  are  chou- 
ette\  chouettard',  ckouettaud. 

1884.  Harpers  Magazine,  Sept.,  p. 
536  col.  2.  I  .  .  saw  them  form  into 
small  CHUMMY  groups.  [M.] 

1888.  W.  BESANT,  Herr  Paulus,  bk. 
III.,  ch.  xi.,  vol.  III.,  p.  204.     I  liked  the 
fellow,  I  confess,  and  we  got  CHUMMY  in 
the  evenings. 

1889.  Answers,  May  n,  p.  380.  When 
I  was  at  Pentonville,  a  man  in  the  same 
ward,  who  had  got  rather  CHUMMY  with 
hi  s  warder,  asked  him  to  post  a  letter  to 
his  friends  in  Manchester. 

CHUMP,   subs,   (common). — i.      A 

1883.  HAVVLEY    SMART,   At  Fault 
II.,  i.,  29.    Such  a  long-winded  old  CHUMP 
at   telling  a    story   one  don't   often    see, 
thank  goodness. 

1887.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  2  Feb., 
p.  ip.  col.  i.  Frank  audibly  remarked : 
'This  man  is  a  CHUMP.  I  could  go  ... 
this  minute  arid  do  better  than  that.'  [M.] 

2.  (popular). — A    variant     of 
CHUM,  subs.   (q:i>.).     French  ma 
meille  branche  —  my  old  chump. 

1884.  Punch,   n  Oct.      '  'Any  at  a 
Political  Picnic.'      All  my  Saturday   arfs 
are    devoted     to     Politics.       Fancy,    old 
CHUMP,  Me   doing  the  sawdusty   reglar, 
and  follering  swells  oh  the  stump. 

3.  (popular).  —  The     head  ; 
especially    in     the     phrase    OFF 
ONE'S  CHUMP  (q.v.).     For  syno- 
nyms, see  CRUMPET. 

CHUMP-OF- WOOD,  subs.  phr. 
(rhyming  slang).  — No  good.  Also 
a  blockhead. 

OFF  ONE'S  CHUMP,  phr.  (vul- 
gar).—Insane.  Cf.,  OFF  ONE'S 
HEAD,  NUT,  etc.  For  synonyms, 

c.  I860.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  We  are 
a  merry  family.'  The  fire  is  out,  the 
fender's  broke,  And  father's  out  on  strike, 
Sister  Ann's  gone  OFF  HER  CHUMP,  In 
fact,  we're  all  alike. 

1866.  Broadside  Ballad,  'Oh,  She 
Was  Such  a  Beautiful  Girl.'  She  diddled 
me,  she  fiddled  me,  She  sent  me  OFF  MY 

1877.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  Son  of 
Vulcan,  II.,  xxiv.,  p.  377.  '  Master,'  he 
said,  '  have  gone  OFF  HIS  CHUMP — that's 

1883.  BESANT,  Captains  Room,  ch. 
vii.,  p.  85  (1885).  He  ...  was  engaged 
to  be  married  to  the  king's  sister  .  .  . 
unfortunately,  only  the  week  before  I 
arrived,  he  was  killed  arid  devoured  by  a 
lion,  and  the  princess  was  gone  OFF  HER 
royal  CHUMP. 

phr.  (thieves'). — See  quot. 



1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  242.  '  Cut  her  own  grass  !  Good 
gracious,  what  is  that?'  I  asked.  'Why, 
FURVIDE  HER  OWN  CHUMP — earn  her  own 
living,"  the  old  man  replied. 

C  H  u  M  PY,     adj.     (common).  —  The 
same  as  OFF  ONE'S  CHUMP. 

CHUNK,  subs,  (colloquial). — i.  A 
thick  piece  or  lump  of  wood, 
bread,  coal,  etc. 

1691.  RAY,  S.  and  E.  Country  Wds. 
(E.  D.  S.)  Chuck,  a  great  chip  ...  In 
other  countries  [=  districts]  they  call  it  a 
CHUNK.  [M.] 

1787.  GROSE,  Prov.  Glossary.  'Chuck.' 
Chuck,  a  great  chip,  Suss.  In  other  coun- 
ties called  a  CHUNK  or  junk. 

1876.  BBS  ANT  AND  RICE,  Golden  But- 
terfly, ch.  xxix.  Why  not  keep  a  clerk  to 
read  for  you,  and  pay  out  the  information 
in  small  CHUNKS  ?  I  should  like  to  tackle 
Mr.  Carlyle  that  way. 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  The 
Hungry  Man  from  Clapham.'  He'd  eat 
everything  there  was  in  the  place,  He  bit  a 
CHUNK  from  his  mother-in-law's  face. 

2.     (streets'). — A  school-board 

18(?).  THOR  FREDUR,  Sketches  from 
Shady  Places.  Here  they  gambol  about 
like  rabbits,  until  somebody  raises  the  cry, 
'  Nix  !  the  CHUNK  '  (the  slang  term  for 
School  Board  officer). 

CHURCH,  verb  (thieves'). — To  take 
out  the  works  of  a  watch  and 
substitute  another  set}  so  that 
identification  is  impossible. — See 
CHRISTEN,  verb,  sense  i. 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant, 
3  ed.,  p.  445.  To  have  the  works  of  a 
watch  put  into  another  case — To  CHURCH 


1868.  DOR  AN  ,  Saints  and  Sinn.  ,11., 
290.  The  (thieves')  CHURCH  THEIR  YACKS 
when  they  transpose  the  works  of  stolen 
watches  to  prevent  identification.  [M.] 

To  TALK  CHURCH,  verbal phr. 
(colloquial). — To    TALK    'SHOP' 

1851.  NEWLAND,  Erne,  217.  Looking 
at  those  wretched  people  and  TALKING 
CHURCH.  [M.] 

CHURCHWARDEN,  subs. (general). — 
A  clay  pipe  with  a  long  stem. — 
See  quot.,  1864,  under  CLAY. 
The  following  are  general 

man ;  steamer ;  yard  of  clay ; 

bouffarde;  une  Beige;  une chiffarde 
(thieves') ;  une  marseillaise  ;  une 
gambier  (pop.  from  a  manufac- 
turer's name). 

(M.  H.  G.  fallen  or  lollen  =  to 
suck  ;  lulkcn,  to  smoke) ;  Massel 
(Swabian  :  also  =  a  street-walker  ; 
maiseln  =  to  smoke)  ;  Nagel ; 
Pilmerstab  (only  in  Zimmermann) ; 
Sarcherstock  (from  the  Hebrew 
sorach,  through  sdrchen,  to  stink  or 
to  smoke.  S archer,  tobacco  ;  Sar- 
cherkippe  or  Sarchertiefe,  tobacco- 
box  ;  Sarcherhanjo,  tobacco- 
pouch);  Selcher  (Viennese  thieves': 
from  selchen,  to  smoke);  Schmal- 

1857.   HOOD,  Pen  and  Pencil  Pictures, 

£269.      Give  me  my   willow-tube   for  a 
nee,  the  lid  of  a  cigar-box  for  a  shield. 
Thrust  me  a  pair  of  cutties  into  my  girdle 
for  pistols  ;   hang  a  CHURCHWARDEN   by 
my  side  for  a  sabre. 

1863.  ALEX.  SMITH,  Dreamthorfe, 
p.  262.  He  .  .  .  lifted  a  pipe  of  the  kind 
called  CHURCHWARDEN  from  the  box  on 
the  ground,  filled  and  lighted  it. 

18(34.  DR.  RICHARDSON, on  'Tobacco,' 
before  Brit.  Asspc.  Met  ting  at  Bath. 
Cigars  are  more  injurious  than  any  form 
of  pipe ;  and  the  best  pipe  is  unques- 
tionably what  is  commonly  called  a 
CHURCHWARDEN  or  long  clay. 


A     GENTLEMAN-—  See     GENTLE- 



"4        Cincinnati  Oysters. 

phr.  (American). — Purposeless 
loquacity  ;  '  Much  cry  and  little 
wool. '  Literally,  much  ado  about 
nothing.  [For  suggested  deriva- 
tion, seequoL,  1871.] 

1835-40.  HALIBURTON  ('  Sam  Slick '), 
Clockmaker,  i  S.,  ch.  xxi.  It  is  an  ex- 
pensive kind  of  honour  that,  bein' 
Governor  .  .  .  Great  cry  and  little  wool  ! 


1858.  Notes  and  Queries ',  2  S.,  v., 
233.  ALL  TALK  AND  NO  CIDER.  This  ex- 
pression  is  applied  to  persons  whose  per- 
formances fall  far  short  of  their  promises. 

1862.  C.  F.  BROWNE,  Artemus  Ward  : 
His  Book,  p.  135.  What  we  want  is  more 
CIDER  and  less  TALK. 

1871.  DE  VERE,  Americanisms,  p. 
591.  This  phrase  originated  at  a  party  in 
Bucks  County,  Pennsylvania,  which  had 
assembled  to  drink  a  barrel  of  superior 
cider ;  but  politics  being  introduced, 
speeches  were  made,  and  discussion 
ensued,  till  some  malcontents  withdrew  on 
the  plea  that  it  was  a  trap  into  which  they 
had  been  lured,  politics  and  not  pleasure 
being  the  purpose  of  the  meeting,  or,  as 
they  called  it,  ALL  TALK  AND  NO  CIDER. 

CIDER  AND,  subs.  phr.  (colloquial). 
— Cider  mixed  with  some  other 
ingredient.  Cf.,  COLD  WITHOUT, 
HOT  WITH,  etc. 

1742.  FIELDING,  Joseph  Andrews, 
bk.  I.,  ch.  xvi.  She  then  asked  the  doctor 
and  Mr.  Barnabas  what  morning's  draught 
they  chose,  who  answered,  they  had  a  pot 
of  CIDER-AND  at  the  fire. 

CiG,  subs,  (common). — A  cigar. 
[An  abbreviation  of  the  legitimate 
word.]  For  synonyms,  see  WEED. 

CINCH,  verb  (American). — To  get  a 
grip  on  ;  to  '  corner ' ;  to  put  the 
screw  on;  also,  in  the  passive  sense, 
to  come  out  on  the  wrong  side  in 
speculations.  [From  the  Spanish 
cincha,  a  belt  or  girdle  ;  cinchar, 
to  girdle.  Properly  used  of  the 
saddling  of  horses  with  the  huge 
Mexican  saddle.  To  CINCH  a 
horse,  however,  is  by  no  means 

the  same  as  girthing  him.  The 
two  ends  of  the  tough  cordage 
which  constitute  the  CINCH  ter- 
minate in  long  narrow  strips  of 
leather  called  latigos — thongs — 
which  connect  the  CINCHES  with 
the  saddle,  and  are  run  through 
an  iron  ring  and  then  tied  by  a 
series  of  complicated  turns  and 
knots  known  only  to  the  craft.] 

1875.  Scribners  Mag:,  July,  p.  2^7. 
A  man  is  ciNCHED=he  is  hurt  in  a  mining 
transaction  (San  Francisco  localism). 

1881.  New  York  Times,  Dec.  18, 
quoted  in  Notes  and  Queries,  6  S.,  v.  65. 
CINCH.  To  subdue,  to  forcibly  bind  down 
and  overcome.  Thus  it  is  unfairly  said 
that  the  Northern  Pacific  Company  intends 
to  CINCH  the  settlers  by  exacting  large 
prices  for  its  lands.  Query,  from  Latin 

1888.  Daily  Inter-Ocean,  2  Feb.  Black 
and  Blue  thinks  the  Dwyers  have  a  CINCH 
on  both  the  great  events. 

1888.  New  York  World,  22  July.  The 
bettor,  of  whom  the  pool-room  bookmaker 
stands  in  dread,  however,  is  the  racehorse 
owner,  who  has  a  CINCH  bottled  up  for  a 
particular  race,  and  drops  into  the  room  an 
hour  or  two  before  the  races  begin. 

CINCINNATI  OLIVE,  subs.  (Ameri- 
can).— A  pig.  [A  spurious  '  olive 
oil '  is  manufactured  from  lard, 
and  Cincinnati  is  one  of  the 
largest  centres  of  the  '  pork  pack- 
ing industry'  in  America.]  Cf., 

CINCINNATI  OYSTERS, subs.  (Ameri- 
can).— Pigs'  trotters.  A  curious  in- 
terchange of  names  occurs  between 
fish,  flesh,  and  fowl.  In  CINCIN- 
NATI OYSTERS  we  have  flesh 
presented  in  the  guise  of  fish  ; 
and  the  reverse  is  the  case  when 
the  sturgeon  is  spoken  of  as 
ALBANY  BEEF.  Amongst  other 
examples  may  be  quoted  MARBLE- 
HEAD  TURKEY,  for  a  codfish  ; 
also,  in  Nova  Scotia  a  DIGBY 
CHICKEN  =  a  herring  smoked 
and  dried  in  a  peculiar  fashion. 



In  England  a  BILLINGSGATE 
PHEASANT  is  a  fresh  herring  ; 
whilst  a  Yarmouth  bloater  is 
sometimes  a  TWO-EYED  STEAK.  . 

CINDER,  subs,  (common).  —  i.  Any 
strong  liquor  as  brandy,  whiskey, 
sherry,  etc.  ,  mixed  with  a  weaker, 
as  soda-water,  lemonade,  water, 
etc.,  to  fortify  it. 

1864.      HOTTEN,   Slang  Dictionary, 


1883.  Referee,  March  18,  p.  2,  col.  4. 
Having  rushed  out  to  get  a  glass  of  cold 
water  with  a  CINDER  in  it  to  take  the  chill 

2.  (sporting).  —  A  running  path 
or  track  ;  merely  an  abbreviation 
of  '  cinder-path,'  it  being  laid 
with  '  cinders.  ' 

ClNDER-GARBLER,.wfo.     (old).  —  A 

female  servant.  Grose  [1785] 
says  the  term  was  '  Custom 
House  wit,'  but  gives  no  par- 

chioness ;  slavey  ;  cinder-grabber; 
Cinderella  ;  can  (Scots)  ;  piss- 
kitchen  ;  Julia. 

trait  de  garni  (popular)  ;  unchani- 
brillon  ;  une  bobonne  (for  bonne)  ; 
une  larbine  ;  ^tne  cambroitse  ;  une 
Jeanne  fon  ;  une  groule  or  grcu- 

or  Schijches  ;  Schammesch  or 
Schammes  (from  the  Hebrew). 


CiRCLiNG-Bov,  subs,  (old).—  A 
'rook';  swindler.  Naressays  a 
species  of  roarer;  one  who  in 
some  way  drew  a  man  into  a 

snare,  to  cheat  or  rob  him.  See 
Gifford.  —  Ben  Jonson,  Barth. 
Fair,  iv.,  3,  p.  481. 

CIRCS,  subs,  (common). — Circum- 

CIRCUMBENDIBUS,  subs,  (old).— A 
roundabout ;  a  long  -  winded 
story.  [From  Lat.  circum, 
around,  +  Eng.  BEND,  with  a 
Latin  termination.] 

1681.  DRYDEN,  Sp.  Friar,  V.,  ii.  I 
shall  fetch  him  back  with  a  CIRCUM- 
BENDIBUS, I  warrant  him.  [M.] 

1768.  LORD  CARLISLE,  in  Jesse's 
Selivyn,  II.,  317(1882).  I  can  assure  you 
it  grieved  me  that  anything  of  yours  should 
make  such  a  CIRCUMBENDIBUS  before  it 
came  to  my  hands. 

1773.  O.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stools  to 
Conquer,  Act  v.,  Sc.  2.  '  And  from  that, 
with  a  CIRCUMBENDIBUS,  I  fairly  lodged 
them  in  the  horse-pond  at  the  bottom  of 
the  garden.' 

1849.  LYTTON,  Cantons,  pt.  VIII., 
ch.  i.  The  cabman,  to  swell  his  fare,  had 
thought  proper  to  take  a  CIRCUMBENDIBUS. 

1890.  Notes  and  Queries,  7  S.,  ix., 
29  March.  .  .  .  No  choice  but  to  deliver 
himself  of  a  malediction  with  a  CIRCUM- 

(common).  — A  centre  of  red- 
tape  ;  a  roundabout  way.  [A 
term  invented  by  Charles  Dickens 
(see  quot.,  1857),  and  applied  at 
first  in  ridicule  to  public  offices, 
where  everybody  tries  to  shuffle 
off  his  responsibilities  upon  some 
one  else. 

1857.  C.  DICKENS,  Little  Dorrit,  I., 
x.  The  CIRCUMLOCUTION  OFFICE  was  the 
most  important  Department  under  Govern- 
ment. Ibid.  Whatever  was  required  to 
be  done,  the  CIRCUMLOCUTION  OFFICE  was 
beforehand  with  all  the  public  departments 
in  the  art  of  perceiving — How  not  to  do  it. 

1870.  Graphic,  Feb.  19,  in  'By  the 
Bye.'  To  complete  the  contretemps  a.  por- 
tion of  the  telegraphs  struck  work  on  the 
very  first  day- of  the  Government  taking 
them  in  hand.  Of  course  the  great  tribe 

Circumslogdologize.        "6 

of  evil-wishers  ran  about  chuckling,  and 
rubbing  their  hands  gleefully.  '  I  told 
you  so,'  cried  Rubasore.  CIRCUMLOCU- 
TION OFFICE  again,  sneered  Crossgrain. 




STANCE, etc.,  phr.  (American). — 
Not  to  be  compared  with  ;  a 
trifle  ;  of  no  account — unfavour- 
able comparison. 

18(?).  J.  H.  BEADLE,  Western  Wilds, 
p.  28.  I  took  a  broadhorn  to  Noo  Orleens, 
and  when  I  was  paid  off  on  the  levee,  I 
was  the  worst  lost  man  you  ever  did  see. 
In  the  middle  of  the  thickest  woods  in  the 

1848.  J.  R.  LOWELL,  Biglow  Papers. 
For  Jacob  WARN'T  A  SUCKEMSTANCE  to 
Teflf  at  financiering  He  never'd  thought  of 
borryin'  from  Esau  like  all  nater  An'  then 
cornfiscatin'  all  debts  to  sech  a  small 

To  WHIP  [something]  INTO  A 
CIRCUMSTANCE  =  to  surpass. 
Thus  a  newspaper  correspondent 
writes  that  '  the  streets  of  George- 
town,Demerara,are  broad,smoolh, 
and  well  laid  out.  Georgetown 
could  give  points  to  New  York 
in  its  roads,  and  WHIP  IT  INTO 


CIRCUS-CUSS,  subs,  (thieves'). — A 
circus -rider. 

CITIZEN,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  wedge 
for  'prizing  open'  safes,  before 
the  ALDERMAN  (q.v.),  and  JEMMY 
(q.v.).  —  See  also  CITIZENS' 


CITIZENS'  FRIEND,  subs,  (thieves'). 
— A  smaller  wedge  than  the 
CITIZEN  (q.v.},  for  '  prizing  open  ' 
safes.  The  order  in  which  the 
tools  are  used  is  (i)  CITIZENS' 
FRIEND;  (2)  CITIZEN;  (3)  the 
ALDERMAN  (i.e.,  a  JEMMY);  and 

sometimes  (4)  a  LORD  MAYOR. 
For  synonyms,  see  JEMMY  and 

CITY  COLLEGE,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
Newgate.  In  New  York  =  *  The 
Tombs.'  For  synonyms,  see 

CITY  STAGE,  subs,  (old).— The 
gallows,  formerly  in  front  of 
Newgate.  For  synonyms,  see 

CIVET,  subs,  (general). — The  female 
pudendum.  For  synonyms,  see 


CIVIL-RIG,  subs,  (vagrants'). — A 
trick  to  obtain  alms  by  a  pro- 
fuse show  of  civility  and  obse- 

CIVVIES,  subs,  (military). — Civilians' 
clothes,  as  opposed  to  regimen- 
tals. [A  corruption  of  the  legiti- 
mate word.] 

CLACK,  subs,  (colloquial). — i.  Idle, 
loquacious  talk  ;  gossip ;  prattle 
— an  exceedingly  old  usage.  For 
synonyms,  see  PATTER. 

c.  1440.  YORK,  Myst.  XXXIV.,  2x1. 
Ther  quenes  vs  comeres  with  her  CLAKKE. 


1599.  NASHE,  Lenten  Stujfe,  in  wks. 
V.  251.  Their  CLACKE  or  gabbling  to  this 

1678.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  pt.  III., 
ch.  ii.  And,  with  his  everlasting  CLACK, 
Set  all  men's  ears  upon  the  rack. 

1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rod.  Random,  ch. 
liv.  I  dreaded  her  unruly  tongue,  and 
felt  by  anticipation  the  horrors  of  an  eternal 


1812.  H.  AND  J.  SMITH,  Rejected 
Addresses  ('  Punch's  Apotheosis  ').  See 
she  twists  her  mutton  fists  like  Molyneux 




or  Beelzebub,  And  t'other's  CLACK,  who 
pats  her  back,  is  louder  far  than  Bell's 

1888.  J.  PAYN,  Myst  Mirbridge 
(Tauchn.)  II.,  xviii.,  197.  The  old  fellow 
would  have  had  a  CLACK  with  her.  [M.] 

2.  (common).  —  The  tongue 
[/.*.,  that  which  CLACKS  (q.v.), 
verb.~\  A  more  ancient  form  was 
CLAP  dating  back  to  1225. 

red-rag  ;  clapper  ;  dubber  ;  vel- 
vet ;  jibb  ;  quail-pipe. 

gence de  Rome  (popular)  ;  un  bat- 
tant  (thieves'  :  also  '  heart,' 
'stomach,'  and  'throat');  un 
bon  battant  ('a  nimble  tongue.' 
Cf.,  '  clapper  '  )  ;  line  chiffe  or  un 
chijfon  rouge  (popular);  unegaffe-, 


(literally  '  the  licker  ')• 

Una  ;  dannoso  (literally  '  damag- 
able  ') ;  zavarina  (properly  '  a 
trifling  old  woman  '). 

SPANISH  SYNONYM.     La  deso- 
sada  (i.e.,  Old  Boneless). 

1598.  GREENE,  Jos.  7F.,  wks.  (Gros.) 
XIII.,  210.  Haud  your  CLACKS,  lads.  [M.] 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CLACK  (s.)  .  .  .  also  a  nickname  tor  a 
woman's  tongue  ;  a  prattler  or  busybody. 

1828.  D'ISRAELI,  Chas.  I.,  II.,  i.,  23. 
Who,  as  washerwomen  ...  at  their 
work,  could  not  hold  their  CLACK.  [M.] 

1864.  E.  SARGENT,  Peculiar,  III., 
76.  To  hermetically  seal  up  this  Mrs. 
Gentry's  CLACK.  [M.] 

Verb. — To  gabble.     For  syno- 
nyms, see  PATTER. 

CLACK- Box,  subs,  (common). — i. 
The  mouth.  For  synonyms,  se,e 

2.   (common). — A  chatterbox. 

almighty  ;  poll  parrot ;  babble  - 
merchant ;  slammer. 

lotteur  (familiar) ;  un  devidmr  or 
une  devideuse  (popular  :  literally 
*  a  winder ') ;  un  bagotdard  (popu- 
lar :  c'est  unfameux  bagoulard= 
he  is  the  bloke  to  slam)  ;  un 
chambert :  abuser  du  crachoir 
(said  of  a  chatterbox  who  does 
too  much  with  the  '  spitter '). 

latista  (m ;  jocular)  ;  habtantin 
or  hablanchin  (m ;  colloquial) ; 
ladrador  (m ;  properly  '  a  barker '); 
prosador  (m  ;  properly  '  a  sarcastic 
and  malicious  babbler  ')  ;  gazetilla 
(f;  a  farthing  newspaper  ')  ;  gar- 
lador ;  fuelle  (m  ;  properly  'a  pair 
of  bellows ') ;  ya  escampa  (it  is 
importunate  babbling ;  escampar 
signifies  literally  '  to  clean  or 
clear  out  a  place ') ;  cotorrera 
( =  a  gossip  ;  cotorreria  —  loqua- 
city ;  a  term  specially  applied  to 
women) ;  comadre  (f;  jueves  de 
comadres  =  Cummers'  Thursday, 
the  last  before  Shrove  Tuesday) ; 
una  chicharra.  (a  prattler ;  chi- 
charra  —  '  a  froth  worm '  or  '  har- 
vest fly  ')  ;  charlantin. 

CLACK-LOFT,  subs,  (popular).  —  A 
pulpit.  [From  CLACK,  verb^  + 
LOFT,  an  elevated  room  or  place.] 
For  synonyms,  see  HUM-BOX, 

CLAIM,  verb  (thieves').— To  steal, 
(A  locution  similar  in  character 
to  'annex,'  'convey,'  etc.,  and 
derived  from  a  sense  of  the  legi- 
timate word  signifying  '  to  de- 
mand on  the  ground  of  right.') 
For  synonyms,  see  PRIG, 




1879.  J.W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macmillaris 
Mag-.,  XL.,  501.  So  I  CLAIMED  (stole) 

To  JUMP  A  CLAIM,  phr.  (Ameri- 
can and  colonial).  —  To  take 
forcible  possession  ;  to  defraud  ; 
specifically  to  seize  land  which  has 
been  taken  up  and  occupied  by 
another  settler,  or  squatter.  The 
first  occupant  is,  by  squatter  law 
and  custom,  entitled  to  the  first 
claim  on  the  land. — See  JUMP. 

1846.  E.  H.  SMITH,  Hist,  of  Black 
Hawk.  When  I  hunted  claims,  I  went  far 
and  near,  Resolved  from  all  others  to  keep 
myself  clear  ;  And  if,  through  mistake,  I 
JUMPED  A  man's  CLAIM,  As  soon  as  I  knew 
it  I  jumped  off  again. 

18(7).  F.  MARRYAT,  Mountains  and 
Molehills,  p.  217.  If  a  man  JUMPED  my 
CLAIM,  and  encroached  on  my  boundaries, 
and  I  didn't  knock  him  on  the  head  with  a 
pickaxe,  I  appealed  to  the  crowd,  and,  my 
claim  being  carefully  measured  and  found 
correct,  the  jumper  would  be  ordered  to 
confine  himself  to  his  own  territory. 

1883.  R.  L.  STEVENSON,  The  Silver- 
ado Squatters,  p.  221.  The  CLAIM  was 
JUMPED  ;  a  track  of  mountain-side, 
fifteen  hundred  feet  long  by  six  hundred 
wide  .  .  .  had  passed  from  Ronalds 
to  Hanson,  and  in  the  passage  changed 
its  name  from  the  '  Mammoth '  to  the 
'  Calistoga.' 

CLAM,  suds.  (American). — I.  A 
blockhead.  Anglice,  '  as  stupid  as 
an  oyster.'  Shakspeare  (Much 
Ado  About  Nothing,  ii.  3)  has 
*  Love  may  transform  me  to  an 
oyster  ;  but  I'll  take  my  oath  on 
it,  till  he  hath  made  an  oyster  of 
me,  he  shall  never  make  me  such 
afool.' — 6^  CHOWDER-HEADED  ; 
chowder  is  a  favourite  form  of 
serving  clams. 

1871.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark 
Twain'),  Sketches,  I.,  46.  A  fine  stroke 
of  sarcasm,  that,  but  it  will  be  lost  on  such 
an  intellectual  CLAM  as  you. 

2.    The  mouth   or  lips.     Also 

CLAM-SHELL.  '  Shut  your  CLAM- 
SHELL '  =  'Shut  your  mouth.' 
The  •  padlock  now  used  on 

the  United  States  mail-bags 
is  called  the  'Clam-shell  padlock.' 
For  synonyms,  see  POTATO-TRAP. 

1825.     J.    NEAL,  Bro.  Jonathan^  I., 

143.     Shet  your  CLAM,  our  David. 

1848.  J.  R.  LOWELL,  Biglow  Papers, 
II.,  p.  19.  You  don't  feel  much  like 
speakin',  When  if  you  let  your  CLAM- 
SHELLS gape,  a  quart  of  tar  will  leak  in. 

1848.  B ARTLETT,  Diet.  A  mericanisnts. 
SHUT  UP  YOUR  CLAM-SHELLS.  Close  your 
Hps  together;  be  silent.  Common  along 
the  shores  of  Connecticut  and  Rhode 
Island,  where  clams  abound.  Same  as 
'  shut  your  head.' 

CLAM -BUTCHER,  subs*  (American). 
— A  man  who  opens  clams  ;  the 
attendant  at  an  oystejr  bar  is 
an  '  oyster-butcher,' 

CLANK,  stebs.  (thieves'), — A  pewter 
tankard  ;  formerly  a  silver  one. 

1785,  GROSE,  Dict^  Vvlg*  Tongue 
CLANK  :  a  silver  tankard. 

1837.  DISRAEU,  V^netia,  ch.  xiv. 
Tip  me  the  CLANK  like  a  dimber  mort  as 
you  are. 

CLANKER,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  great 
lie. — Grose.  C/.,  CLINKER.  For 
synonyms,  see  WHOPPER. 

2.     (old).— Silver  plate.    Cf*> 

CLANK  NAPPER,  subs,  (old).— A 
thief  whose  speciality  is  silver- 
plate.  [From  CLANK,  subs.  + 
NAPPER  (q.v.},  a  thief.]  For 
synonyms,  see  THIEVES. 

CLAP  (or  CLAPPER),  subs,  (com- 
mon).— I.  The  tongue.  [From 
CLAP  =  chatter;  a  babbler's  tongue 
is  said  to  be  hung  in  the  middle, 
and  to  sound  with  both  ends.] 
For  synonyms,  see  CLACK. 

a.  1225.  Ancr.  R.,  72.  "heone  Ru  ^en 
heo  neuere  astunten  hore  CLEPFE. 




1609.  DEKKER,  Guls  Horne-Booke, 
ch.  vi.  And  to  let  that  CLAPPER  (your 
tongue)  be  tost  so  high,  that  all  the  house 
may  ring  of  it. 

1633.  MASSINGER,  New  Way  to  Pay 
Old  Debts,  III.,  2.  Greedy.  Sir  Giles, 
Sir  Giles  !  Over.  The  great  fiend,  stop 
that  CLAPPER  ! 

1750.  FIELDING,  Tom  Jones,  bk.  VII., 
ch.  xv.  My  landlady  was  in  such  high 
mirth  with  her  company  that  no  CLAPPER 
could  be  heard  there  but  her  own. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i 
S.,  ch.  xix.  I  thought  I  should  have 
snorted  right  out  two  or  three  times  .  .  . 
to  hear  the  critter  let  her  CLAPPER  run  that 

1861.  HUGHES,  Tom Brownat Oxford, 
ch.  vi.  But  old  Murdoch  was  too  pleased 
at  hearing  his  own  CLAPPER  going,  and 
too  full  of  whiskey,  to  find  him  out. 

1878.  JOHN  PAYNE,  tr.  Poems  of 
Villon,  p.  139.  Enough  was  left  me  (as 
warrant  I  will)  To  keep  me  from  holding 
my  CLAPPER  still,  When  jargon  that 
meant  '  You  shall  be  hung '  They  read  to 
me  from  the  notary's  bill :  Was  it  a  time  to 
hold  my  tongue  ? 

2.  (vulgar).  —  Gonorrhoea  ; 
once  in  polite  use.  [Origin 
uncertain  ;  ff.t  Old  Fr.  dapoir, 
bosse,  bubo,  panus  inguinis ; 
clapoire,  clapier,  'lieu  de  debauche, 
'  maladie  tfon  y  attrape''}.  For 
synonyms,  see  LADIES'  FEVER. 

1587.  Myrr.  Mag.,  Malin  iii.  Before 
they  get  the  CLAP. 

1706.  FARQUHAR.  The  Recruiting 
Officer.  Five  hundred  a  year  besides 
guineas  for  CLAPS. 

1709.  SWIFT.  Adv.  Relig.  Works 
[1755]  II.,  i.  99,  s.v. 

1738.  JOHNSON,  London,  114.  They 
sing,  they  dance,  clean  shoes,  or  cure  a 

1881.  In  Syd.  Soc.  Lex. 

Verb  (vulgar). — To  infect  with 
CLAP;  see  subs.  Also  figuratively. 

1658.  OSBORN.  fas.  I.  [1673],  514. 
Atropos  CLAPT  him,  a  Pox  on  the  Drab  ! 

1680.  BUTLER,  Rem.  [1759],  I'  249. 
[They]  had  ne'er  been  CLAP'D  with  a  poetic 

1738.  Laws  of  Chance.  Pref.  9.  It 
is  hardly  i  to  10  .  .  .  that  a  Town- 
Spark  of  that  Age  has  not  been  CLAP'D. 

CLAPPER-DUDGEON,  subs.  (old). — 
A  whining  beggar. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  26. 
These  Palliards  be  called  also  CLAPPER 
DOGENS,  these  go  with  patched  clokes, 
and  haue  their  morts  with  them  which 
they  cal  wiues. 

1625.  JONSON,  Staple  of  News,  II. 
Here  he  is,  and  with  him  —  what?  a 
CLAPPER-DUDGEON  !  That's  a  good  sign, 
to  have  the  beggar  follow  him  so  near. 

1705-7.  WARD,  Hudibras  Rediviyus, 
vol.  I.,  pt.  V.,  p.  10.  Says  he,  there  is  an 
old  curmudgeon,  A  hum-drum,  preaching, 


1863.  SALA,  Capt.  Dang.,  II.,  vii., 
225.  Rogues,  Thieves  .  .  .  and  CLAPPER- 
DUDGEONS  .  .  .  infested  the  outskirts  of 
the  Old  Palace.  [M.] 

CLAP  OF  THUNDER,  subs.  phr. 
(old). — A  glass  of  gin  :  a  variant 
of  FLASH  OF  LIGHTNING  (q.v.}. 

1821.  P.  EGAN,  Tom  and  Jerry 
[Ed.  1890],  p.  79-  I  have  not  exactly 
recovered  from  the  severe  effects  of  the 
repeated  '  flashes  of  lightning  '  and  strong 
CLAPS  OF  THUNDER,  with  which  I  had  to 
encounter  last  night. 

CLAP-SHOULDER,  subs.  (old). — A 
term  applied  to  the  officers  of 
justice  who  laid  their  hands  upon 
people's  shoulders  when  they  ar- 
rested them.  Cf.,  CATCH-POLE. 

1630.  TAYLOR,  Workes.  CLAP- 
SHOULDER  Serjeants  get  the  devill  and  all, 
By  begging  and  by  bringing  men  in  thrall. 

CLAPSTER,  subs,  (vulgar). — An 
habitual  sufferer  from  gonorrhoea  ; 
by  implication,  one  much  and 
often  in  the  way  of  getting 

CLARAS,  subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
— Caledonian  Railway  Deferred 
and  Ordinary  Stock. 

1887.  ATKIN,  Hoitse  Scraps.  For 
we  have  our  Sarahs  and  CLAKAS.  Our 
Noras  and  Doras  for  fays. 




CLARET,  subs,  (pugilistic).  —  Blood, 
Variants  are  BADMINTON,  BOR* 
French  le  vermeil  or  Le  vermois. 

1604.  DEKKER,  Honest  Whore,  II,, 
45,  wks.  [1873].  This  should  be  a 
Coronation  day  :  for  my  head 


1819.  THOMAS  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Memorial  to  Congress,  p.  25.  ...  This 
being  the  first  Royal  CLARET  let  flow, 
Since  Tom  took  the  Holy  Alliance  in  Tow, 
The  uncorking  produced  much  sensation 
about,  As  bets  had  been  flush  on  the  first 
painted  snout. 

1878.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  By  Celia's 
Arbour,  ch.  xxxix.  The  lieutenant  picked 
him  up,  and  placed  him  —  •  because  he 
declined  to  stand  ;  and,  indeed,  the  CLARET 
was  flowing  freely  —  in  the  President's  arm 

To  TAP  ONE'S  CLARET,  phr.-- 
To  draw  blood. 

CLARET  JUG,  subs,  (pugilistic).— The 
nose.  [From  CLARET,  blood,  + 
JUG,  a  receptacle.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  CONK. 

18o9.     Punch,  vol.   XXXVII.,  p.  22. 

'  A  Chapter  on  Slang.'     A  man's  broken 
nose,  is  his  CLARET-JUG  smashed. 

CLARIAN,  subs.  (Cambridge  Uni- 
versity).— A  member  of  Clare 
Hall,  Cambridge ;  also  a  GREY- 
HOUND (q.V.). 

1889.  C.  WHIBLEY.  Cap  and  Gown. 
E'en  stuke-struck  Ciarians  strove  to  stoop. 

CLASS,  subs,  (athletic).— The  highest 
quality  or  combination  of  highest 
qualities  among  athletes.  He's 
not  CLASS  enough,  i.e.,  not  good 
enough.  There's  a  deal  of  CLASS 
about  him,  i.e.,  a.  deal  of  quality. 
The  term  obtains  to  a  certain  ex- 
tent among  turfites. 

1884.  Referee,  March  23,  p.  i,  col.  3. 
The  elasticity  necessary  for  anything  like 
CLASS  at  sprinting  departs  comparatively 

CLAW,  subs,  (prison). — A  lash  of 
the  cat-o'-nine-tails,  C/".,CLAWED- 
OFF,  sense  I. 

1876.  GREENWOOD,  A  Night  in  a 
Work-house.  Oh  !  cuss  that  old  Kerr, 
whp  cgndemned  me  to  twenty-five  CLAWS 
with  the  cat. 

phr.  (prison), — See  quot. 

1873.  GREENWOOD,  In  Strange  Com- 
pany, A  ruffian  being  uncertain  as  to  the 
morning  when  he  is  to  have,  as  he  himself 
would  say,  CLAWS  for  breakfast,  is  in  the 
habit  of  lying  night  after  night  in  a  sweat 
of  terror, 

CLAWED-QFF,  adv.  phr.  (old), — i. 
Severely  beaten  or  whipped.  Cf,, 

2.  (old).— Venereally  infected. 

CLAW-HAMMER,  subs.  ,(Irish), — 
A  dress  coat,  [From  a 
supposed  similarity  in  the 
put  of  the  tails  to  a  CLAW  HAM- 
MER, one  end  of  which  is 
divided  into  two  claws,  for 
extracting  nails  from  wood.] 
Also  called  STEEL- PEN  COAT  and 
SWALLOW-TAIL-  For  synonyms 
of  evening  dress  generally,  see 

sages  from  English  Note-books,  I.,  538. 
Sea-captains  call  a  dress-coat  a  CLAW? 


1883.  Punch,  July  si,  p.  ag,  col.  2. 
An  '  Impressionist '  i§  not  impressive 
In  a  CLAW-HAMMER  on  a  public  platform. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  Nov.  n, 
p.  7,  co}.  i.  After  the  CLAW-HAMMED 
crowd  had  been  exhausted,  he  sent  up  an 
invitation  to  the  great  army  of  unvarnished. 

CLAY,  subs,  (colloquial).  —  A  clay 
pipe.  Cf.,  YARD  OF  CLAY,  but 
for  synonyms,  see  CHURCHWAR- 

1859.  FAIRHOLT,  Tobacco (1876),  173. 
Such  long  pipes  were  reverently  termed 
ALDERMEN  in  the  last  age,  and  irreve- 
rently YARDS  OF  CLAY  in  the  present  one. 



Clean  Wheat. 

1861.  HUGHES.  Tom  Brownat  Oxford, 
ch.  xxi.,  p.  223.  He  is  churchwarden  at 
home,  and  can't  smoke  anything  but  a  long 

1866.  London  Miscellany,  19  May,p. 
235,  col.  2.  Surely  these  men,  who  win 
and  lose  fortunes  with  the  stolidity  of  a 
mynheer  smoking  his  CLAY  YARD,  must 
be  of  entirely  different  stuff  from  the  rest 
of  us. 

1871.  CALVERLEY,  Verses  and  Tr. 
Ode  Tobacco.  Jones  .  ,  .  daily  absorbs  a 
CLAY  after  his  labours. 

TO    MOISTEN,    SOAK,    or    WET 

ONE'S    CLAY,    verbal,    pht. — To 
drink.     [Clay  =  the  human  body,  ] 

1708.  Brit.  Apollo,  No.  80,  3,  i.  We 

1711.  ADDISON,  Spectator,  No.  72, 
par.  9.  To  MOISTEN  THEIR  CLAY,:  and 
grow  immortal  by  drinking. 

1731.  FIELDING,  Letter  Writers, 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  2.  A  soph,  he  is  immortal, 
And  never  can  decay  ;  For  how  should  he 
return  to  dust  Who  daily  WETS  HIS  CLAY? 

1790.  RHODES,  Bombastes  Arioso. 
MOISTENING  OUR  CLAY  and  puffing  off  our 

1800.  Morning  Chronicle  (in  Whibjey, 
p.  92).  Cram  not  your  attics  With  dry 
mathematics,  But  MOISTEN  YOUR  CLAY 
with  a  bumper  of  wine. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xxxix., 
p.  345.     Ever  and  anon  MOISTENING  HIS 
CLAY  and  his  labours  with  a  glass  of  claret. 

1837.  BARHAM,  /.  L.  (The  Monstre 
Saloon).     And  they're  feasting  the  party, 
and  SOAKING  THEIR  CLAY,  With  Johannis- 
berg,  Rudesheimer,  Moselle,  and  Tokay. 

1864.  LOWELL,  Fireside  Trav.,  119. 
When  his  poor  old  CLAY  WAS  WET  with 
gin.  [M.] 

CLEAN,  adj.  and  adv.  (colloquial 
and  expletive). — I.  Entirely  ; 
altogether;  e.g.,  CLEAN  GONE, 
CLEAN  BROKE,  etc.  Employed 
by  the  best  writers  until  a  recent 
date,  and  scarce  colloquial  even 

1888.  W.  E.  HENLEY.  A  Book  of 
Verses,  'Ballade  of  a  Toyokuni  Colour 
Print.'  Child,  although  I  have  forgotten 
CLEAN,  I  know  That  in  the  shade  of  Fuji- 
san,  What  time  the  cherry  orchards  blow, 
I  loved  you,  once,  in  old  Japan. 

1890.  MARK  RUTHERFORD  ('  Reuben 
Shapcott '),  Miriam's  Schooling,  p.  u. 
The  memory  of  the  battle  by  the  hill 
Moreh  is  CLEAN  forgotten. 

2.     Expert ;  smart. 

1878.  CHARLES  HINDLEY,  Life  and 
Times  of  James  Catnach.  The  CLEANEST 
angler  on  the  pad,  In  daylight  or  the 

CLEAN -Our,  verbal phr.  (colloquial) 
— To  exhaust;  strip;  'rack';  or 
ruin.  Fr. ,  sefaire  lessiver. 

1812.  J.  H.  VAUX,  Flash  Diet. 
CLEANED  OUT  :  said  of  a  gambler  who 
has  lost  his  last  stake  at  play  ;  also,  of  a 
flat  who  has  been  stript  of  all  his  money. 

1819.  THOS.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Memorial  to  Congress,  p.  38.  All 
Lombard-street  to  ninepence  on  it, 
Bobby's  the  boy  would  CLEAN  them  OUT  ! 

1840.  DICKENS,  Old  Curiosity  Shop, 
ch.  xxix.,  p.  He  never  took  a  dice-box 
in  his  hand,  or  held  a  card,  but  he  was 
plucked,  pigeoned,  and  CLEANED  OUT 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  When 
I  was  Prince  of  Paradise.'  I  introduced 
'  lop  ' — in  an  hour  or  two,  I'd  CLEANED  all 
their  pockets  right  OUT. 

CLEAN    POTATO,  phr.  (general). — 

.     The   right   thing.     Of  an   action 

indiscreet  or  dishonest,  it  is  said 

that  *  Jt's  not  the  CLEAN  POTATO.' 

CLEAH  STRAW,  subs,  (Winchester 
College).— Clean  sheets.  [Before 
1540  the  beds  were  bundles  of 
straw  on  a  stone  floor.  At  that 
date  Dean  Fleshmonger  put  in 
oaken  floors,  and  provided  proper 
beds,  such  as  existed  in  1871  in 
Third,  and  later  in  the  case  of 
the  Prsefect  of  Hall's  unused  beds 
in  Sixth.  The  term  has  never 
been  used,  as  stated  by  Barrere, 
in  reference  to  mattresses  of  any 
kind,  straw  or  other,] 

WHEAT,  phr.  (general).  The 




best  of  its  kind.     For  synonyms, 
see  A i  and  FIZZING. 

CLEAR,  adj.  and  adv.  (old). — 
Thick  with  liquor.  [Apparently 
on  the  principle  lucus  a  non 
lucendo.  ] 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sqr.,  Alsatia,  I., 
iv.  Yes,  really  I  was  CLEAR  ;  for  I  do  not 
remember  what  I  did. 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
CLEAR  :  very  Drunk. 

1699.  VANBKUGH,  Relapse,  IV.,  iii. 
I  suppose  you  are  CLEAR — you'd  never 
play  such  a  trick  as  this  else. 

1725.     New  Cant.  Diet.,  s.v. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
The  cull  is  CLEAR  let's  bite  him. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

Verb. — See  CLEAR  OUT. 

CLEAR  AS  MUD,  adv.  phr.  (com- 
mon) =  Not  particularly  lucid. 

CLEAR  CRYSTAL, subs,  (popular).— 
White  spirits,  as  gin  and  whisky, 
but  extended  to  brandy  and  rum. 

CLEAR  GRIT,  subs. — i.  (Canadian). 
— A  member  of  the  colonial 
Liberal  party, 

1884.  Fortnightly  Review,  May,  592. 
There  arose  up  [in  Canada]  a  political 
party  of  a  Radical  persuasion,  who  were 
called  CLEAR  GRITS,  and  the  CLEAR 
GRITS  declared  for  the  secularisation  of 
the  Clergy  Reserves. 

2.  (American).  —  The  right 
sort  ;  having  no  lack  of  spirit ; 
unalloyed  ;  decided. 

1835-40.  HALIBURTON  ("Sam  Slick1;, 
Clockmaker,  3  S.,  ch.  xxxii.  I  used  to 
think  champagne  no  better  nor  mean  cider 
.  .  .  but  if  you  get  the  CLEAR  GRIT 
there  is  no  mistaking  it. 

1861.  New  York  Tribune,  10  Oct. 
Nor  do  we  think  the  matter  much  mended 
by  a  CLEAR  GRIT  Republican  convention, 
putting  one  or  two  Democrats  at  the  foot 
of  their  tickets. 

CLEAR  OUT  (or  CLEAR  OFF),  verbal 
phr.   (colloquial). — 1<    To  depart. 

1825.  J.  NEAL,  Bro.  Jonathan,  II., 
151.  Like  many  a  hero  before  him,  he 


1861.  Harper's  Monthly,  August. 
You'll  have  to  CLEAR  OUT,  and  that  pretty 
quick  or  I'll  be  after  you  with  a  sharp 

1885.  Truth,  28  May,  1847.  !  would 
have  the  Canal  under  the  control  of  an 
International  Commission  .  .  .  and  then  I 
would  CLEAR  OUT  of  the  country. 

1888.  J.  RICKABY,  Moral Philos.,  205. 
To  warn  the  visitor  to  CLEAR  OFF. 

2.    (popular). — To  rid  of  cash  ; 
to  ruin  ;  to  '  clean  out. ' 

1849-50.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis. 
The  luck  turned  from  that  minute  .  .  . 
came  away  CLEARED  OUT,  leaving  that 
infernal  check  behind  me. 

1884.  Illustrated  London  News, 
Christmas  Number,  p.  6,  col.  2.  He 
CLEARED  you  OUT  that  night,  old  man. 

CLEAVE,  verb  (old).— To  be  wanton ; 
used  of  women.  [Quoted  by 
Grose,  1785.] 

CLEFT,  subs,  (common).  —  The 
female  pudendum.  For  synonyms, 

CLEGG,  subs.  (Scots). — A  horse-fly. 

CLERGYMAN,  subs,  (common). — A 
chimney-sweep.  [In  allusion  to 
the  colour  of  '  the  cloth.']  Clergy- 
men in  their  turn  =  '  chimney 
sweeps. ' 

draught  ;  knuller  ;  flue-faker  ; 
querier  ;  chummy. 

artiste  \  fean  de  la  suif. 




Climb  Down. 

CLERGYMAN  (old). — A  highway- 

1589.  R.  HARVEY,  PI.  Perc.,  I,  A 
quarrel,  by  the  highway  side,  between  a 

1597.  SHAKSPEARE,  King  Henry  IV., 
\.  i.  Sirrah,  if  they  meet  not  with  ST. 
NICHOLAS'  CLERKS,  I'll  give  thee  this 

CLERKED,^//,  adj.  (old).  Imposed 
upon;  'SOLD'  (q.v.). 

1785.  GROSE,  Dick.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
The  cull  will  not  be  CLERKED. 


CLERK'S  BLOOD,  subs.  (old). — Red 
ink.  A  common  expression  of 
Charles  Lamb's. 

CLEVER  SHINS,  phr.  (school). — 
Sly  to  no  purpose. 

CLEYMES,  subs.  (old). — Artificial 
sores,  made  by  beggars  to  excite 

CLICK,  subs,  (pugilistic). — A  blow. 
For  synonyms,  see  DIG,  BANG 
and  WIPE.  Also  a  hold  in  wrest- 

1819.  T.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's  Memo- 
rial, p.  1 8.  Home-hits  in  the  bread-basket 
CLICKS  in  the  gob.  Ibid,  p.  30. 

1871.  Daily  Telegraph,  8  April.  C. 
and  W.  Wrestling  Society.  The  various 
competitors  struggled  hard  and  put  on 
all  they  knew  in  'hipes,'  'hanks,'  'CLICKS,' 
'strokes,'  and  'buttockings.' 

Verb  (old). — See  quots.,   and 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CLICK  (v.)  .  .  .  or  to  stand  at  a  shop- 
door  and  invite  customers  in,  as  salesmen 
and  shoemakers  do. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 
To  CLICK  a  nab  ;  to  snatch  a  hat. 

CLICKER,  or  KLICKER,  subs.  old). 
— i.  A  shop-keeper's  tout.  [For- 
merly a  shoemaker's  doorsman  or 
BARKER  (q.v.),  but  in  this  par- 
ticular trade  the  term  is  nowadays 
appropriated  to  a  foreman  who 
cuts  out  leather  and  dispenses 
materials  to  workpeople  ;  a  sense 
not  altogether  wanting  from  the 
very  first.] 

c.  1690.  B.  E.  Diet.  Cant.  Crew. 
CLICKER  :  the  shoemaker's  journeyman 
or  servant,  that  cutts  out  all  the  work,  and 
stands  at  or  walks  before  the  door,  and 
sales,  '  What  d'ye  lack,  sir  ?  what  d'ye  buy, 

1698.  WARD,  London  Spy,  pt.  V.,  p. 
117.  Women  were  here  almost  as  Trouble- 
some as  the  Long-Lane  CLICKERS. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CLICKER  (s.)  :  the  person  that  stands  at  a 
shoe-maker's  door  to  invite  customers  to 
buy  the  wares  sold  there. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Dictionary. 
CLICKER  :  a  female  touter  at  the  bonnet 
shops  in  Cranbourne  Alley.  In  North- 
amptonshire, the  cutter  out  in  a  shoe- 
making  establishment. 

2.  (popular).  —  A  knockdown 
blow. — See  CLICK,  subs,  sense. 

3.  (thieves').  — •  One  who  ap- 
portions the  booty  or  'regulars.' 

1785.   GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

CLIFT,  verb  (thieves'). — To  steal. 
For  synonyms,  see  PRIG. 

CLIMB  DOWN,  subs,  and  verb  (collo- 
quial).— The  abandonment  of  a 
position  ;  downward  or  retro- 
grade motion ;  the  act  of  sur- 
render. At  first  American. 

1871.  REV.  H.  W.  BEECHER,  Star 
Papers,  p.  41,  quoted  in  De  Vere's  Ameri- 
canisms. To  CLIMB  DOWN  the  wall  was 
easy  enough,  too  easy  for  a  man  who  did 
not  love  wetting.  Ibid,  I  partly  CLIMBED 
DOWN,  and  wholly  clambered  back  again, 
satisfied  that  it  was  easier  to  get  myself  in 
than  to  get  the  flowers  out. 

1889  St.  James  s  Gazette,  22  Nov, 
p.  12,  col.  2.  I  am  particularly  pleased 
(adds  our  correspondent)  with  the  noble 




conduct  of  the  Bread  Union,  the  first  to 
CLIMB  DOWN,  and  the  promptest  to  send  in 
its  little  bill. 

1890.  Globe,  7  April,  p.  2,  col.  2.  It 
is  satisfactory  to  learn  on  no  less  an 
authority  than  that  of  the  New  York 
Herald  that  the  general  election  may  at 
the  moment  be  regarded  remote.  This  is 
indeed  a  CLIMB  DOWN  on  the  part  of  the 
chief  disseminator  of  the  Dissolution 

1890.  Globe,  19  Feb.,  p.  2,  col.  2. 
Mr.  MacNeill's  '  personal  statement '  in 
the  House  yesterday  was  distinctly  in  the 
nature  of  a  CLIMB  DOWN. 

CLINCH,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  prison 
cell.  [?  From  CLINCH,  to  clutch, 
grip,  and  hold  fast.  Cf.,  CLINK.] 
Variants  in  English  are  BOX,  COB, 

Fr.,  une  cachemitte,  um  cachemar 
or  cachemince  (all  thieves',  from 
cachet,  '  a  black  hole  ') ;  also  un 
clou  (military) ;  maison  de  cam- 
pagne  (military) ;  un  mazaro,  or 
lazaro  ;  une  matatane  (military)  ; 
un  ours  (popular)  ;  un  abattoir 
(thieves' ;  properly  '  a  slaughter 
house.'  This  last,  the  name  of 
the  condemned  cell  in  the  prison 
of  La  Roquette,  corresponds  to 
the  Newgate  Salt  Box).  In 
German  :  Ndck  (only  in  Zimmer- 
mann  ;  single  cell  in  a  prison  ; 
probably  from  the  U.G.  Noche 

•  and  the    M.H.G.   Nacke  =  boat, 
from  its  shape  ;    derivation  from 
the  Hebrew  Nekef  =  hole,  is  also 


or  CLINK,  verbal  phr.  (thieves'). 
— To  be  imprisoned.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  COP. 

1864.     HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  p.   102. 

CLINCH  ER  or  CLENCH  ER,SU&S.  (col- 
loquial).— i.  That  which  decides 
a  matter,  especially  a  retort 
which  closes  an  argument  ;  a 
'  finisher,'  *  settler,'  *  corker.' 

-  [From    CLINCH,    *  to    secure    or 

make  fast,'  through  its  obsolete 
meaning  of  'to  pun  or  quibble,' 
+  ER.] 

1754.  B.  MARTIN,  Eng.  Diet.  CLIN- 
CHER ...  an  unanswerable  reason  or 

1839.  PIERCE  EGAN,  Finish  to  Life 
in  London,  p.  13.  Death  comes  but  once, 
the  Philosophers  say  And  'tis  true  my 
brave  boys,  but  that  once  is  a  CLENCHER 
It  takes  us  from  drinking  and  loving  away 
And  spoils  at  a  blow  the  best  tippler  and 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xvi., 
p.  136.  'Why  cannot  I  communicate  with 
the  young  lady's  friends?'  '  Because  they 
live  one  hundred  miles  from  here,  sir,' 
responded  Job  Trotter.  '  That's  a 
CLINCHER,'  said  Mr.  Weller,  aside. 

2.  (common).  —  An  unsur- 
passed lie  ;  a  'stopper-up,'  [This 
sense  flows  naturally  from  sense 
I  and  the  accepted  usages  of 
CLINCH,  verb  and  noun.  C/.t 
WHACKER,  etc.]  For  synonyms, 
see  WHOPPER. 


CLINK,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  prison  or 
lock-up ;  specifically  applied,  it 
is  thought,  to  a  noted  gaol  in  the 
borough  of  Southwark  ;  subse- 
quently to  places — like  Alsatia, 
the  Mint,  etc. — privileged  from 
arrests  ;  and  latterly,  to  a  small 
dismal  prison  or  a  military  guard 
room.  For  synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

1515.  BARCLAY,  Egloges,  I.  (1570) 
A.  5,  4.  Then  art  thou  clapped  in  the 
Flete  or  CLINKE.  [M.]  . 

1642.  MILTON,  Apol.  for  Smect,  §  ii., 
in  wks.  (1806)  I.,  237.  And  the  divine 
right  of  episcopacy  was  then  valiantly  as- 
serted, when  he  who  would  have  been  re- 
spondent, must  have  bethought  himself 
withal  how  he  could  refute  the  CLINK  or 
the  Gatehouse. 

1835.  MARRY  AT,  Jacob  Faithful,  ch. 
xix.  Come  along  with  me  ;  we've  a  nice 
CLINK. at  Wandsworth  to  lock  you  up  in. 



1839.  H. 

ep.  I.,  ch.  vi.  The  old  and  ruinous  prson 
belonging  to  the  liberty  of  the  Bishop  of 
Winchester  (whose  palace  formerly  ad- 
joined the  river) ;  called  the  CLINK. 

2.  (thieves').  —  Silver    plate  ; 
also  CLINCH. — See  CLANK. 

1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.  He  wouldn't  have  been  hobbled  but 
the  melting-pot  receiver  proved  his  selling 
the  CLINK  to  him. 

3.  (Scotch  colloquial). — Money. 
Cf.,  CHINK. 

1724-40.  RAMSAY,  Tea-t.  Misc.,  14. 
The  Warld  is  rul'd  by  Asses,  And  the  WISE 
are  sway'd  by  CLINK. 

1789.  BURNS,  Let.J.  Tennant,  May 
ye  get  .  .  .  Monie  a  laugh,  and  monie  a 
drink,  An'  aye  enough  o'  needfu'  CLINK. 

1817.  HOGG,  Tales  and  Sk.,  II.,  2,  3. 
Such  young  ladies  as  were  particularly 
beautiful  .  .  .  and  had  the  CLINK.  [M.] 

4.  (colloquial).      Also     BUM- 
CLINK. — A  very  indifferent  beer 
made  from  the  gyle  of  malt  and 
the  sweepings   of  hop  bins,  and 
brewed  especially  for  the  benefit 
of  agricultural  labourers   in  har- 
vest time. 

1863.  SALA,  Capt.  Dang.,  I.,  ix., 
266.  A  miserable  hovel  of  an  inn  .  .  . 
where  they  ate  their  rye-bread  and  drank 
their  sour  CLINK.  [M.] 

To  Kiss  THE  CLINK,  verbal 
phr.  (old). — To  be  imprisoned. 
[From  CLINK,  suds.,  sense  i.] 
For  synonyms,  see  COP. 

1588.  JOHN  UDALL,  State  of  the  Ch. 
of  England,  etc.,  p.  22  (Arber's  ed.)  DIOTR. 
Awaye,  thou  rayling  hypocrite,  I  will 
talke  with  thee  no  longer,  if  I  catche 
thee  in  London,  I  will  make  thee  KISS  THE 
CLINKE  for  this  geare.  PAUL.  In  deede 
the  CLYNKE,  Gate-house,  White-lyon,  and 
the  Fleet,  haue  bin  your  onely  argumentes 
whereby  you  haue  proued  your  cause 
these  many  yeeres. 

1889.  Gentleman  s  Magazine,  p.  598. 

CLINKER,  subs. — i.  (in plural,  old). 
— Fetters.  For  synonyms,  see 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew,  CLIN- 
KERS :  the  Irons  Felons  wear  in  Gaols. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 
CLINKERS  :  irons  worn  by  prisoners. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

2.  (old). — A  crafty,  designing 

1690.  B.  E.,  Diet.  Cant.  Crew,  CLIN- 
KER :  a  crafty  fellow. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

3.  (thieves'). — A  chain  of  any 
kind,    whether    fetter    or    watch 
chain.     C/.,  sense  I. 

t  4.      (pugilistic).  —  A    well-de- 
livered blow;  a  'hot-'un.' 

c.  1863.  THACKERAY,  Men's  Wives, 
Frank  Berry,  ch.  i.  Berry  goes  gallantly 
in,  and  delivers  a  CLINKER  on  the  gown- 
boy's  jaw. 

5.  (colloquial,    chiefly  sport- 
ing)-— Any   thing   or    person    of 
first-rate  and  triumphant  quality ; 
also    a      CLINCHER    (q.v.)  ;      a 
'settler.'     C/.,  sense  4. 

1733.  SWIFT,  Life  and  Character 
Dean  S' — t.  A  protestant's  a  special 
CLINKER.  It  serves  for  sceptic  and  free- 
thinker. [M.] 

1869.  Daily  Telegraph,  5  April.  De- 
spite the  indifferent  manner  in  which 
Vagabond  cut  up  at  the  finish  of  the 
Metropolitan,  quite  sufficient  was  seen  of 
him  to  prove  that  at  a  mile  and  a  half  he 
is  a  CLINKER. 

1871.  Daily  News,  17  April,  p.  2.,  col. 
i.  Ripponden  and  Cheese  wring  per- 
formed so  indifferently  as  to  strengthen 
the  doubts  whether  they  are  really 

6.  (common).  —  Deposits    of 
faecal   or   seminal  matter    in  the 
hair  about  the  anus  or  the  female 

7.  (common). — A  lie.      For 
synonyms,  see  WHOPPER. 


BUM,  phr.  (vulgar).— To  be  un- 
easy ;  unable  to  sit  still. 




CLINKERUM.  The  same  as  CLINK, 
sense  I. 

CLINKING,  ppl.  adj.  (common). — 
First-rate  ;  extra  good  ;  about 
the  best  possible.  C/.,  CLIPPING, 
LING, etc. 

1868.  Daily  Telegraph,  6  June.  Ver- 
mouth was  a  CLINKING  good  horse. 

1887.  Sporting  Times,  12  March,  p. 
a,  col.  2.  Prince  Henry  must  be  a  CLINK- 
ING good  horse  when  in  the  humour  to  go. 

1889.  Polytechnic  Mag.,  24  Oct.,  p. 
263.  Soon  afterwards  the  Poly,  obtained 
a  free  kick,  and  Young  notched  a  point 
for  them.  Heard  again  steered  the  ball 
to  the  Clapham  goal,  and  Toghill  put  in 
a  CLINKING  shot  which  just  shaved  the 

CLINK-RIG  or  CLING-RIG,  subs. 
(old). — Stealing  silver  tankards 
from  public-houses,  etc.  [From 
CLINK,  plate,  +  RIG,  a  theft,  or 
dodge.  ] 

1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.,  174,  s.v. 

1864.     HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet. ,  s.  v. 

CLIP,  subs,  (colloquial). —  A  smart 
blow,  e.g.,  a  CLIP  in  the  eye. 
For  synonyms,  see  DIG,  BANG, 
and  WIPE. 

1830.  MARRYAT,  King's  Own,  xxvi. 
The  master  fires  and  hits  the  cat  a  CLIP  on 
the  neck. 

1835.  HALIBURTON  ("Sam  Slick'), 
The  Clockmaker  (1862^,  89.  He  made  a 
pull  at  the  old-fashioned  sword  .  .  .  and 
drawing  it  out  he  made  a  CLIP  at  him. 

I860.  Police  Gazette,  17  November. 
He  ran  up  to  him,  hit  him  a  severe  CLIP, 
and  dashed  through  the  window. 

Verb  (colloquial).  —  To  move 
quickly.  For  analogous  terms,  s*e 
AMPUTATE.  [Probably  origin- 
ally a  falconry  term  =  to  fly 

1838.  M.  SCOTT,  Tom  Cringle,  xii. 
(1859,),  281.  He  CLIPPED  into  the  water 
with  the  speed  of  light. 

1835-40.  HALIBURTON  ("Sam  Slick'), 
The  Clockmaker  (1862),  46.  He  sees  a 
steam-boat  a  CLIPPIN  it  by  him  like  mad. 

1843-4.  Sam  Slick  in  England,  viii. 
(Bartlett^.  I  ran  all  the  way,  right  down 
as  hard  as  I  could  CLIP. 

CLIPE,  -verb  (school).  — To  tell 
tales;  to  'split';  to  PEACH;  q.v. 
(for  synonyms). 

CLIPPER,  subs,  (colloquial).  —  A 
triumph  in  horses,  men,  or 
women  ;  a  splendid  man ;  a 
brilliant  or  very  stylish  woman  ; 
an  admirable  horse.  [From 
CLIPPER,  =  a  vessel  built  with  a 
view  to  fast  sailing;  previous  to 
which  the  term  was  applied  to 
a  hack  for  the  road.] 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i  S., 
ch.  xv.  A  perfect  pictur'  of  a  horse,  and 
a  genuine  CLIPPER  ;  could  gallop  like  the 

1846.  THACKERAY,  V.  Fair,  ch.  xvi. 
You  have  head  enough  for  both  of  us, 
Beck,  said  he.  You're  sure  to  get  us  out 
of  the  scrape.  I  never  saw  your  equal, 
and  I've  met  with  some  CLIPPERS  in  my 
time,  too. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and  Lon. 
Poor,  I.,  p.  133.  They  [wild  ducks]  come 
over  here  when  the  weather's  a  CLIPPER  ; 
for  you  see  cold  weather  suits  some  birds 
and  kills  others. 

CLIPPING  or  CLIPPINGLY, ppl.  adj. 
and  adv.  (common). — Excellent ; 
very  showy ;  first-rate.  [From 
that  sense  of  clipping  =  that  flies 
or  moves  fast. — See  quot.,  1643.] 
For  synonyms,  see  Ai  and  FIZ- 

1643.  P.  QUARLES,  Emblemes,  B.  IV., 
ii.,  p.  194  (ed.  1648).  O  that  the  pinions 
of  a  CLIPPING  Dove  Would  cut  my  passage 
through  the  Empty  Air,  Mine  eyes  being 
sealed,  how  would  I  mount  above  The 
reach  of  danger  and  forgotten  care  ! 

18(50.  THACKERAY,  Philip,  ch.  i.,  p. 
46.  What  CLIPPING  girls  there  were  in 
that  barouche. 

1864.  E.  YATES,  Broken  to  Harness, 
ch.  xxiii.  [Mr.  Commissioner  Beresford 
loq.  :]  CLIPPING  riders,  those  girls !  good 
as  Kate  Mellon  anyday  ! 




CLOAK,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  watch 
case.  [From  CLOAK,  an  outer 

Sheppard  [1889],  p.  70.  Near  to  these 
hopeful  youths  sat  a  fence,  or  receiver, 
bargaining  with  a  clouter,  or  pickpocket, 
for  a  '  suit,"  or,  to  speak  in  more  intelligible 
language,  a  watch  and  seals,  two  '  CLOAKS,' 
commonly  called  watch-cases  and  a  '  wedge- 
lobb,'  otherwise  known  as  a  silver  snuff- 

CLOAK-TWITCH  ERS,  subs.  (old). — 
Thieves  who  made  a  special 
business  of  robbing  the  lieges  of 
their  CLOAKS.  [From  CLOAK  + 
TWITCH,  to  snatch, +  ER.]  In 
the  old  French  cant  these  rogues 
were  termed  tirelaines^i.e.^  wool- 
pullers  (tirer  =  pull).  For  syno- 
nyms, see  THIEVES. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

CLOBBER,  subs,  (common).  —  Pri- 
marily old,  but  now  also  applied 
to  new  clothes.  For  synonyms, 
see  TOGS. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  Macm.  Mag:, 
XL.,  502.  Having  a  new  suit  of  CLOBBER 
on  me. 

1889.  Answers,  n  May,  p.  374,  col.  3. 
The  CLOBBER  (old  clothes)  which  have 
been  presented  by  charitable  persons  are 
exchanged  and  sold. 

1889.  Sporting  Times,  quoted  in 
Slang,  Jargon,  and  Cant,  p.  255.  If  you 
are  hard  up  always  tell  the  dear  things 
that  you  are  a  gentleman's  valet.  This 
will  account  for  your  good  CLOBBER. 

Verb. — Also  CLOBBER  UP.  i 
To  patch  ;  revive  ;  or  '  translate  ' 
clothes.  [Properly  applied  to 
cobbling  of  the  lowest  class.  Cf., 

1865.  Casseirs  Paper,  Article,  '  Old 
CloV  They  are  now  past  'CLOBBERING,' 
'reviving,'  or  'translating,'  they  are,  in 
fact,  at  the  lowest  point  of  Fortune's  wheel : 
but  the  next  turn  puts  them  in  its  highest 
point  again. 

2.  To  dress  smartly  ;  to  rig 
oneself  out  presentably.  For 
synonyms,  see  RIG  OUT. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  Macm.  Mag., 
XL.,  501.  I  used  to  get  a  good  many  pieces 
about  this  time,  so  I  used  to  CLOBBER 
myself  up  and  go  to  the  concert-rooms. 

1886.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon  s  Good- 
Night.  You  judes  that  CLOBBER  for  the 

1889.  Fun  [quoted  in  S.,J.,  and  C. 
p.  256].  '  D'you  know,  if  you  were  CLOB- 
BERED up  I  shouldn't  mind  taking  you 
out?'  She  promised  to  be  presentable. 
In  her  own  words  she  said,  '  I'll  come 
CLOBBERED  UP  like  a  dukess.' 


phr.    (thieves').— To   sell    stolen 
clothes.    Fr.,  laver  les  harnats. 

CLOBBERER,  subs,  (common). — See 
quot.  and  Cf.,  CLOBBER,  subs. 
and  verb. 

1864.  The  Times,  Nov.  2.  Old  clothes 
that  are  intended  to  remain  in  this  country 
have  to  be  tutored  and  transformed.  The 
CLOBBERER,  the  '  reviver,'  and  the  '  trans- 
lator' lay  hands  upon  them.  The  duty 
of  the  CLOBBERER  is  to  patch,  to  sew  up, 
and  to  restore  as  far  as  possible  the 
garments  to  their  pristine  appearance. 

CLOCK,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  watch. 
A  RED  CLOCK^ a  gold  watch;  a 
WHITE  CLOCK = a  silver  watch. 
Generally  modified  into  '  red'un  ' 
and  '  white'un,'  but  for  synonyms, 
see  TICKER. 

1886.  Tit-Bits,  5  June,  p.  121.  Thus 
Fillied  for  a  CLOCK  and  Slang,  reveals  the 
fact  that  the  writer  stole  a  watch  and 
chain,  was  apprehended,  and  has  been  fully 
committed  for  trial. 

phr.  (common). — To  be  on  the 
alert ;  in  full  possession  of  one's 
senses  ;  a  DOWNEY  COVE  :  gener- 
ally KNOWING(^.Z\  for  synonyms). 
A  variant  is  to  KNOW  THE  TIME 

1835.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Bo?,  p. 
451.  Our  governor's  wide  awake,  he  is, 

Clod-  Crushers. 



I'll  never  say  nothin'  agin  him,  nor  no 
man  ;  but  he  knows  WHAT'S  O'CLOCK,  he 
does,  uncommon. 

1849-50.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  I., 
p.  138.  I'm  not  clever,  p'raps,  but  I  am 
rather  downy,  and  partial  friends  say 
that  I  know  WHAT'S  O'CLOCK  tolerably 


CLOD-CRUSHERS,  subs,  (popular). 
— I.  Clumsy  boots.  [In  agri- 
culture an  implement  for  pulveris- 
ingclods.  Cf.,  BEETLE-CRUSHERS, 
and  for  synonyms,  see  TROTTER- 

2.  (common),  —  Large  feet. 
[A  transferred  usage. — See  sense 

CLODS  AND  STICKINGS,  subs.  phr. 
(paupers'). — See  quot. 

1871.  Daily  Telegraph,  24  Oct. ,  Henry 
Melville's  (the  pauper)  passionate, 
'beutiful,'  for  Stepney  Workhouse  is  a 
grotesque  reflex  of  Marie  Stuart's  pathetic 
farewell  to  France.  Is  the  skilly  we 
wonder  most  '  beutiful '  at  Stepney,  or 
are  the  CLODS  AND  STICKINGS  unusually 
free  from  bone. 

CLOlSTER-RousH,  subs.  (Winches- 
ter College  t  obsolete). — See  quot. 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School  Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  117.  We  had  some 
singular  customs  at  the  commencement  of 
Cloister  time.  Senior  part  and  Cloisters, 
just  before  the  entrance  of  the  Masters 
into  School,  used  to  engage  in  a  kind  of 
general  tournament ;  this  was  called 

CLOOTIE  (Scots).— The  Devil.— See 

1786  BURNS,  Address  to  the  Deil. 
Auld  Hornie,  Satan,  Nick,  or  CLOOTIE. 

CLOOTS  (Scots),  subs.  — Hooves. 

1786.  BURNS,  The  Death  and  Dying 
Words  of  Puir  Mailie.  An'  no  to  rin  and 
wear  his  CLOOTS,  Are  ither  menseless, 
graceless  brutes. 

CLOSE  AS  WAX,  adv.phr.  (general). 
— Miserly  ;  niggardly  ;  secretive. 
[A  simile  derived  mainly  from 
CLOSE,  adj.  =  hidden  or  reticent.] 

1863.  C,  READE.  HardCash,  I.,  231. 
Then     commenced    a    long    and    steady 
struggle,  conducted  with  a  Spartan  dignity 
and  self  command,  and  a  countenance  as 


CLOSE-FILE,  stibs.  (old). — A  person 

secretive  or  '  close  '  ;  not  '  open  ' 

or  communicative.    [From  CLOSE, 

adj.  —  secretive  +  FILE  =  a  man.] 

1839.     HARRISON   AINSWORTH,  Jack 

Sheppard  [1889],   p.    8.      Tom   Sheppard 

was  always  a  CLOSE  FILE,  and  would  never 

tell  whom  he  married. 

CLOTH.  [Generally  THE  CLOTH], 
subs.  (colloquial).  —  Primarily 
clergymen  ;  the  members  of  a 
particular  profession.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  DEVIL-DODGER. 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  363  (ed.  1857).  '  I  main- 
tain that  that  'ere  song's  personal  to  THE 
CLOTH,'  said  the  mottle-faced  gentleman. 

1864.  Daily  Review,    Nov.    3.      It 
might  have  seemed  more  decorous  to  draw 
our  illustration  of  the  Doctor's  [Revd.]  in- 
genuity from  an   incident  related  of  two 
persons   who   have  some  right  to  be  con- 
sidered  as  in   a  sense  belonging   to   THE 
CLOTH — The   Abbess  and   Novice  of  An- 


UPON  A  CLOTHES-LINE, phr.  (com- 

mon). — Capable  of  sleeping  any- 
where or  in  any  position  ;  said  of 
those  able  and  willing  to  rest  as 
well  upon  the  roughest  '  shake- 
down '  as  upon  the  most  comfort- 
able bed.  [Cf.t  TWO-PENNY 

ROPE     and     PLANK-BED.]         Also 

applied  in  a  transferred  sense — a 
synonym  for  general  capacity  and 


OF  CLOTHES-PIN  I  AM,///r.  (popu- 

lar). — That's  the  sort  of  man  I  am. 
In  the  case  of  women  THAT'S 

THE   SORT  OF    HAIR-PIN  (q.V.}. 

Cloth  Market. 



CLOTH -M  ARK  ET,j«fo.  (old). — Abed. 
[Of  obvious  derivation.  Cf.t  Fr., 
la  halle  aux  draps.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BUG-WALK  and  KIP. 

1738.  SWIFT,  Pol.  Convert.,  dial  i. 
I  hope  your  early  rising  will  do  you  no 
harm.  I  find  you  are  but  just  come  out  of 


1824.  T.  FIELDING,  Proverbs,  etc. 
(Familiar  Phrases),  p.  148.  He's  in  the 
CLOTH  MARKET.  In  bed. 

CLOUD.  —  See  BLOW  A  CLOUD. 
CLOUD  originally  signified  to- 
bacco smoke.  —  [Grose,  I7&5'] 
Fr.,  en  griller  une = to  smoke  a 
pipe  or  cigarette  ;  also  en  griller 
une  seche  and  en  griller  une  bouf- 

CLOUD-CLEAN  ER,SU&S.  (nautical). — 
See  quot.     ANGEL'S  FOOTSTOOL, 
and  Cf. 
18&3.    W.  CLARK  RUSSELL,  Sailors 

Word  Book,  p.  31.      CLOUD-CLEANER,  an 

imaginary   sail    jokingly   assumed    to    be 

carried  by  Yankee  ships. 

CLOUT,  subs,  (vulgar). — i.  A  blow ; 
a  kick.  For  synonyms,  see  BANG, 
DIG,  and  WIPE. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CLOUT  :  a  blow  (cant),  I'll  give  you  a 
CLOUT  on  your  jolly  nob  ;  I'll  give  you  a 
blow  on  the  head. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

1864.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Aurora  Floyd, 
ch.  xx.  '  If  you  had  a  father  that'd  fetch 
you  a  CLOUT  of  the  head  as  soon  as  look  at 
you,  you'd  run  away  perhaps. 

2.  (thieves'). — A  pocket-hand- 
kerchief. [A.S.  clilt,  a  clout  or 
patch ;  Dan.  klud,  Swed.  klut,  or 
perhaps  from  the  Keltic  ;  hence, 
any  worthless  piece  of  cloth.] 
For  synonyms,  j<?<?WiPE,  sense  2. 

1574-1637.  BEN  JONSON,  Metam. 
Gipsies.  And  Tidslefoot  has  lost  his 
CLOUT,  he  says,  with  a  three-pence  and 
four  tokens  in't. 

1714.  Memoirs  of  John  Hall,  4  ed., 
p.  ii.  [List  of  Cant  Words  in.]  CLOUT  : 
a  handkerchief. 

1754.  FIELDING,  Jon.  Wild,  bk.  I., 
ch.  ix.  A  neat  double  CLOUT,  which 
seemed  to  have  been  worn  a  few  weeks 
only,  was  pinned  under  her  chin. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
A  handkerchief. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  A 
handkerchief  (cant).  Any  pocket  handker- 
chief except  a  silk  one. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.  CLOUT, 
or  Rag,  a  cotton  pocket  handkerchief  (old 

3.  plural  (low). — A  woman's 
under-clothes,    from     the     waist 
downwards.     Also  her  complete 
wardrobe,  on  or  off  the  person. 

4.  (common).  — A    woman's 
'  bandage  ' ;   '  diaper ' ;   or  '  sani- 

Verb  (low).  —  I.  To  strike. 
Fr. ,  jeter  une  mandole.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  TAN. 

[quoted  in  Annandale's  ed.  of  Ogilvie's 
Imperial  Diet.].  Pay  him  over  the  pate, 
CLOUT  him  for  all  his  courtesies. 

2.  (old). — To  patch  ;  to  tinker. 

17(?).  Scots  Ballad.  I'll  CLOUT  my 
Johnnie's  grey  breeks  For  a'  the  ill  he's 
done  me  yet. 

1785.  BURNS,  The  Jolly  Beggars.  In 
vain  they  searched  when  off  I  marched  To 
go  and  CLOUT  the  caudron. 

CLOUTER,  subs.  (old). — A  pick- 
pocket —  especially  one  who 
steals  handkerchiefs.  [From 
CLOUT,  sense  2  (q.v.\  a  pocket- 
handkerchief,  +  ER.]  Cf.,  CLOUT- 
ING, sense  2.  For  synonyms, 

1839.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  /.  Shep- 
pard,  p.  158,  ed.  1840.  Near  to  these 
hopeful  youths  sat  a  fence,  or  receiver,  bar- 
gaining with  a  CLOUTER,  or  pickpocket. 

CLOUTING,  verbal  subs,  (common). 
i.  A  beating,  basting,   or  TAN- 
NING  (q.v.   for  synonyms). — See 
also  BASTE. 





2.  (thieves'). — Stealing  hand- 
kerchiefs. Cf.y  CLOUTER. 

(old). — Terms  applied  to  a  sham 
virgin.  (CLEFT,  subs.  —  the  female 
pudendum. ) 

IN  CLOVER,  adv.  phr.  (collo- 
quial).— Well-off  ;  comfortable  ; 
e.g.,  like  a  horse  at  grass  in  a 
clover  field. 

CLOW,  subs.  (Winchester  College). 
Pronounced  eld. — A  box  on  the 
ear.  [Possibly  from  CLOUT  (q.v.). 
on  the  model  of  *  bow '  from 
'bout,'  and  'low'  from  'lout.' 
Halliwell  gives  '  clow '  as  a 
Cumberland  word,  meaning  '  to 
scratch.']  C/.,  BASTE,  and  for 
general  synonyms,  see  BANG,  DIG, 
and  WIPE. 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School-Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  140.  The  juniors 
did  not  get  much  fun  out  of  the  regular 
games,  as  their  part  consisted  solely  in 
kicking  in  the  ball,  and  receiving  divers 
kicks  and  CLOWS  in  return  for  their  vigi- 
lance. Ibid,  p.  39.  Nor,  when  ordered  to 
1  hold  down,'  (i.e.,  put  your  head  in  a  con- 
venient position)  for  a  CLOW,  would  the 
victim  dare  to  ward  off  the  blow. 

Verb. — To  box  one  on  the  ear. 
It  was  customary  to  preface  the 
action  by  an  injunction  to  '  hold 
down.' — See  quot.,  1870,  under 
subs.t  sense. 

1622.  HEAD  AND  KIRKMAN,  Canting 
Song,  in  English  Rogue.  I  met  a  Dell,  I 
viewed  her  well,  She  was  benship  to  my 
watch  ;  So  she  and  I  did  stall  and  CLOY, 
Whatever  we  could  catch. 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874).  CLOY  :  to  steal. 

1706.  E.  COLES,  Eng.  Diet.  CLOY  : 
to  steal. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 
s.v.  To  CLOY  the  clout,  to  steal  the 
handkerchief.  To  CLOY  the  lour,  to  steal 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

CLOVER,  subs.  (old). — A  thief  who 
intruded  on  the  profits  of  young 
sharpers,  by  claiming  a  share. 

1611.  MIDDLETON,  R  oaring  Girl,  O. 
PL,  vi.,  113.  Then  there's  a  CLOVER,  or 
snap,  that  dogs  any  new  brother  in  that 
trade,  and  snaps, — will  have  half  in  any 

1659.  The  Catterpillars  of  this 
Nation  Anatomised.  [CLOYER=a  pick- 

CLOVES,    subs.    (old). — Thieves; 
robbers,   etc.      [In  Grose,   1785, 
and  Lexicon  Balatronicum,  181 1.] 
-See  CLOY  and  CLOVER. 

CLOYING,  verbal  subs,  (old)     Steal- 

1739.  Poor  Robin.  Money  is  now  a 
hard  commodity  to  get,  insomuch  that 
some  will  venture  their  necks  for  it,  by 
padding,  CLOYING,  milling,  filching,  nab- 
bing, etc.,  all  of  which  in  plain  English  is 
only  stealing. 

CLOWES,  subs,  (old).— Rogues.— 
Grose  [1785]. 

CLOY,  CLIGH,  or  CLY,  verb  (old). 
— To  steal.  For  synonyms,  see 
PRIG.  An  old  Gloucestershire 
vulgarism  for  the  hands  is  CLEES. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  8  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  They  are 
sure  to  be  CLYD  in  the  night  by  the 
angler,  or  hooker,  or  such  like  pilferers 
that  Hue  upon  the  spoyle  of  other  poore 

CLUB,  verb  (military). — In  man- 
oeuvring troops,  so  to  blunder 
the  word  of  command  that  the 
soldiers  get  into  a  position  from 
which  they  cannot  extricate  them- 
selves by  ordinary  tactics. 

18<?).  THACKERAY,  Novels  by 
Eminent  Hands.  '  Phil  Fogarty.' 
'  CLUBBED,  be  jabers !  '  roared  Lanty 
Clancy.  '  I  wish  we  could  show  'em  the 
Fighting  Onety-Oneth,  Captain,  darlin'  ! ' 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  xi.  If  you're  in  difficulties, 

Chi  ui p. 

Cly- Faker. 

ask  Sergeant  File  what  is  best  to  be  done, 
only  don't  CLUB  "em,  my  boy,  as  you  did 
at  Limerick. 

Sul>s.  (venery). — The  penis. 

CLUMP,  subs,  (common). — A  blow, 
generally  a  heavy  one,  with  the 
hand. — See  quots.  under  verbal 
sense.  For  synonyms,  see  BANG, 
DIG,  and  WIPE. 

Verb  (common). — To  strike  ; 
to  give  a  heavy  blow.  Fr. ,  faire 
du  bifteck.  For  synonyms,  see 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  52.  '  We  can't 
give  "em  in  charge  now.'  .  .  .  '  Because 
why?  I'll  tell  you  ...  we  shouldn't 
know  when  to  spot  'em.  No  I  want  to 
CLUMP  them.  It  will  spoil  sport  to  call 
in  the  bobbies.' 

1874.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  MS.  Ballad. 
Which  they  calls  me  the  Professor,  But 
I'm  only  Hogan's  Novice,  Bloody  artful 
with  the  mufflers,  And  a  mark  on  fancy 

1888.  Daily  News,  2  Jan.,  p.  7,  col.  i. 
The  prisoner  CLUMPED  (struck)  both  of 
them,  and  then  ran  away. 

CLU M PER,  subs,  (common). — I.  A 
thick,  heavy  boot  for  walking. 
[Clumps  in  shoemakers'  tech- 
nology =  extra  fore  or  half  soles.] 
Cf.,  quot.  under  CLUMPING. 
For  synonyms,  see  TROTTER- 

2.  (common).  —  One  that 
clumps;  a  'basher.' 

CLUMPERTON,  subs.  (old). — A 
countryman.  For  synonyms,  see 

1870.  All  the  Year  Round,  Mar.  5. 
'Byegone  Cant  (Geo.  II.).'  CLUMPER- 
TONS  agape  at  the  giant  proportions  of 
the  still  somewhat  new  St.  Paul's  would 
turn  from  their  wondering  walks  to  shudder 
and  shrink  at  the  ghastly  gallows  exhi- 
bition at  Newgate. 

CLUMPING,  verbal  subs,  (common). 
— Walking  heavily  and  noisily  : 
as  in  hoi  rails  or  in  clogs. 

1864.  [From  Hotten  s  MS.  Collec- 
tion, n.d.]  'Why,  woman  !  dost  'oo  think 
I'se  had  naught  better  to  do  than  go 
CLUMPING  up  and  down  the  sky  a-searching 
for  thy  Tummas  ? ' 

CLY,  subs,  (thieves'). — I,  A  pocket; 
purse ;  sack ;  or  basket.  For 
synonyms,  see  BRIGH  and  SKY- 

1714.  Memoirs  of  John  Hall  (4  ed. ). 
p.  12.  CLY:  a  pocket. 

1742.  CHARLES  JOHNSON,  Highway- 
men and  Pirates,  p.  252.  Filing  a  CLY 
which  is  picking  pockets  of  watches,  money, 
books  or  handkerchiefs. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Diet.  (5  ed.).  CLY 
(s.) :  the  cant  term  for  ...  purse  or 

1818.  MAGINN,  from  VIDOCQ.  The 
Pickpocket's  C haunt.  A  regular  swell  cove 
lushy  lay.  To  his  CLIES  my  hooks  I  throw 
in,  Tol,  lol,  etc. 

1834.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood.  No 
knuckler  SQ  deftly  could  fake  a  CLY. 

1858.  A.  MAYHEW,  Paved ivith  Gold, 
bk.  II.,  ch.  i.,  p.  69.  They're  just  made 
for  hooking  a  fogle  [handkerchief]  out  of  a 


1878.  CHARLES  HINULEY,  Life  and 
Times  of  James  Catnach.  Frisk  the  CLY 
and  fork  the  rag,  Draw  the  fogies  plummy. 

2.     (thieves'). — Money. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.), 
CLY  (s.) :  the  cant  name  for  money,  a 
purse,  or  a  pocket. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 
CLY:  money. 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

Verb  (old).—  I .  To  take  ;  have ; 
receive ;  pocket :  in  fact,  '  to 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
The  ruffian  CLY  thee,  the  deuil  take  thee. 

1609.  DEKKER,  a  Gypsy  song,  in 
Lanthome  and  Candlelight,  etc.  The 
Ruffin  CLY  the  nab  of  the  Harman  beck. 
If  we  mawnd  Pannam,  lap  or  Ruff-peck. 

CLY-FAKER,  subs,  (thieves'). — A 
pickpocket.  [From  CLY,  a  pocket, 
+  FAKE,  to  steal.  +  ER.]  For 
synonyms,  see  STOOKHAULER. 




1827.  LYTTON,  Pelham,  ch.  Ixxxii. 
They  were  gentlemen-sharpers,  and  not 
vulgar  cracksmen  and  CLYFAKERS. 

Sheppard  [1889],  p.  14.  'Oh,  I  see  !'  re- 
plied Blueskin,  winking  significantly.  .  .  . 
'  Now  !  slip  the  purse  into  my  hand. 
Bravo  !  the  best  CI.Y-FAKER  of  'em  all ; 
couldn't  have  done  it  better.' 

1852.     Punch,  vol.  XXIIL,  p.  161. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  p.  103. 
CLY-FAKER  :  a  pickpocket. 

CLY-FAKING,  subs,  (thieves').  — 
Pocket-picking.  For  synonyms, 
see  PUSH. 

1851.  BORROW,  Lavengro,  ch.  xxxi., 
p.  112  (1888).  'What  do  you  mean  by 
CLY-FAKING?'  'Lor,  dear!  no  harm; 
only  taking  a  handkerchief  now  and  then.' 

1861.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Ravenshoe,  ch. 
Ix.  Well,  sir,  I  won't  deny  that  the  young 
woman  is  Bess,  and  perhaps  she  may  be  on 
the  cross,  and  I  don't  go  to  say  that  what 
with  flimping,  and  with  CLY-FAKING,  and 
such-like,  she  mayn't  be  wanted. 

CLY-OFF,  verb  (old).— To  carry  off. 
Cf.y  CLY,  verb,  sense  i. 

1656.  ^  BROME,  Jovial  Crew.  Act  ii. 
Here  safe  in  our  skipper  Let's  CLY  OFF  our 
peck,  And  bowse  in  defiance  O'  th'  Har- 

CLYSTER- PIPE,  sul>s.(old). — An  apo- 
thecary. [From  CLYSTER  =  an 
injection  for  costiveness.  ]  Fr., 
un  fldtencul,  a  play  upon  words. 
For  synonyms,  see  GALLIPOT. 

1785.  GROSE,  Die.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

1811.    Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

CLY  THE  GERKE  or  JERK,  verbal 
phr.  (old). — See  quots. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
To  CLY  THE  GERKE,  to  get  a  whipping^ 

Cf.t  tO  COP  A  HIDING. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  38  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874),  s.v. 

1206.     E.  COLES,  Eng.  Die.,  s.v. 

1827.  LYTTON,  Pelham,  ch.  Ixxxii. 
You  deserve  to  CLY  THE  JERK  for  your 

COACH,  subs,  (formerly  University 
and  public  schools' ;  now  com- 
mon).— A  private  tutor  ;  and  in  a 
transferred  sense  one  who  trains 
another  in  mental  or  physical 
acquirements,  e.g.,  in  Sanskrit, 
Shakspeare,  cricket,  or  rowing. 
Analogous  terms  are  CRAMMER, 


1850.  F.  E.  SMEDLEY,  Frank  Fair- 
leigh,  ch.  xxix.,  p.  240.  Besides  the  regu- 
lar college  tutor,  I  secured  the  assistance 
of  what,  in  the  slang  of  the  day,  we 
irreverently  termed  a  COACH. 

1853.  C.  BEDE,  Verdant  Green,  pt.  I., 
pp.  63-4.  '  That  man  is  Cram,  the  patent 
safety.  He's  the  first  COACH  in  Oxford.' 
'  A  COACH,'  said  our  freshman  in  some 
wonder.  'Oh,  I  forgot  you  didn't  know 
college  slang.  I  suppose  a  royal  mail  is 
the  only  gentleman  qoach  you  know  of. 
Why,  in  Oxford  a  COACH  means  a  private 
tutor  you  must  know ;  and  those  who 
can't  afford  a  COACH,  get  a  cab  alias  a 
crib  alias  translation. 

1864.  Eton  School-days,  ch.  ix.,  p. 
103.  Lord  Fitzwinton,  one  of  the  smallest 
and  best  COACHES — in  aquatics — in  the 

1871.  Times.  '  Report  of  the  Debate 
in  House  of  Lords  on  University  Test 
Bill."  The  test  proposed  would  be  wholly 
ineffective  .  .  .  while  it  would  apply 
to  the  college  tutors,  who  had  little 
influence  over  the  young  men,  it  would 
not  affect  the  COACHES,  who  had  the 
chief  direction  of  their  studies. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  29  Nov.,  p.  i, 
col.  3.  The  schoolmaster  is  concerned 
with  the  education  of  boys  up  to  eighteen  ; 
all  beyond  that  falls  either  to  the  COACH 
or  the  professor. 

Verb  (common). — To  prepare 
for  an  examination  by  private 
instruction ;  to  train  :  in  general 
use  both  by  coacher  and  coachee. 

1846.  THACKERAY,  Vanity  Fair,  ch. 
v.  The  superb  Cuff  himself  .  .  .  helped 
him  on  with  his  Latin  verses,  COACHED  him 
in  play -hours. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  June  TO. 
1  Quadrille  Conversation.'  It  is,  we  fear, 
Quixotic  to  hope  that  ladies  and  gentlemen 
invited  to  the  same  ball  would  COACH 
with  the  same  master. 




COACH  EE,  subs,  (colloquial).  —  A 
coachman.  Cf.,  CABBY. 

1819.  THOS.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Mem.  Cong',  p.  79.  This  song  ...  in 
which  the  language  and  sentiments  of 
COACHEE  are  transferred  so  ingeniously. 

1825.     English  Spy^  I.,  pp.  134-5. 

COACHING,  verbal  subs.  (common). 

—  i.   Instruction  ;    training,    etc. 

—  See  COACH,  subs.    French  stu- 
dents call  it  la  barbe. 

1836.  Pluck  Examination  Papers  for 
Candidates  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  by 
system  of  COACHING  pupils  considerably 
improved  by  the  examiners  becoming 

2.  (Rugby  School).—  A  flog- 
ging. Now  obsolete. 

COACH  MAN  ,  subs,  (anglers').  —  A  fly- 
fisher's  rod.  [In  allusion  lo 
whipping  the  stream.] 

COACH-WHEEL,  subs,  (popular).  — 
A  crown-piece,  or  five  shillings. 
For  synonyms,  see  CART-WHEEL. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
COACH  WHEEL  :  a  half  crown  piece  is  a 
fore  COACH  WHEEL,  and  a  crown  piece  a 
hind  COACH  WHEEL,  the  fore  wheels  of  a 
coach  being  less  than  the  hind  ones. 

COAL.  —  See  COLE. 

To  TAKE  IN  ONE'S  COALS,  or 
WINTER  COALS,  phr.  (nautical).  — 
To  contract  a  venereal  disease. 
For  synonyms,  see  LADIES' 


COAL-Box,  subs,  (musical).  —  A 
chorus.  [Obviously  '  music- 
hally  '  or  '  circussy  '  in  deriva- 
tion: a  cross  between  rhyming 
slang  and  a  clown's  WHEEZE 

1809-70.  MARK  LEMON,  Up  and  Down 
London  Streets.  The  slang  word  for 
chorus,  COAL  BOX,  if  we  might  mention 
anything  so  ungenteel. 

COALEY,  subs,  (common). — A  coal- 
heaver,  or  porter. 

1880.  JAS.  GREENWOOD,  'Diddler 
Domesticus,'  in  Odd  People  in  Odd  Places, 
p.  93.  With  such  arguments  the  bargain 
is  driven  to  a  conclusion,  and  the  grateful 
COALEY  takes  his  departure. 

1889.  Star,  3  Dec.,  p.  3,  col.  4.  The 
GOALIES  demonstrated  last  night  in  right 
novel  fashion  at  St.  Pancras  Arches. 

COALING  or  Co  ALLY,  adj,  (theatri- 
cal).— Among  'pros'  a  CO  ALLY 
or  COALING  part  is  one  that  is 
grateful  to  the  player.  [Hotten 
says  it  means  '  profitable, '  and 
derives  it  from  COLE  =  money, 
but  this  is  doubtful. — See  quot.] 

1872.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Dead  Sea. 
Fruit,  ch.  xiv.  The  gorger's  awful 
COALLY  on  his  own  slumming,  eh?  .  .  . 
I  mean  to  say  that  our  friend  the  manager 
is  rather  sweet  upon  his  own  acting. 

COAL-SCUTTLE,  subs,  (common). — 
A  poke  bonnet;  modish  once, 
but  now  reserved  for  old- 
fashioned  Quakeresses  and 
*  Hallelujah  Lasses.'  [From  the 

1838.  DICKENS,  Nicholas  Nickleby. 
There  was  Miss  Snevellici  .  .  .  glancing 
from  the  depths  of  her  COAL-SCUTTLB 
bonnet  at  Nicholas. 

HORSE'S  COAT,  phr.  (racing). — 
Explained  by  quot. 

1889.  Standard.  '  Sir  Chas.  Russell's 
Speech  in  Durham  -  Chetwynd  Case,' 
June  25.  An  owner  says  to  his  trainer, 
'  I  suppose,  Mr.  Jones,  we'll  have  very 
good  luck  to-morrow  ? '  (laughter).  '  Well 
no,  sir,'  says  the  trainer ;  '  I  don  t  think 
the  horse  has  any  chance  to-morrow.  The 
fact  is,  he  isn't  fit.'  A  fortnight  elapses, 
and  on  comes  another  meeting  at  New- 
market, and  the  owner  goes  down  again, 
and  he  sees  the  horse.  To  his  uninitiated 
eye  the  horse  seems  as  well  as  when  he 
saw  it  on  the  previous  occasion.  In  the 
interval  the  trainer  had  '  slipped  in  a  lot  of 
work  into  him,'  I  think  that  is  the  term, 
and  the  owner,  who  thinks  he  knows 
something  about  horses  (laughter)  says  t,o 
his  trainer  '  You'i  e  going  to  run  this  horse 



Cobbler  s  Thumb. 

to-morrow?"  'Oh,  I  think  so,  sir,'  says 
the  trainer.  '  But  look  here,'  says  the 
owner,  '  This  is  a  much  better  class.  He 
is  meeting  this  horse  upon  no  better  terms 
than  before.'  '  But,  sir,'  says  the  trainer, 
'  he  has  greatly  improved.  The  SUN  HAS 


COAX,  verb  (old).— To  dissemble 
in  the  shoes  the  soiled  or  ragged 
parts  of  a  pair  of  stockings. — 
[Grose,  1785.] 

COB,  subs,  (prison). — I.  A  pun- 
ishment cell.  For  synonyms, 
see  CLINCH. 

2.  (nautical). — Money.   Espe- 
cially given    to  a    Spanish   coin 
formerly     current      in     Ireland, 
worth   about  45.    8d.     Also   the 
name  still  given  at  Gibraltar  to 
a  Spanish  dollar. 

1805.  Plymouth  Newspaper  of  Feb. 
24,  quoted  in  '  Autobiography  of  a  Sea- 
man,' by  Earl  of  Dundonald,  vol.  I.,  ch. 
x.,  p.  174.  His  Lordship  sent  word  to 
Plymouth  that,  if  ever  it  was  in  his  power 
he  would  fulfil  his  public  advertisement 
(stuck  up  here)  for  entering  seamen,  of 
filling  their  pockets  with  Spanish  '  pewter1 
and  COBS,'  nicknames  given  by  seamen  to 
ingots  and  dollars. 

3.  (Winchester      College).— 
A     hard     hit     at     cricket.       Of 
modern  introduction.     Cf.,  BAR- 

Verb      (schoolboys'). — I.      To 
detect,  catch,  etc. 

2.  (popular). — To    humbug  ; 
deceive  ;  TO  GAMMON  (g.v.). 

3.  To  hit  hard. — See  subs.t 
sense  3. 

COBB,  verb  (general). — To  spank  ; 
to  smack  the  posteriors  with 
(say)  a  tailor's  sleeve-board. 

1830.  MARRYAT,  King's  Own.  Gen- 
tlemen, gentlemen,  if  you  must  COBB  Mrs. 
Skrimmage,  for  God's  sake  let  it  be  over 

COBBER,  subs,  (common). — A  pro- 
digious falsehood;  i.e.,  'a 
THUMPER';  WHOPPER  (q.v.). 

COBBLE-COLTER,  subs.  (old). — A 
turkey.  Fr.,  une  ornie  de  balle 
and  ^^nJe' suite.  Cf.,  ALDERMAN 

1785.   GROSE,  Ztatf.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

1837.  DISRAELI,  Venetia,  p.  69. 
'  Gome,  old  mort,'  said  the  leader,  in  a 
very  different  tone  to  the  one  in  which  he 
addressed  his  young  guest,  '  tout  the 
COBBLE-COLTER  \  are  we  to  have  darkmans 
upon  us  ? 

COBBLED,///,  adj.  (schoolboys'). — 
Caught  ;  detected ;  spotted. 
[From  COB,  verb,  sense  I.] 

AT  THE  COBBLER'S  DOOR,  verbal 
phr.  (provincial). — A  sort  of 
fancy  sliding  in  which  the  artist 
raps  the  ice  in  triplets  with  one 
foot  while  progressing  swiftly  on 
the  other. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Ptckwick,,\o\.  ii.,ch.  2. 
SamWeller ,  in  particular  was  displaying  that 
beautiful  feat  of  fancy  sliding  which  is  cur- 
rently Called  KNOCKING  AT  THE  COBBLER'S 

DOOR,  and  which  is  achieved  by  skimming 
over  the  ice  on  one  foot  and  occasionally 
giving  a  postman's  knock  upon  it  with  the 

COBBLERS'  MARBLES,  subs.  phr. 
(vulgar). — A  corrupt  pronuncia- 
tion of  cholera  morbus,  once  a 
name  for  Asiatic  cholera. 

COBBLER'S  THUMB,  subs.  (Irish 
localism). — A  small  fish  ;  the 
bull-head,  called  in  English  the 

1839.  LEVER,  Harry  Lorrequer,  cb. 
xxvii.  His  hands  and  feet,  forming  some 
compensation  by  their  ample  proportions, 
give  to  his  entire  air  and  appearance 
somewhat  the  look  of  a  small  fish,  with 
short,  thick  fins,  vulgarly  called  a  COBBLER'S 


Cochineal  Dye. 



COCHINEAL  DYE,  subs,  (pugilistic). 
— Blood.  [From  the  colour.] 
For  synonyms,  see  CLARET. 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('Cuthbert 
Bede'),  VerdantGreen,  pt.  11.,  p.  31.  He 
would  kindly  inquire  of  one  gentleman, 
'  Whatd'yeask  fora  pint  of  your  COCHINEAL 


1883.  Referee.  It  certainly  seemed 
that  their  stock-in-trade  was  largely  com- 
posed of  COCHINEAL  DYE  ;  there  was  in 
truth  no  lack  of  the  gory  accessory  of  the 

COCK,  subs,  (common). — i.  The 
penis.  Cf.,  Ger.,  Hahn,  Han- 
chen.  [Possibly  related  to  '  cock  ' 
=  turn-valve.  J  For  synonyms, 
1600.  SHAKSPEARE,  King  Henry  V., 

ii.  -L.—Cf. 

1647.     BEAUMONT   AND    FLETCHER. 

The   Custom  of  the  County,  v.,  4.     The 

mainspring's  weakened  that  holds  up  his 


1730     BAILEY  Diet.,  s.v. 

1737.     RABELAIS.  Trans.  I.,  185.,  s.v. 

1807.  RABELAIS.  Trans.  [LONGMAN'S 
ed.].  s.v.,  I.,  169. 

1849.  RABELAIS.  Trans.  [BOHN'S 
ed.],  s.v.,  I.,  135. 

2.  (colloquial). — A  chief  or 
leader ;  particularly  in  such 
phrases  as  COCK  OF  THE  WALK, 
SCHOOL,  etc.  [A  simile  drawn 
from  the  barndoor.]  Cf.,  stnse 
3,  and  adj. 

1711.  Spectator,  No.  131.  Service  to 
the  knight.  Sir  Andrew  is  grown  the 
COCK  OF  THE  CLUB  since  he  left  us,  and  if 
he  does  not  return  quickly  will  make  every 
mother's  son  of  us  commonwealth's  men. 

1729.  SWIFT,  Grand  Question  De- 
bated. But  at  cuffs  I  was  always  the 


1764.  O'HARA,  Midas,  I.,  i.  COCK 
OF  THE  SCHOOL.  He  bears  despotic  rule. 

1811-63.  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Mis- 
cellanies, II.,  275.  There  is  no  more 
dangerous  or  stupifying  position  for  a  man 
in  life  than  to  be  a  COCK  OF  SMALL 

1862.  MRS.  H.  WOOD,  Channin^s, 
ch.  xxix.  '  Were  I  going  in  for  the  senior- 
ship,  and  one  below  me  were  suddenly 
hoisted  above  my  head,  and  made  a  COCK 
OF  THE  WALK,  I'd  know  the  leason  why. 

3.      (common).  —  A      familiar 
address ;     e.g. ,    OLD    COCK,    or 
JOLLY  OLD  COCK.    [Probably  de- 
rived  from   sense    I.]     Amongst 
similiar  expressions  may  be  men- 
tioned OLD  MAN,  MY  PIPPIN,  and 
in  French,  won  vieux  zig,  or  lapin. 
1639.     MASSINGER,  Unnatural  Com- 
bat, II.,  i.     He  has  drawn  blood  of  him 
yet :  well  done,  OLD  COCK. 

1749.  FIELDING,  Tom  Jones,  bk. 
XVIII.,  ch.  x.  Then  give  me  thy  fist,  a't 
as  hearty  an  honest  COCK  as  any  in  the 

1825.  The  English  Spy,  vol.  I.,  p.  215. 
The  low-bred,  vulgar,  Sunday  throng,  Who 
dine  at  two,  are  ranged  along  On  both 
sides  of  the  way ;  With  various  views  these 
honest  folk  Descant  on  fashions,  quiz  and 
joke,  Or  mark  the  SHY  COCK  down.* 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  367  (ed.  1857).  '  Do  you 
always  smoke  arter  you  goes  to  bed,  OLD 
COCK  ? '  inquired  Mr.  Weller  of  his  land- 
Ford,  when  they  had  both  retired  for  the 
night.  '  Yes,  I  does,  young  Bantam,'  re- 
plied the  cobbler. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  278.  The 
people  down  here  are  a  queer  lot,  but  I 
have  hunted  up  two  or  three  JOLLY  COCKS, 
and  we  contrive  to  keep  the  place  alive 
between  us. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomes,  ch. 
xvi.  Shrewd  OLD  COCK,  Mr.  Binnie. 
Has  brought  home  a  good  bit  of  money 
from  India. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  19  Oct.  What 
on  earth  is  the  meaning  of  Mr.  Santley's 
voice  being  over-crowed  by  a  mammoth 
orchestra?  I  never  heard  before  that 
fiddles  crowed,  or  that  Mr.  Santley  was  a 
COCK.  He  is  what  is  known  as  a  JOLLY. 
COCK,  but  there  his  similarity  to  the  noisy 
fowl  ends. 

4.  (racing). — A  horse  not  in- 
tended to  win  the  race  for  which 
it  is  put  down,  but  kept  in  the 
lists  to  deceive  the  public. 

1887.  Field,  May  29.  In  the  phrase- 
ology  of  slangy  turfites,  the  horse  was  a 
COCK  ;  i.e.,  it  had  been  liberally  backed, 
but  was  never  intended  to  run. 

*  The  Sunday  men,  as  they  are  face- 
tiously  called  in  the  fashionable  world,  are 
not  now  so  numerous  as  formerly ;  the 
facility  of  a  trip  across  the  channel  enables 
irnny  a  SHY  COCK  to  evade  the  eye  .  .  . 
of  the  law. 




5.  (common). — Primarily    the 
fictitious  narratives   in   verse    or 
prose  of  murders,   fires,  etc.   (see 
quot.,    1851),   produced  for   sale 
in   the   streets.      Famous   manu- 
factories of  COCKS  were  kept  by 
*  Jemmy '   Catnach   and    Johnny 
Pitts,    called    the    Colburn    and 
Bentley  of   the    *  paper '    trade. 
They  fought   bitterly,   and   Cat- 
nach  informed    the    world    that 
Pitts  had  once  been  a  '  bumboat 
woman,'  while  Pitts  declared — 

That  all  the  boys  and  girls  around, 
Who  go  out  prigging  rags  and  phials, 
Know  Jemmy  Catnach  !  !  !  well,  Who  lives 
in  a  back  slum  in  the  Dials, 

Catnach  got  at  last  to  be  '  Cock 
of  the  Walk,'  and  remained  so 
till  his  retirement  in  1839. 
[Hotten  thought  the  word  might 
be  a  corruption  of  cook,  a  '  cooked' 
or  garbled  statement,  or  a  coinage 
from  *  cock  and  bull  story. '] 
Fr.,  une  goualante. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  228.  What  are 
technically  termed  COCKS,  which,  in 
polite  language,  means  accounts  of  fabu- 
lous duels  between  ladies  of  fashion,  of 
apocryphal  elopements  ...  or  awful 
tragedies,  etc. 

Hence     applied     to     any    in- 
credible story. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  i  Feb.  We 
are  disposed  to  think  that  COCKS  must 
have  penetrated  to  Eastern  Missouri. 

6.  (thieves').  — An    abbrevia- 
tion of  '  cockney.' 

7.  (printers'). — In    gambling 
or  playing  with  '  quads,'  a  COCK 
is  when   one   (or   more)   of    the 
nine  pieces  does  not  fall  flat  but 
lodges     crosswise     on     another. 
The  player  is  then  given  another 

8.  (tailors'). — GOOD    COCK — 
POOR   COCK.     A  good  and   bad 
workman  respectively. 

Adj.  (colloquial). — Chief;  first 
and  foremost.  Cf.,  COCK,  subs., 
sense  2. 

1676.  ETHEREGE,  Man  of  Mode,  II., 
ii.,  in  wks.  (1704),  211.  Why  the  very 
cocK-fool  of  all  those  fools,  Sir  Fopling 

1856.  T.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown's 
School-days,  pt.  II.,  ch.  vi.  They'll  make 
the  old  Madman  COCK  medicine-man  and 
tattoo  him  all  over. 

Verb  (venery).  —  I.  To  copu- 
late. Usually  employed  by  wo- 
men and  in  the  passive  sense  : 
e.g.,  'to  want  cocking,'  or  'to 
get  cocked.'  For  synonyms,  see 

2.     (common). — To  smoke. 

COCK  THE  EYE,  verbal  phr. 
(colloquial). — To  shut  or  wink 
one  eye ;  to  leer ;  to  look  in- 
credulous. Fr.,  cligner  des 
ceillets.  Cf.,  COCK-EYED.  [In 
venery  a  woman  with  A  COCK  IN 
HER  EYE  =  a  woman  in  a  con- 
dition of  sexual  excitement,  a 
woman  that  'means  business.' 
C/.,  PINTLE-KEEK  (q.v.)  and 
LOOK  PRICKS.]  Of  the  kindred 
phrase,  to  COCK  THE  CHIN,  an 
illustration  appears  in  Elegant 

As  Dick  and  Tom  in  fierce  dispute 
engage,  And  face  to  face  the  noisy  contest 
wage;  'Don't  COCK  YOUR  CHIN  at  me,1 
Dick  smartly  cries.  '  Fear  not,  his  head's 
not  charg'd,'  a  friend  replies. 

The  French  equivalent  is  j'a- 
borgner  (literally  '  to  make  one- 
self blind  of  one  eye  by  closing 

1751.  SMOLLETT,  Peregrine  Pickle, 
ch.  ii.  He  .  .  .  made  wry  faces,  and,  to 
use  the  vulgar  phrase,  COCKED  HIS  EYE 
at  him,  to  the  no  small  entertainment  of 
the  spectators. 

1836.  MARRYAT,  Japhet,  ch.  iv. 
Timothy  put  on  his  hat,  COCKED  HIS  EYE 
.at  jne,  anjd  Left  us  alone. 




1859.  J.  EASTWOOD,  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  2  S.,  viii.,  461.  The  phrase 
COCK  YOUR  EYE  is  not  at  all  an  uncommon 
one  in  Yorkshire — meaning  *  direct  your 
eye,  give  a  glance.' 

To  COCK  SNOOKS,  verbal phr. 
(common).  — See  COFFEE-MILL- 

phr.  (common). — Originally  cock- 
pit slang.  Said  of  things  pro- 
blematical or  doubtful. 

1844.  Puck,  p.  124.  'Song  of  the 
First  Tragedian  .  .  .  having  pawned  his 
properties.'  Suppose  I  told  my  uncle  what 
I  fear  he'd  not  believe,  That  I'll  certainly 
repay  him  the  money  ere  I  leave  ;  That  my 
benefit  when  it  comes  off  is  sure  to  prove  a 
hit,  I  don't  think,  with  a  screw  like  him, 


phr.  (old). — 'Cock'  is  here  a 
corruption,  or  disguise  of  'God.' 
We  find  also  *  cocks-passion,' 
'cocks-body,'  and  other  allusions 
to  the  Saviour,  or  His  body,  as 
supposed  to  exist  in  the  Host  : 
the  expression  surviving  the  be- 
lief. In  BY  COCK  AND  PYE,  the 

PIE,  or  Sacred  Book  of  Offices  is 
added.  BY  COCK  AND  PIE  AND 
MOUSEFOOT,  is  quoted  from  the 
old  play  of  Soliman  and  Perseda, 
Orig.  of  Drama,  ii.,  p.  21 1. 

1571.  EDWARDS,  Damon  and  Pythias, 
Old  PL,  i.,  216.  W.  By  the  masse  I  will 
boxe  you.  /.  BY  COCKE  I  will  foxe  you. 

1596.  SHAKSPEARE,  Hamlet,  iv.,  5. 
BY  COCKE  they  are  to  blame. 

1598.  SHAKSPEARE,  Henry  IV,,  pt. 
II.,  Act  v.,  Sc.  i.  BY  COCK  AND  PIE,  sir, 
you  shall  not  away  to-night. 

1606.  WILY,  Beguilede.  Now  BY 
COCK  AND  PIE,  you  never  spoke  a  truer 
word  in  your  life. 

KNOCKED  A-COCK,  adv.  phr. 
(pugilistic). — Knocked  'all  of  a 
heap,'  or  'out  of  time.'  Ob- 
viously adapted  from  the  lingo  of 
the  cock-pit,  and  suggested  by 
the  sight  of  the  beaten  bird  laid 
on  his  back. 

COCK-A-DOODLE  BROTH,  subs.  phr. 
(?  nonce  phrase).  — See  quot. 

1856.  READE,  Never  Too  Late  to 
Mend,  ch.  Ixxxv.  He  complains  that  '  he 
can't  peck,'  yet  continues  the  cause  of  his 
infirmity,  living  almost  entirely  upon 
COCK-A-DOODLE  BROTH, — eggs  beat  up  in 
brandy  and  a  little  water. 

COCK-A-HOOP  or  COCK-ON  (or  IN  A)- 
HOOP,  adj.  (colloquial). — Strut- 
ting ;  triumphant ;  high-spirited  ; 
'uppish.'  [Ray  suggested  that  it 
refers  to  the  practice  of  taking 
out  the  spigot  (an  old  synonym 
for  the  penis,  by  the  way)  and 
laying  it  on  the  top  of  a  barrel 
with  a  view  to  drinking  the  latter 
dry ;  a  proceeding  that  would 
naturally  induce  a  certain  swagger 
in  the  actors.  There  seems,  how- 
ever, no  doubt  that  the  true  deri- 
vative is  the  French  coq  a  houppe. 
Houppe,  in  French,  is  a  tuft, 
touffe  (and  toupet,  is  kindred). 
Littre  says,  terme  de  blason,  tuft 
of  silk  or  tassel  hanging  from  a 
hat :  '  Elle  serf  de  timbre  au  cha- 
peau  des  cardinaux,  etc.  Houppee 
is  the  foam  on  the  top  of  a  wave. 
Houppe  is  the  tuft  on  a  trencher 
cap  :  '  Qui  distingue?  says  Tarver, 
'  le  bonnet  des  nobles  de  celui  des 
autres  '  at  the  universities — hence 
tuft-hunter,  coureur  de  houppes. 
Also,  '//  trou-ve  a  se  fourrer parmi 
les  plus  huppes  '  =  he  contrives  to 
vie  with  those  at  the  very  top  of 
fashion.  The  Hoopoe,  (Lat. 
Uptipa),  is  a  crested  bird.  Hence 
coq  a  houppe  is  a  crested  cock,  and 
by  analogy  one  swaggering,  trium- 
phant, exulting ;  so  '  cock-a- 
hoop'  is  '  cock-a-top,'  '  cock-a- 
crest,'  elated  beyond  reason — 
'cocky,'  as  schoolboys  say  — 
'cock  of  the  walk,'  'cock  at  the 
top.'  In  cock-fighting,  the  '  cock- 
a-top  '  is  he  that  gets  the  vantage 
stroke.  '  Abattre  Forgueil  des 
plus  hiippes  '  ;  to  bring  down  the 




crest  of  the  highest.  COCK-A- 
HOOP  is  plainly  the  original  ex- 
pression, and  COCK-ON-THE-HOOP 
a  later  form  adopted  when  the 
original  meaning  had  vanished.] 
English  equivalents  are  '  IN  FULL 
FEATHER,'  and  '  A-COCK-HORSE  ' 

(q-v.}t  while  colloquial  French 
has  s'en  pourlecher  la  face  and 
s' emerillonner  (to  become  cheerful 
through  repeated  potations). 

1595.  SHAKSPEA~RE,fiome0and/u?iet, 
Act  i.,  Sc.  5.  Am  I  the  master  here  or 
you  ?  Go  to  ...  You  will  set  COCK-A- 
HOOP  !  you'll  be  the  man. 

16c3.  JONSON,  Tale  of  a  Tub,N.,  ii. 
John  Clay  agen  !  nay  then — set  COCK-A- 
HOOP  :  I  have  lost  no  daughter,  nor  no 
money,  justice. 

1707.     WARD,   Hudibras  Redivivus, 
ol.   II.,  pt.   XII.,   p.    20.      Those  cruel, 
sanctify'd     Pretenders,     Now    rais'd     by 
Fortune,  COCK-A-HOOP. 

1853.  Diogenes,  II.,  195.  'Our  Foreign 
News  Summary.'  All  the  COCK-A-HOOP 
BEYS  in  the  Sultan's  dominions  Have 
taken  to  expressing  their  individual 

1885.  D.  C.  MURRAY,  Rainbow  Gold, 
bk.  IV.,  ch.  vi.  He's  a  fine  lad,  a  fine 
lad,  but  COCK-A-WHOOP,  and  over  certain 
for  his  years 

COCK-ALE,  subs.  (old). — A  homely 
aphrodisiac.  —  [Grose,  1785.] 
[An  allusion  to  the  penis  and  the 
stirring  tendency  of  strong  beer.] 
Nares  says  it  was  '  a  sort  of  ale 
which  was  very  celebrated  in  the 
seventeenth  century  for  its  superior 

1675.  Woman  Turrid  Bully  [quoted 
in  Nares].  Spr.  How,  Mr.  Trupenny, 
not  a  drop  worth  drinking  ?  Did  you  ever 
taste  our  COCK-ALE  ? 

1698.  WARD,  London  Spy.  My  friend 
by  this  time  (knowing  the  entertainment 
of  the  house)  had  called  for  a  bottle  of 
COCK-ALE,  of  which  I  tasted  a  glass,  but 
could  not  conceive  it  to  be  anything  but 
a  mixture  of  small  beer  and  treacle.  If 
this  be  COCK-ALE,  said  I,  e'en  let  cocks- 
combs drink  it.  [N.] 

1738.  Poor  Robin.  Notwithstanding 
the  large  commendations  you  give  the 

juice  of  barley,  yet  if  compar'd  with 
canary,  it's  no  more  than  a  mole-hill  to  a 
mountain  ;  whether  it  be  COCK- ALE,  China 
ale,  etc.  [N.] 

Also  COCK-BROTH,  etc. 

COCK  ALLEY,  subs.  (old). — The 
female  pudendum.  Other  deri- 
vations of  the  same  make  are 
and  COCK-SHY.  For  synonyms, 


subs,  (common). — I.    A  half  con- 
temptuous address. — See  quot. 

1815-23.  T.  C.  CARTER,  in  Daily 
News,  7  Dec.,  1889,  p.  3,  col.  5.  In  1823 
was  displayed  in  a  shop  window  in  Pilgrim 
Street,  Ludgate  Hill,  a  picture  entitled 
'  Seizure  for  Rent.'  It  represented  the  in- 
terior of  a  room  ;  the  only  article  of  furni- 
ture a  bottomless  chair,  on  the  edge  of 
which  was  seated  a  half-clad  man  smoking 
a  pipe.  The  doorway  was  filled  up  by  a 
very  fat  beadle  in  full  uniform  ;  behind 
him  in  the  shade  could  be  seen  two  men, 
each  with  a  porter's  knot.  To  the  beadle 
the  tenant  was  saying  :  '  Now  then,  old 
COCKALORUM  jig,  seize  away.'  In  my 
school  days,  from  1815  to  1820,  we  often 
heard  in  the  playground  :  '  Now  little 
COCKALORUM,  out  of  that.' 

2.  (schoolboys').  —  A  rough 
and  tumble  game  described  as 
follows  by  a  correspondent  of  the 
Pall  Mall  Gazette  (1890,  Jan.  4, 
p.  2,  col.  i): — 

When  I  went  to  Harrow,  thirty  years 
ago,  I  found  a  winter  evening  game  in 
force  there,  called  '  high  COCKALORUM,' 
of  which  I  send  you  a  sketch.  The 
players  used  to  divide  into  two  opposing 
bands  of  from  twelve  to  fourteen  each  — 
in  fact,  the  more  the  merrier.  One  side 
'  went  down,'  so  as  to  constitute  a  long 
'  hogsback ' — the  last  boy  having  a  couple 
of  pillows  between  himself  and  the  wall, 
and  each  boy  clasping  his  front  rank 
man,  and  carefully  tucking  his  own 
'  cocoa-nut '  under  his  right  arm,  so  as 
to  prevent  fiacture  of  the  vertebrae. 
When  the  hogsback  was  thus  formed,  the 
other  side  came  on,  leap-frogging  on  to 

Cock-and-BreecJies.        '39         Cockatoo  Fanner. 

the  backs  of  those  who  were  down,  the 
best  and  steadiest  jumpers  being  sent 
first.  Sometimes  the  passive  line  was 
broken  quite  easily  by  the  ruse  of  a  short 
high  jump,  coming  with  irresistible  im- 
pulse on  a  back  which  was  not  expecting 
weight  just  yet.  Sometimes  a  too  ambi- 
tious leap  -  frogger  ruined  his  party  by 
overbalancing  and  falling  off.  It  was, 
however,  as  the  last  two  or  three  leap- 
froggers  came  on  that  the  real  excite- 
ment more  generally  began.  There  was 
absolutely  no  back-space  belonging  to 
the  other  party  left  to  them  ;  and  they 
were  obliged  to  pile  themselves  one  upon 
another  —  '  Pelion  on  Ossa  '  as  it  was 
called.  When  the  last  man  was  up  it 
was  his  duty  to  say,  '  High  COCKALORUM 
jig  Jig  jig—  high  COCKALORUM  jig  jig  jig- 
high  COCKALORUM  jig  jig  jig—  off,  off,  off,' 
and  then  alone  was  it  permissible  for 
tortured  and  perspiring  human  nature  to 
fall  in  one  indistinguishable  heap  to  the 
ground.  The  repeater  of  the  shibboleth 
often  fell  off  himself  as  he  was  uttering  the 
above  incantation  —  thus  losing  the  victory 
for  his  side.  It  was  a  splendid  game.  I 
understood  from  family  inquiries  that  it 
was  played  at  Harrow  in  my  great  grand- 
father's time. 

COCK  AND-BREECHES,  subs,  (com- 
mon). —  A  sturdy,  little  man,  or 


quial).  —  An  idle  or  silly  story. 
[Presumably  from  some  old 
legend  of  a  cock  and  a  bull, 
apropos  to  ,  which  it  should  be 
noted  that  the  French  equiva- 
lent is  coq-a-Vdnet  a  cock-and- 

1603.  JOHN  DAY,  Law  Trickes,  Act 
iv.,  p.  66.  Didst  marke  what  a  tale  of  a 
COCK  AND  A  BULL  he  tolde  my  father 
whilst  I  made  thee  and  the  rest  away. 

1759.  STERNE,  Tristram  Shandy, 
vol.  IX.,  ch.  xxxiii.  L  —  d  !  said  my 
mother,  what  is  all  this  about  ?  A  COCK 
AND  A  BULL,  said  Yorick  —  and  one  of  the 
best  of  its  kind  I  ever  heard. 

1857.  O.  W.  HOLMES,  Autocrat  of 
the  Breakfast  Table,  ch.  v.  That  sounds 
like  a  COCK-AND-BULL  STORY,  said  the 
young  fellow  whom  they  call  John.  I 
abstained  from  making  Hamlet's  remarks 
to  Horatio  and  continued. 

1874.  MRS.  H-Woon,  Johnny  Ludlow, 
i  S.,  xxiv.,  p.  432.  '  Giving  ear  to  a  COCK- 
AND-BULL  STORY  that  can't  be  true  !  ' 

COCK-AND-H EN-CLUB,  subs,  (com- 
mon).— i.  A  free  and  easy 
gathering,  or  'sing-song,'  where 
females  are  admitted  as  well 
as  males.  [From  COCK-AND- 
HEN,  the  male  and  female  bird, 
and  used  figuratively  for  men 
and  women,  +  CLUB.] 

1819.  THOS.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's 
Mem.  to  Congi.,  p.  78.  A  Masquerade, 
or  Fancy  Ball,  given  lately  at  one  of  the 
most  fashionable  COCK-AND-HEN  CLUBS 
in  St.  Giles's. 

1828.  G.  SMEETON,  Days  in  London, 
p.  40.  Introduced  him  to  one  of  the  COCK- 
AND-HEN  HOUSES  near  Drury  Lane  Theatre 
well  primed  with  wine. 

2.     A   club    for  both    sexes ; 
e.g.,  The  Lyric. 

COCK- AND- PINCH,  subs.  (old). — 
The  old-fashioned  beaver  of 
forty  years  since.  [From  its 
being  COCKED  back  and  front, 
and  PINCHED  at  the  sides.]  For 
synonyms,  see  GOLGOTHA. 

COCKATOO-FARMER,  subs.  (Austra- 
lian).— In  Victoria  and  New 
South  Wales  a  small  farmer  or 
selector.  A  term  of  contempt 
used  by  large  holders  in  describ- 
ing agricultural  squatters  with 
small  capital.  [Probably  an 
allusion  to  their  numbers :  a 
comparing  to  the  rush  for  land, 
the  swooping  of  cockatoos  in 
myriads  in  new  sown  corn.] 

1865.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Hillyars  and 
Burtons,  ch.  Ix.  The  small  farmers  [in 
Australian  wool  districts]  contemptu- 
ously called  COCKATOOS  are  the  fathers 
of  fire,  the  inventors  of  scab,  the  seducers 
of  bush-hands  for  haymaking  and  harvest- 
ing [and  many  other  heinous  crimes]. 

1886.  G.   SUTHERLAND,   Australia, 
p.  64.     The  shepherd  king  tries   to  steal 
a  march  upon  the  poor  COCKATOO,  as  he 
contemptuously  calls  the  small  farmer. 

1887.  G.  A.  SALA,  in  ///.  L.  News, 
12  March,  282,  col.  2.     I  venture  to  differ 
from  my   correspondent  when,   in   telling 


Cocked  Hat. 

me  that  '  cocky '  is  Australian  argot  for 
a  small  farmer,  adds,  'by-the-by,  you 
never  hear  the  word  "farmer"  over  there 
.  .  .  many  scores  of  times  at  the  Antipodes 
I  have  heard  agriculturists,  whose  holdings 
were  small,  spoken  of,  not  as  "cockies" 
but  as  "COCKATOO  FARMERS."  ' 

COCKATRICE,  subs.  (old). — i.  A 
common  prostitute  ;  also  a  mis- 
tress or  '  keep. '  [Nares  says 
*  probably  from  the  fascination 
of  the  eye,'  alluding  to  the 
fabulous  monster  hatched  from 
a  cock's  egg  by  a  serpent. 
Shakspeare  speaks  of  '  the  death- 
dealing  '  eye  of  a  COCKATRICE.] 
For  synonyms,  see  BARRACK- 
HACK  and  TART. 

1600.  BEN  JONSON,  Cynth  Rev.,  IV., 
4.  And  withall,  calls  me  at  his  pleasure 
I  know  not  how  many  COCKATRICES  and 

1604.  MARSTON  AND  WEBSTER,  Mal- 
content, O.  P.,  iv.,  93.  No  courtier  but 
has  his  mistress,  no  captain  but  has  his 


1630.  TAYLOR,  Workes  [quoted  by 
Nares].  And  amongst  souldiers  this  sweet 
piece  of  vice  Is  counted  for  a  captaines 


1664.  KILLEGREW,  Pandora.  Some 
wine  there,  That  I  may  court  my  COCKA- 
TRICE. Care.  Good  Captaine,  Bid  our 
noble  friend  welcome. 

1740.  Poor  Robin.  Some  gallants 
will  this  month  be  so  penurious  that  they 
will  not  part  with  a  crack'd  groat  to  a  poor 
body,  but  on  their  COCKATRICE  or  pun- 
quetto  will  bestow  half  a  dozen  taffety 
gowns,  who  in  requital  bestows  on  him  the 
French  pox. 

2.     (common). — A  baby. 

COCK-A-WAX,  subs,  (common). — i 
A  cobbler.  [From  COCK  a  man 
(q.v.},  +  A  +  WAX,  an  adjunct 
of  the  cobbler's  trade.]  For 
synonyms,  see  SNOB. 

2.     A  familiar  address. 

COCK-BAWD,  subs."*  (old). — A  male 
brothel  keeper.  [Quoted  in 
Grose  (i 785).] 

COCKCHAFER,  subs,  (thieves'). — i. 
The  treadmill.  For  synonyms, 
see  WHEEL  OF  LIFE. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  II.,  p.  59.  '  He  en- 
piated,'  as  it  is  called,  this  offence  by 
three  months'  exercise  on  the  COCKCHAFER 

1864.  Glasgow  Citizen,  Nov.  19.  The 
Jeremy  Diddler  who  forges  his  honest 
name  to  a  fakement,  incurring  thereby  a 
drag  at  the  COCKCHAFER. 

2.  (venery).  —  The      female 

3.  (venery).  —  See      COCK- 

INTO  A  COCKED  HAT,  verbal phr. 
(common). — To  be  limp  enough 
to  be  doubled  up  and  carried 
flat  under  the  arm  [like  the 
COCKED  HAT  of  an  officer.] 

doubled  up ;  knocked  into  the 
middle  of  next  week ;  spiffli- 
cated  ;  beaten  to  a  jelly  ;  knocked 
a-cock  ;  wiped  out ;  sent  all  of  a 
heap ;  bottled  up  ;  settled  ;  to 
get  beans,  or  snuff;  sent,  done, 
or  smashed  to  smithereens,  etc. — 
See  also  TAN,  TANNING,  and 

quelqu'un  (popular  :  literally  '  to 
dig  into  one' ;  effondrer  unevolaille 
=  to  draw  a  fowl) ;  tatouiller 
quelqu^un  (popular  :  tatouiller  is 
a  slang  term  for  a  thrashing) ; 
soigner  quelqu'un  (popular  :  pro- 
perly 'to  take  care  of,'  or  'to 
attend,'  *  to  nurse') ;  se  faire 
echarpiller  (popular);  deboulonner 
la  colonne  a  quelqu'un  (popular) ; 
decarcasser  quelqu'un  (popular)  ; 
manger  le  nez  a  quelqu'un  (popu- 
lar :  literally  *  to  eat  one's  nose'). 

1870.  Daily  Telegraph,  20  Aug., 
1  Speech  of  Mr.  Ralph  Harrison  at  the 
Crystal  Palace.'  The  publication  of  the 



Morning  Star  on  March  17,  1856,  it  was 
prophesied,  would  knock  the  Daily  Tele- 
graph into  A  COCKED  HAT. 

1877.  C.  RF.ADE,  The  Jilt,  I.,  in 
Belgravia,  March,  p.  59.  I  never  knew  a 
Welsh  girl  yet  who  couldn't  dance  an 
Englishman  into  A  COCKED  HAT. 

1881.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Gt.  Tontine, 
ch.  xxx.  I  think  now  we  may  consider 
Bob  Pegram's  marriage  as  knocked  pretty 
well  into  A  COCKED  HAT. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  18  Sept.  p.  2, 
col.  3.  You  give  in  the  Pall  Mall  of  to- 
night three  translations  of  Plato's  well- 
known  epigram.  Permit  me  to  give  you 
another  which  in  my  opinion  KNOCKS  all 


Also  in  the  moral  sense  to  be 
amazed  to  stupefaction  and 

adv.  phr.  (colloquial). — Accord- 
ing to  rule  ;  properly,  arithme- 
tically, or  correctly  done.  [From 
old  Cocker,  a  famous  writing 
master  in  Charles  II.  time, 
author  of  a  treatise  on  arith- 
metic. Professor  de  Morgan 
notes  '  that  it  became  a  pro- 
verbial representative  of  arith- 
metic from  Murphy's  farce  of 
The  Apprentice  (1756),  in  which 
the  strong  point  of  the  old  mer- 
chant Wingate  is  his  extreme 
reverence  for  COCKER  and  his 
arithmetic.']  In  America  a 
similar  locution  is  according  to 
GUNTER  (q.v.\  Gunter  was  a 
famous  arithmetician  a  century 
before  Cocker,  and  the  American 
is  no  doubt  the  older  phrase. 
The  old  laws  of  Rhode  Island 
say,  *  All  casks  shall  be  gauged 
by  the  rule  commonly  known 
as  "gauging  by  Gunter.'"  Among 
sailors,  the  standard  of  appeal 


— the    compiler     of    a    popular 
Navigators  Manual. 

1851.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and  L on. 
Poor.  '  Answers  to  Correspondents.' 

Surely,  to  increase  the  quantity  of  labour, 
while  the  amount  expended  in  the  direct 
purchase  of  that  labour  remains  the  same, 
is  ACCORDING  TO  COCKER — to  decrease  the 
wages  in  precisely  the  same  proportion. 

1861.  T.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown  at 
Oxford,  ch.  xxxii.,  p.  337.  Well,  so  you 
ought  to  be,  ACCORDING  TO  COCKER, 
spending  all  your  time  in  sick  rooms. 

1883.  G.  A.  S[ALA],  in  ///.  L.  News, 
Nov.  ^  24,    p.    499,  col.    2.      The  average 
American  may  not  know  what  we  mean 
by  ACCORDING  TO    COCKER  ;     while  the 
average  Englishman  may  be  unaware  of 
the   meaning  of    'according   to    Gunter.' 
They  both  mean  the  same  thing ;  implying 
irreproachable  accuracy  in  computation. 

1888.  GRANT  ALLEN,  This  Mortal 
Coil,  ch.  ii.  ACCORDING  TO  COCKER 
nought  and  nought  make  nothing. 

COCK-EYED,  adj.  (common).  — 
Squinting.  [C/. ,  COCK  THE  EYE.  ] 
For  synonyms,  see  SQUINNY-EYE. 

1884.  Daily  News,  Nov.  27,  p.  2,  col. 
2.     I  am  told  the  proper  description  of  him 
would  be  a  little  man  with  a  COCK-EYE. 

FIGHTING,  phr.  (common). — A 
general  expression  of  approval 

.  — up  to  the  mark;  A  i.  [From 
the  esteem  in  which  the  sport 
was  held.] 

1659.  GAUDEN,  Tears  of  the  Church, 
p.  228.  Ministers'  scufflings  and  contests 
with  one  another  is  BEYOND  ANY  COCK 
FIGHTING  or  Bear-baiting  to  the  vulgar 
envy,  malice,  profaneness,  and  petu- 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  vi.  '  Well,  roast  me  ! '  cried  he, 
viewing  me  with  a  kind  of  admiration  ; 
'  if  this  don't  BEAT  COCK  FIGHTING.' 

COCK-HORSE,    adv.    phr.    (old). 

Triumphant ;  in  full  swing ;  cock- 
a-hoop.  Halliwell  says,  '  a  some- 
what slang  expression  not  quite 
obsolete. ' 

COCKING.— .&<?  COCK,  verb,  sense  i. 



COCKISH,  adj.  (old). — Wanton  ; 
'on  heat.'  [From  COCK,  the 
penis,  +  ISH.]  Latham  quotes 
COCKISH  in  the  sense  of 
'pert, 'from  the  strutting  of  the 
barn-door  cock. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
A  COCKISH  wench :  a  forward,  coming 

COCK  IT,  "verb  (tailors'). — To  exa- 
mine ;  see  ;  or  speak  of  (a  thing). 

COCKLES,  subs,  (venery). — The 
labia  minor  a. 

COCKLES  OF  THE  HEART,  subs.phr. 
(common). — A  jocose  vulgarism 
encountered  in  a  variety  of  com- 
binations; e.g.)  '  that  will  rejoice' 
or  'tickle'  or  ' warm  the  COCKLES 

OF     YOUR     HEART,'   etc.        [It     IS 

suggested  (N.  and  Q.,  7  S.,  iv., 
26)  that  a  hint  as  to  its  origin 
may  be  found  in  Lower,  an 
eminent  anatomist  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  who  thus  speaks 
in  his  Tractatus  de  Corde 
(1669),  p.  25,  of  the  muscular 
fibres  of  the  ventricles. 

'  Fibrae  quidem  rectis  hisce  exteri 
pribus  in  dextro  ventriculo  proxime  sub- 
jectae  oblique  dextrorsum  ascendentes  in 
basin  cordis  terminantur,  et  spirali  suo 
ambitu  helicem  sive  cochleam  satis  apte 

The  ventricles  of  the  heart  might, 
therefore,  be  called  cochlea  cordis, 
and  this  would  easily  be  turned 

into    COCKLES    OF   THE   HEART.] 

The  French  say,  Tu  fen  pour- 
lecheras  la  face  (that'll  rejoice  the 
cockles  of  your  heart). 

1671.  E  A  c  H  A  R  p,  Observations 
[Wright].  This  contrivance  of  his  did 
inwardly  rejoice  the  COCKLES  OF  HIS 


1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xxvi.  Which  would  have  cheered  the 
COCKLES  of  the  reigning  monarch. 

1834.  MARRYAT,  Jacob  Faithful,  ch. 
xii.  'There  now,  master,  there's  a  glass 

of  grog  for  you  that  would  float  a  marling- 
spike.       See     if    that     don't    warm     the 


1839.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Jack 
Sheppard,  p.  49  (ed.  1840).  '  There,  Mr. 
Wood,'  cried  David,  pouring  out  a  glass 
of  the  spirit,  and  offering  it  to  the  car- 
penter, 'that'll  warm  the  COCKLES  OF 


To  CRY  COCKLES,  verbal  phr. 
(common).  —  To  be  hanged. 
[From  the  gurgling  noise  made 
in  strangulation.  ]  For  synonyms, 
see  LADDER. 

COCK-LOFT,  subs.  (old). — The  head. 
[A  COCK-LOFT  is  properly  a  small 
loft,  garret,  or  apartment  at  the 
top  of  a  house.  Cf.,  GARRET, 
UPPER  STOREY,  etc.]  An  old 
proverb  runs,  '  All  his  gear  is  in 
his  COCK-LOFT';  i.e.,  'all  his 
wealth,  work,  or  worth  is  in  his 
head.'  For  synonyms,  see 

1642.  THOMAS  FULLER,  Holy  and 
Profane  State,  And.  Ad.  fen.  i.  Often 
the  COCKLOFT  is  empty,  in  those  whom 
nature  hath  built  many  stories  high. 

COCKNEY,  subs,  (colloquial). — One 
born  within  the  sound  of  bow- 
bells.  [The  origin  of  COCKNEY 
has  been  much  debated ;  but, 
says  Dr.  Murray,  in  the  course  of 
an  exhaustive  statement  (Academy, 
May  10,  1890,  p.  320),  the  history 
of  the  word,  so  far  as  it  means  a 
person,  is  very  clear  and  simple. 
We  have  the  senses  (i)  'cockered 
or  pet  child,'  'nestle-cock,'  'mo- 
ther's darling,'  '  milksop,'  the 
name  being  applicable  primarily 
to  the  child,  but  continued  to  the 
squeamish  and  effeminate  man 
into  which  he  grows  up.  (2)  A 
nickname  applied  by  country 
people  to  the  inhabitants  of  great 
towns,  whom  they  considered 
'milksops,'  from  their  daintier 
habits  and  incapacity  for  rough 

Cockney- Shire.  J43 


work.  York,  London,  Perugia, 
were,  according  to  Harman,  all 
nests  of  cockneys.  (3)  By  about 
1600  the  name  began  to  be 
attached  especially  to  Londoners, 
as  the  representatives  par  excel- 
lence of  the  city  milksop.  One 
understands  the  disgust  with 
which  a  cavalier  in  1641  wrote 
that  he  was  '  obliged  to  quit 
Oxford  at  the  approach  of  Essex 
and  Waller,  with  their  prodigious 
number  of  cockneys.'] 

1607.  DEKKER,  Westward  Ho,  Act 
ii.,  Sc.  2.  As  Frenchmen  love  to  be  bold 
.  .  .  and  Irishmen  to  be  costermongers,  so 
COCKNEYS,  especially  SHE-COCKNEYS,  love 
not  aqua-vitae  when  'tis  good  for  them. 

1760.  FOOTE,  Minor,  Act  i.  But 
you  COCKNEYS  now  beat  us  suburbians  at 
our  own  weapons. 

1840.  THACKERAY,  Paris  Sketch 
Book,  p.  28.  '  You  'ad  such  an  'eadach', 
sir,'  said  British,  sternly,  who  piques  him- 
self on  his  grammar  and  pronunciation, 
and  scorns  a  COCKNEY. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  6  Nov.,  p.  3, 
col.  2.  London  mist,  when  turned  into 
London  black  fog  by  the  poisonous 
carbonic  anhydride  and  sulphurous  anhy 
dride  with  which  it  is  loaded,  encompasses 
all  COCKNEYS,  good  or  bad  with  a  real 
danger  to  health  and  life 

COCKNEY-SHIRE,  subs.  (common). 
—  London.  [From  COCKNEY, 
a  native  of  London,  +  SHIRE.] 

COCK  PIMP,  subs.  (old).  —  The  hus- 
band, real  or  supposed,  of  a 
bawd  or  procuress.  [From  COCK, 
male,  +  PIMP,  a  procurer.]  —  Grose 

COCKQUEAN,  subs,  (obsolete).  —  A 
man  who  interests  himself  in 
women's  affairs.  The  common 
form  is  '  cotquean.  '  Cf.  ,  MOLLY. 


COCKROACHES,  verbal  phr.  (old). 
—  To  practise  masturbation.  For 
synonyms,  see  FRIG. 

COCK-ROBIN,  subs.  (old).  —  A  soft, 
easy  fellow.  —  Grose  [1785]. 

COCK-ROBIN  SHOP,  subs.  phr.  (prin- 
ters'). —  A  small  printing  office, 
for  cheap  work  done  at  vile  wages. 
In  other  trades  a  SLOP  SHOP. 

1888.  R.  R.,  in  Notes  and  Queries, 
7  S.,  v.,  333.  Let  me  advise  collectors  of 
such  things  [cheap  books]  to  avoid  the 
regular  booksellers,  and  try  the  COCK-ROBIN 
SHOPS,  and  the  general  dealers  in  small 
wares,  down  back  streets. 

COCKS,  subs,  (popular).  —  I.  See 
COCK,  subs.,  sense  2. 

2.  (trade).  —  Explained    by 
quotation.      The    word    appears 
to   be   slang   for   anything    ficti- 
tious.   Cf.,  COCKS,  subs.  ,  sense  2. 

1880.  Daily  Nevus,  Nov.  4.  [Quoted 
in  N.  andQ.,  6  S.,  ii.,  p.  387.] 

3.  (Charterhouse).  —  A    lava- 
tory where  changing   for  games, 
washing  before  meals,  etc.,  goes 
on.      [From   the   taps    over    the 
basins.]     It  is  equivalent   to  the 
Winchester  MOAB     .v.. 

COCK'S  EGG,  phr.  (common).  — 
To  send  one  on  a  fool's  errand  ; 
to  GAMMON  (g.v.  for  synonyms). 
The  expression  is  of  the  same 
type  as  '  to  send  one  to  buy 
pigeon's  milk,'  '  oil  of  strappum,' 
'  strap  oil,'  etc 

COCK-SHY,  subs,  (popular).  —  A 
mark,  butt,  or  target  ;  any  per- 
son or  thing  that  is  the  centre 
of  jaculation. 

c.  1834.  MARRYAT,  Rattlin  the  Reefer, 
p.  02.  What  a  fine  COCKSHY  he  would 
make,  said  Master  Blubberlips. 

and  Papers,  p.  215.  This  was  as  if  the 
great  geologists  .  .  .  had  invited  two 
rival  theorists  to  settle  the  question  of  a 

Cock- Stand. 


Cock-  Teaser. 

geological  formation   by  picking    up    the 
stones  and  appealing    to    the    test    of   a 


1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch.  iii. 
He  had  seen  Tom  Ricketts,  of  the  fourth 
form,  who  used  to  wear  a  jacket  and 
trousers  so  ludicrously  tight,  that  the 
elder  boys  could  not  forbear  using  him  in 
the  quality  of  a  butt  or  COCKSHY. 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  262.  A  desperate 
fight  ensued,  the  'nobblers'  arming 
themselves  with  COCK-SHY  sticks. 

COCK-STAND,  subs,  (venery). — An 
erection  of  the  fenis.  For  syn- 
onyms, see  HORN  and  C/., 

COCK-SUCKER,  subs,    (venery). — A 

COCKSURE,  0^'.  (colloquial). — Con- 
fidently certain;  pertly  sure. 
[Probably  a  corruption  of 
*  cocky  sure.'  We  call  a  self- 
confident,  overbearing  prig  a 
cocky  fellow,  from  the  barnyard 
despot.  Shakspeare  (/  Henry 
IV.,  ii.,  i)  employs  the  phrase 
in  the  sense  of  *  sure  as  the  cock 
of  a  firelock.' 

We  steal  as  in  a  castle,  COCKSURE  : 

and  still  earlier  usages  imply  its 
derivation  from  the  fact  that  the 
cock  was  much  surer  than  the 
older  fashioned  match.] 

1549.  LATIMER,  Sermon  on  the 
P toughers,  p.  32  (Arber's  ed.)  For  the 
Deuyll  was  dysapoynted  of  his  purpose 
for  he  thoughte  all  to  be  hys  owne.  And 
when  he  had  once  broughte  Christe  to  the 
crosse,  he  thought  all  COCK-SURE. 

1603.  JOHN  DAY,  Law  Trickes,  Act 
iii.,  p.  39.  Then  did  I  learn  to  .... 
Make  false  conueyances,  yet  with  a  trick, 
Close  and  COCK-SURE,  I  cony-catch'd  the 

1667.  DRYDEN,  Sir  Martin  Marr-all, 
Act.  iv.  Nothing  vexes  me,  but  that  I 
had  made  my  game  COCK-SURE,  and  then 
to  be  backgammoned. 

b.  1738,  d.  1819.  WOLCOT  ('Paul 
Pindar'),  Odes  to  the  Pope,  II.,  in  wks. 
(Dublin,  1795)  V.  ii.,  p.  492.  Yet  deem 
themselves,  poor  dupes,  COCKSURE  of 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  Thelngoldsby 
Legends  (ed.  1862),  320.  Last  of  all,  gentle 
Reader,  don't  be  too  secure  ! — Let  seeming 
success  never  make  you  COCK-SURE. 

1849.  T.  CARLYLE,  IV.,  108.  [Yes, 
Manning  was  shot  there  ;  he  had  told  us 
Hyde  was  COCKSURE.] 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  iii.  '  Hawke  will  not  get  his 
daughter  to  have  him,  he  may  be  COCK- 
SURE of  that.' 

1889.  The  Star,  Aug.  24,  p.  3,  col.  4. 
In  his  most  insolent  and  COCKSURE  manner 
he  declared,  etc. 

COCKTAIL,  subs,  (common). — i.  A 
prostitute  ;  a  wanton. 

2.  (common). — A  coward. 

3.  (American). — A  drink  com- 
posed   of   spirits    (gin,    brandy, 
whisky,    etc.),     bitters,    crushed 
ice,  sugar,  etc.,  the  whole  whisked 
briskly  until  foaming,  and  then 
drunk  'hot.' 

(military). —  Unsoldierlike  ;  un- 
even ;  showing  bad  form  ;  and  in 
its  specifically  military  sense,  any- 
thing unworthy  of  the  regular 
army.  For  example,  at  one 
time  the  Volunteer  auxiliaries 
were  described  as  '  such  a  COCK- 

1877.  Five  Years  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  ii.,  p.  67.  He  confessed  he  not  only 
urged  his  brother  into  it,  but  compelled 
him  to  be  as  bad  as  himself,  and  had 
thrashed  him  many  times  for  turning 



subs,  (venery). — A  girl  in  the 
habit  of  permitting  all  familiarities 
but  the  last. 




COCK-UP,  subs,  (printers').— What 
is  technically  known  as  a  '  supe- 
rior';  e.g.,  the  smaller  letters 
in  the  following  examples  : 

Ye  Limtd  Compy ;    Jno-  Smith, 
Senr- ;  N°-  ;  London  ' 

COCKED -UP,  adj. — See  COCKY. 

COCK  UP  ONE'S  TOES,  verbal phr. 
(thieves'). — To  die.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  ALOFT  and  HOP  THE 

1820.  REYNOLDS.  ('Peter  Cor- 
coran '),  The  Fancy.  '  King  Tims  the 
First.'  Now  I  see  a  neighbour  COCK  HIS 
TOE — Walk  by  his  side  in  black — in  well 
paid  woe. 

1864.  E.  D.  FORGUES,  in  Revue  des 
deux  Mondes,  Sep.  15,  p.  472,  note.  COCK 
ONE'S  TOES.  Cette  .  .  .  locution,  si  bi- 
zarre au  premier  coup  d'oeil,  doit  s'expli- 
quer  par  un  des  phenomenes  de  la  retrac- 
tion cadaverique ;  les  pieds  du  mort, 
ramenes  en  arriere,  ont  pu  rappeler  la 
position  que  prend  le  chien  de  la  batterie 
quand  le  fusil  est  arme. 

COCKY  or  COCKING,  adj.  (popular). 
— I.  Pert  or  saucy  ;  forward  ; 
coolly  audacious  ;  over  confident, 
'botty.'  [Formerly  COCKING.  An 
allusion  to  the  strut  of  the  barn- 
door bird.]  Fr.,  se  gourer, 
to  be  cocky  ;  also  se  gonfler, 
faire  sa  merde,  and  faire  .son 

1711.  Spectator,  No.  153.  But  the 
COCKING  young  fellow  who  treads  upon 
the  toes  of  his  elders,  and  the  old  fool 
who  envies  the  saucy  pride  he  sees  in  him, 
are  the  objects  of  our  present  contempt 
and  derision. 

1820.  CLARE,  Poems  of  Rural  Life, 
Familiar  Epistle,  st.  5.  I've  long  been 
aggravated  shocking,  To  see  our  gentry 
folks  go  COCKING 

1856.  T.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown's 
School-days,  pt.  II.,  ch.  vi.  'It  seems  so 
COCKY  in  me  to  be  advising  you.' 

1864.  Glasgow  Citizen,  Nov.  19. 
Cotgrave  (1672)  gives  us  '  Herr,  master  or 
sir;  a  rogue.'  Aleman  ['The  Spanish 
Rogue ']  Vousfaite  du  Herr.  '  You  are 
very  COCKIT,  or  lusty  ;  you  take  too  much 

upon  you.'  Is  it  not  gratifying  to  know 
that  COCKINESS  is  older  than  this  century, 
in  which  it  has  been  developed  to  so  alarm- 
ing an  extent? 

.  1872.  The  Scotsman,  29  Oct.  '  Sir  J. 
Pakington  at  Stourbridge.'  He  should 
be  inclined  to  offer  him  a  little  homely 
advice,  and  to  tell  him  in  somewhat  plain 
language  '  Not  to  be  too  COCKY.' 

1884.  Cornhill  Mag.,  April,  p.  442. 
'  Davis,'  said  Toddy,  '  you  haven't  had  a 
banging  this  term,  and  you're  getting 

2.  (Stock  Exchange). — Brisk  ; 
active  —  applied  to  the  money 

1871.  Figaro,  3  June.  'Notes  on 
Change.'  Everything  again  brisk,  and 
the  market,  what  is  expressly  termed 


COCOA-NUT,  subs,  (general). — The 
head.  Fr.  le  coco.  For  synonyms, 
see  CRUMPET. 

1834.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookivood, 
p.  176  (ed.  1864).  '  A  thousand  pities 
that  so  fine  a  fellow  should  have  a  sconce 
like  a  COCOA-NUT  ! ' 

1840.  HALI BURTON,  Clockmaker,  3 
S.,  ch.  iii.  'The  Major  a-pokin'  along 
with  his  COCOA-NUT  down,  a-studyin'  over 
somethin'  or  another  quite  deep.' 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  'Waltz- 
ing Round  the  Water-butt.'  Gaily  the 
troubadour  will  waltz  round  the  water- 
butt,  Blissful  the  happy  thoughts  that 
float  round  my  COCOA-NUT,  Moonlight 
and  spooning  'neath  the  old  hazel  tree  ! 


MILK    IN    THE    COCOA-NUT,  phr. 

(common).  —  A  rejoinder  upon 
having  a  thing  explained  for  the 
first  time. 

TO    HAVE    NO    MILK    IN    THE 

COCOA-NUT,  phr. — To  be  insane  ; 
silly  ;  '  cracked. '  —  See  APART- 

COCUM,  KOCUM,  subs,  (common). 
—  I.  Shrewdness;  ability;  luck; 
cleverness.  [From  the  Hebrew 





chochum,  chochem,  or  coehem, 
crafty ;  learned,  wise,  or  a  wise 
man.  The  term  is  found  passim 
in  early  Hebrew  literature,  espe- 
cially in  the  BOOK  OF  PROVERBS  : 
'  A  COCHEM  will  hear  and  increase 
learning '  (Prov.  i.  5).  The  slang 
sense  has  been  introduced  by  the 
Whitechapel  Jews.  In  Yiddish 
cochemercx  cochem,  the  pronuncia- 
tion of  which  is  not  dissimilar  to 
COCUM,  means  wisdom  ;  cochum- 
wirth  =  a  thieves'  landlord.  (Cf.t 
paragraph  on  German  analogues. ) 
Cocma  is  another  Hebraism  used 
by  London  Jews  in  a  similar  sense, 
but  it  has  not  made  its  way  into 

jam  (this  in  the  sense  of  anything 
exceptionally  good  or  lucky)  ;  all 
beer  and  skittles  (extremely  plea- 
sant) ;  rattling  (extremely  jolly, 
pleasant,  or  well  appointed) ;  to  be 
in  clover  (happiness  and  luck) ;  to 
stand  on  velvet  (a  variant  of  the 
last  mentioned)  ;  to  be  cracking 
a  tidy  crust  (to  be  doing  very 
well) ;  to  be  having  a  good  swim 
(thieves'  for  a  good  run  of  luck, 
i.e.,  being  a  long  time  out  of  the 
policeman's  clutches)  ;  well  bal- 
lasted ;  on  the  spot ;  up  to  Dick  ; 
on  it ;  right ;  and  so  forth. 

la  bonne  (popular  :  to  be  lucky)  ; 
decrocher  la  limballe  (popular)  ; 
fare  de  la  fete  (popular  and 
thieves')  ;  avoir  des  as  dans  son  j en 
(popular :  to  have  an  advantage, 
*  to  be  in  luck's  way ')  ;  avoir  Fas- 
siette  ati  beurre  (popular  :  to  be 
fortunate  in  life) ;  bidard  (m. 
lucky) ;  fare  de  la  bale  (popular). 

Choc  hem,  Chochemer  (which  He- 
braism is  the  root  of  the  English 
COCUM.  Among  German  thieves 

who  more  frequently  spell  the 
word  Kochem,  Kochemer,  the 
meaning  is  almost  identical  with 
that  given  it  by  their  English 
brethren,  except  that  the  wisdom, 
profit,  or  luck,  applies  almost 
solely  to  the  results  of  crooked 
ways  and  dealings.  Chochom  and 
its  variants  signify,  therefore,  the 
cunning,  prudent,  and  successful 
vagabond  ;  Chochem  lehorre  = 
a  dangerous  vagabond,  one  who 
is  prepared  for  the  worst;  Cho~ 
chem  mechutten  —  z.  bad  patron,  a 
dangerous  companion,  a  rogue  of 
the  worst  type;  Chochme  =  wis- 
dom, cunning,  circumspection,  or 
the  practice  of  swindling). 

zonare  (literally  '  to  place  well  or 
be  well  placed')  ;  aver primavera 
(this  applies  to  COCUM  as  repre- 
sented by  pleasure  ;  literally  '  to 
have  spring '). 

chera  (/;  a  vulgarism  for  luck  or 
good  fortune)  ;  harlarse  buena 
cttcarachera  (to  be  lucky  or 
fortunate)  ;  potroso  (a  collo- 
quialism signifying  lucky  ; 
literally  'afflicted  with  a  rup- 
ture ')  ;  charangiiero  (m  ;  a  lucky 
fellow,  one  with  COCUM)  ;  hijo  de 
la  gallina  blanca  (a  lucky  bird). 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon,  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  279.^  '  It's 
decent  and  comfortable  too,  and  it's  abou 
6d.  a  night  to  me  for  singing  and  patter  in 
the  tap-room.  That's  my  COKUM  (advan- 

1861.  EARL,  Ups  and  Downs  of 
Australian  Life,  p.  224.  '  No  one  was  to 
get  drunk,  the  governor  said  as  how  it 
wasn't  COKUM,  and  he  wouldn't  have  it, — 
and  so  we  were  all  fit  for  work  the  next 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  s.v. 
*  Jack's  got  COCUM,  he's  safe  to  get  on,  he 
is,'  viz.,  he  starts  under  favourable  circum- 




c.  1886.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  The 
Flippity  Flop  Young  Man.'  I  once  was  a 
Member-for-Slocum  young  man,  And  for 
Parliament  had  a  strong  fancy,  A  know- 
pretty-well-what-is-KOCUM  young  man 
When  addressing  a  constituency. 

2.  (publishers').  —  A  sliding 
scale  of  profit.  [Publishers 
sometimes  issue  books  with- 
out fixing  the  published  price. 
These  they  sell  to  the  retail  trade 
at  a  fixed  sum,  leaving  the  book- 
seller to  make  what  he  can. 

verbal  phr.  (common).  To  play 
double  ;  to  be  waiy,  cunning,  or 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant 
(3  ed.),  p.  445)  s.v.  To  be  cunning,  wary, 
or  sly. 

1885.  Referee,  April  26,  p.  i,  col.  2. 
The  best  show  in  the-  Crawfurd  Plate- 
that  is,  unless  a  lot  of  the  pulling-up 
division  were  PLAYING  COKUM — was  that  of 

COD,  subs,  (common). — I.  A  fool. 
[Cf.,  COD'S  HEAD,  of  which  it  is 
possibly  an  abbreviation.]  For 
synonyms,  see  BuFFLE  and  CAB- 

2.  (tailors'). — A   drunkard. — 
[See  verb)  sense  2.] 

3.  (thieves'). -—A    purse;    a 
COD  of  money  =  a  large  sum  of 
money.     [A.S.    cod   or    codd,    a 
small  bag.]     For   synonyms,  see 

4.  (street). — A      'pal'      or 
friend ;    generally   prefixed   to   a 
surname.       [Here    COD     is    the 
diminutive   of  '  codlin,'   an    old 
endearment.]     Cf.,  CODD. 

Verb  (common). — I.  To  play 
the  fool;  to  MONKEY  (q.v.). 

2.  (tailors').  —  To  go  on  the 
drink;  generally,  to  act  loosely. 

3.      (common).  —  To    chaff; 
hoax  ;  '  take  a  rise  out  of.' 

1865.  Evening  Citizen,  28  Nov.  COD- 
DING  a  Town  Council. — The  Fife  Circular, 
Kirkcaldy,  says  :  —  According  to  usual 

Sactice,  several  members  of  the  new  Town 
juncil  attended  divine  service  at  the 
Parish  Church  on  Sunday  forenoon  last. 
The  Rev.  M.  J.  Bryden  officiated,  and 
preached  an  eloquent  and  appropriate 
sermon  to  the  Council  from  these  words  in 
the  loth  chapter  of  St.  Matthew : — '  Ye 
are  of  more  value  than  many  sparrows.' 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  xxxi.  '  What  do  you  think  of 
that,  cook  ? '  '  Think  ? '  answered  the  cook, 
who  had  a  rather  sour  eye  ;  '  why,  that 
that  rough  sailor  man  was  a-CODDiN1  of 
you,  sir.' 

CODD  or  COD,  subs.  (Charterhouse). 
—  A  pensioner  of  the  Charter- 
house.— See  quot.,  and  Cf.,  COD, 
sense  4. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomes,  II.,  p. 
333.  Yonder  sit  some  three  score  of  gentle- 
men, pensioners  of  the  hospital,  listening 
to  the  prayers  and  psalms.  You  hear  them 
coughing  feebly  in  the  twilight — the  old 
reverend  blackgowns.  Is  Coop  Ajax 
alive,  you  wonder  ? — the  Cistercian  lads 
called  these  old  gentlemen  CODDS,  I  know 
not  wherefore — I  know  not  wherefore — but 
is  old  CODD  Ajax  alive,  I  wonder  ?  or 
CODD  Soldier?  or  kind  old  CODD  Gentle- 
man ?  or  has  the  grave  closed  over  them  ? 

CODDAM  or  Co  DOOM,  subs,  (com- 
mon).—  A  public-house  game 
played  three,  four,  or  more  a  side. 
The  only  'property'  required  is 
a  coin,  a  button,  or  anything 
which  can  be  hidden  in  the 
clenched  hand.  The  principle 
of  the  game,  which  is  simplicity 
itself,  is  that  of  '  Guess  whose 
hand  it's  in.'  If  the  guesser 
'brings  it  home,'  his  side  takes 
the  'piece,'  and  the  centre  man 
'works'  it.  If  the  guess  be 
wrong,  a  chalk  is  taken  to  the 
holders,  who  go  on  again. 

1884.  J.  GREENWOOD,  Swen  Years 
Penal  Servitude.  The  convicts  take  ad- 
vantage of  that  to  the  extent  sometimes 
of  playing  a  gambling  game  called  CODDOM  ' 




1885.  Good  Words,  August,  p.  530. 
Some  prefer  GODDAM,  and  risk  their  pint  of 
beer  on  the  discovery  of  the  coin. 

1890.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  March  i,  p.  5, 
col.  2.  The  boys  were  playing  a  game 
called  CODDOM,  a  guessing  game. 

CODDING,  verbalsubs.  (common). — 
Nonsense;  humbug;  chaff.  [From 
COD  (q.v.,  verb)  sense  3).] 

CODGER,  subs,  (common).  —  A 
familiar  term  of  address,  espe- 
cially in  OLD  CODGER  ;  a  curious 
old  fellow ;  an  odd  fish  ;  a  '  rum  ' 
character  ;  a  precise,  and  some- 
times a  mean  or  miserly  man. 

of  the  general  slang  terms  for  a 
man  or  fellow  correspond  in 
usage  to  'old  codger,'  e.g.,  old 
chap  ;  ben  cull ;  old  man  ;  my 
pippin  ;  old  cock,  etc. 

quillard  (popular :  French  thieves 
give  the  same  name  to  the  execu- 
tioner) ;  vieux  canasson  (popular  : 
*  old  man,' '  old  cock') ;  tin  birbe; 
•  ma  vieille  branche. 

(literally  a  pole-cat). 


1760.  COLMAN,  Polly  Honeycombe, 
in  wks.  (1777)  IV.,  39.  A  clear  coast,  I 
find.  The  OLD  CODGER'S  gone,  and  has 
locked  me  up  with  his  daughter. 

1760.  SMOLLETT,  Sir  L.  Greaves, 
vol.  I.,  ch.  iii.  She  twisted  her  hand  in 
Grove's  neckcloth  without  ceremony,  cry- 
ing—' Sha't  then,  I  tell  thee,  OLD  COGER.' 

1796.  MAD.  D'ARBLAY,  Camilla,  bk. 
IX.,  ch.  iv.  He  gave  himself  the  airs  of 
an  old  justice  of  the  peace,  and  said  if  he 
did  not  find  the  affair  given  up,  nothing 
should  induce  him  ever  to  help  me  again. 
What  a  mere  CODGER  that  lad  has  turned 
out ! 

1837.  BARHAM,  /.  L.  (Lay  of  St. 
Nicholas).  How  a  thirsty  OLD  CODGER, 
the  neighbours  call'd  Roger,  With  them 
drank  cold  water  in  lieu  of  old  wine. 

1859.  DICKENS,  Tale  of  Two  Cities, 
bk.  II.,  ch.  xxiv.  Why,  I  am  a  boy,  sir, 
to  half-a-dozen  OLD  CODGERS  here.} 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  61.  His  father,  a  rum 
OLD  CODGER,  had  been  a  captain  in  the 

1883.  F.  R.  STOCKTON,  Rudder 
Grange,  ch.  xi.  I  knew  that  any  sensible 
man  would  rather  have  me  in  charge  of 
his  tent  than  a  young  CODGER  like  that. 

1887.  BAUMANN,  Londinismen,  Slang 
u.  Cant,  pref.,  vi.  So  from  hartful  young 
dodgers,  From  vaxy  OLD  CODGERS,  From 
the  blowens  we  got  Soon  to  know  vot  is 

CODICILS,  subs.  (American  journa- 
lists').— A  kind  of  literary  sparring 
match;  also  called  ACCUMUL\- 
TIVES  (q.v.).  Some  editor  will 
make  a  remark  or  a  joke — 
with  a  capital  J ;  another  will 
cite  it  with  comments  ;  and,  in 
his  turn,  he  will  be  handled  by 
a  third.  There  are  cases  in 
which  the  original  paragraph  has 
gone  the  round  of  twenty  or  thirty 
prints.  [A  codicil  is  properly 
a  writing  by  way  of  supplement 
to  a  will.] 

1889.  Polytechnic  Mag.,  24  Oct.,  p. 
253.  '  How  many  apples  did  Adam  and 
Eve  eat  ? '  Some  say  Eve  8  and  Adam  2 
—a  total  of  10.  Now,  we  figure  the  thing 
out  far  different.  Eve  8,  and  Adam  8  also 
— total  16. — Boston  Journal.  We  think 
the  above  figures  are  entirely  wrong.  If 
Eye  8,  and  Adam  8-2,  certainly  the  total 
will  be  90.  Scientific  men,  however,  on 
the  strength  of  the  theory  that  the  anti- 
diluvians  were  a  race  of  giants,  and  con- 
sequently great  eaters,  reason  something 
like  this  : — Eve,  8-ist,  and  Adam  8-2 — 
total,  163.— Gloucester  Advertiser.  Wrong 
again  ;  what  could  be  clearer  than  if  Eve 
8-i-ist,  and  Adam  8-1-2,  would  not  the 
whole  be  1,623  ?— Boston  Journal.  Now 
we  think  these  figures  are  not  according  to 
Cocker.  The  following  is  probably  the 
true  solution : — Eve  8-1-4  Adam,  Adam 
8-1-2-4  Eve— total,  8,698.— Veritas.  Stop 
friend  ;  still  another  calculation  is  as  fol- 
fows  : — If  Eve  8-1-4  Adam,  Adam  8-1-2-4-2 
oblige  Eve- -total,  82,056.  We  think,  how- 
ever, this  is  not  a  sufficient  quantity  ;  for, 
if  we  admit  that  Eve  8-1-4  Adam,  Adam,  if 
he  8-0-8-1-2-4-2  keep  Eve  company — total, 




1,082,056.—  New  York  Mail.  You  do  the 
fair  thing  by  Adam,  brother,  but  you 
slight  Eve.  This  poor  smit  10-1-8-1-4-2 

R lease  the  serpent,  and  Adam,  of  course, 
:  he  as  good  husbands  do  of-io-8-o-8-i-a- 
4-2  keep  Eve  company — total,  109,099,384. 
—  Syracuse  Journal.  The  American 
newspaper  calculators,  with  the  savagery 
of  all  other  historians,  meanly  stigmatise 
the  woman.  Adam,  a  mere  dupe,  lacked 
the  nobility  to  try  a  dangerous  experi- 
ment first.  Eye  eat  an  apple  for  dinner  : 
Adam,  forgetting  the  injuries  to  many  an 
unborn  1,000,000-8-1-4  millions  more — 
the  coward  !  True  total,  1,000,000,814,- 
000,000.  Whoopee  !  Now  is  the  time  to 
subscribe.  — Polytechnic  Magazine. 

CODLAND, subs.  (American). — New- 
foundland. C/.,  COD-PRESERVES. 


COD-PRESERVES,  subs,  (nautical). 
—The  Atlantic  Ocean.  [An 
obvious  allusion.  Cf.,  CODLAND 
=  Newfoundland  ;  also  BRINEY.] 

CODS,  suds,  (venery). — I.  The 
testicles.  [From  A.S.  cod  or 
codd  =  a  small  bag.]  Also  COD- 

bels,  baubels,  or  bobbles ;  bol- 
locks ;  balls ;  beef  (the  penis 
and  testes} ;  bird's-eggs  ;  bobbies ; 
bullets  ;  bum -balls  ;  cannon- 
balls  ;  clock-weights  ;  culls  (old)  ; 
dowsetts  (old)  ;  gingambobs  ; 
jelly  -  bags  (more  properly  in 
sing  =.  the  scrotum} ;  knackers  ; 
love-apples;  marbles ; nick-nacks; 
pebbles;  seals (Cf.,  WATCH-AND- 
SEALS  =  themale/«dfc#d!z);  spunk- 
holders  ;  stones ;  thingambobs. 

tilles  (thieves' :  /  //. ) ;  les  virolets 
(obsolete  :  in  allusion  to  a  man's 
virility) ;  les  sonnettes  (common  : 
literally  bells)  ;  les  freres  siamois 
(popular :  an  allusion  to  the 
Siamese  twins)  ;  les  prunes  (com- 
mon) ;  les  grains  (legtr  de  deux 
grains  =  2d\  eunuch). 

mann  (also  *  an  egg, '  and  '  the 
penis.''  Dick  =  enciente  ;  dick 
niachen,  to  deflower  and  quicken. 
Dick  means  literally  '  thick  '). 

SPANISH  SYNONYM.     Co/ones. 

2.     (old). — See  quot. 

1871.  Bookseller,  4  Nov.  The  CODS 
and  Hooks  were  the  Whigs  and  Tories  of 
Dutch  William's  land. 

COD's-HEAD,  subs.  (old). — A  stupid 
fellow  ;  a  fool. — See  BUFFLE  and 

167*.  The  Woman  turned  Bully. 
Dash.  Sweet  sir,  I  think  it  is  neer  octa 
hora.  Your  servant,  gentlemen.  Good. 
Farewell,  CODS-HEAD. 

1694.  DUNTON,  Ladies'  Dictionary. 
You  confounded  toad,  you,  where  were 
your  eyes,  in  your  heels?  that  you  should 
be  such  a  bungling  CODS-HEAD  to  see  no 

COFE. — See  COVE. 

COFFEE,  subs.  (American  thieves'). 
— Beans. 

1859.  G.  W.  MATSELL,  Vocabulum, 
or  Rogue's  Lexicon,  p.  19,  s.v. 

GREASED  COFFEE,  subs.  phr. 
(American).  — Pork  and  beans. 


subs,  (common). — I.  A  water- 
closet.  For  synonyms,  see  MRS. 
JONES,  and  Cf. ,  BURY  A  QUAKER. 

2.  (venery).  —  The  female 
pudendum.  For  synonyms,  see 

COFFEE-HOUSING,  subs. — See  quot. 

1877  HAWLEY  SMART  Play  or  Pay 
ch.  iv.  '  Not  going  to  hunt?  Why  Miss 
Bazing  told  me  you  had  a  regular  string 
of  horses  coming  down  ! '  '  Ah,  Bessie's 
wrong.  I  always  was  a  changeable 
beggar,  you  know.  The  string  consists 
of  a  hack,  just  good  enough  to  do  a  little 
bit  of  COFFEE-HOUSING  occasionally. 

Coffee  Mill. 


Cold  Coffee. 

COFFEE-MILL,  subs.  (old). — The 
mouth  :  a  '  grinder '  itself,  and 
furnished  with  'grinders' — Ameri- 
can '  cogs,' — as  well.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  POTATO-TRAP. 

1821.  W.  T.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  ii.,  Sc.  2.  Gas.  Come,  come, 
silence  your  COFFKE-MILL. 

COFFEE-MILLING,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).—  I.  Grinding  ;  working 
hard.  Cf.,  To  COCK  SNOOKS  (see 
SNOOKS)  or  « take  a  sight '  by 
putting  the  thumb  of  one  hand  to 
the  nose  and  grinding  the  little 
finger  with  the  other,  as  if  you 
worked  an  imaginary  coffee  mill. 

1837.    DICKENS,  Pickwick,  p.  249. 

1854.  AVTOUN  AND  MARTIN,  The 
Bon  Gaultier  Ballads.  '  The  Lay  of  the 
Lovelorn.'  When  I  went  the  pace  so  wildly, 
caring  little  what  might  come,  COFFEE- 
MILLING  care  and  sorrow,  with  a  nose- 
adapted  thumb. 

COFFINS,  subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
— The  Funeral  Furnishing  Com- 
pany's Shares. 


COG,  subs.  (American  thieves'). — 
A  tooth.—  Mat  sell  [1859].  C/., 

COKE.  Go  AND  EAT  COKE,  verb, 
phr.  (vulgar). — A  phrase  in- 
dicative of  contempt.  A 
corollary  is  '  and  evacuate,  or 
s 1  cinders.' 

COKER,  subs,  (old).— A  lie.— Grose 
[1785].  For  synonyms,  see 

(streets'). — A  breed  of  large 

1865.  Daily  Telegraph,  13  Sep.  For 
the  big,  uncompromising  COLCHESTER 
CLOCK,  which  we  see  on  stalls  and 

shudder  at,  with  unlimited  vinegar  and 
pepper,  the  East-ender  willingly  gives  his 

verbal  phr.  (common). — Said  of 
one  who  keeps  his  door  closed 
against  all  comers  for  fear  of 
duns  ;  also  of  one  who  has  '  shot 
the  moon. '  Also  of  one  that  has 
taken  clap. 

1863.  Chambers'  Journal,  vol.  XX., 
p.  5.  '  It's  no  good  your  ringing, 
remarked  the  book-boy,  when  I  had 
discovered  that  fact  for  myself;'  'Mr. 
Cranium  ain't  at  home,  he  ain't.  He's  GOT 
A  WERRY  BAD  COLD.'  After  a  few  minutes, 
however,  and  many  genial  impertinences,  I 
discovered  that  HAVING  A  BAD  COLD 
means,  in  Camden  Town,  being  in  debt, 
while  A  VERY  BAD  COLD  implies  that  the 
sufferer  has  taken  clandestine  departure 
from  his  lodgings. 


verbal  phr. — To  neglect ;  shut 
out,  or  abandon. 

1861.  New  York  Tribune,  July,  The 
'  Assents '  continue  to  come  in  freely  at 
the  Erie  Railroad  office  ;  and  the  appear- 
ances are  that  at  the  closing  of  the  books 
.  .  .  there  will  be  few  shares  or  bonds 

COLD  BLOOD,  subs,  (licensed  victu- 
allers').— A  house  licensed  for  the 
sale  of  beer  '  not  to  be  drunk  on 
the  premises.' 

COLD  COFFEE,  stibs.  phr.  (Oxford 
University). — I.  A  sell ;  a  hoax  ; 
a  trumpery  affair. 

2.      (common).  —  Misfortune  ; 
ill-luck.       A    variant    is    COLD 

GRUEL  ;     also     TO     HAVE     ONE'S 

COMB  CUT  ;  in  French,  to  expe- 
rience a  run  of  ill-luck  is  expres- 
sed by  etre  abonne  au  guignon  ; 
literally  '  to  become  a  subscriber 
to  ill-luck '  ;  in  Spanish,  dar  al 
traste  con  los  negocios,  signifies, 
colloquially,  '  to  fail  'or  'to  be 
unfortunate  in  business.' 

Cold  Comfort. 

151         Cold  Meat  Train. 

3.  (familiar). — An  unpleasant 
return  or  snub  for  a  proffered 

COLD  COMFORT,  subs.  phr.  (trade). 
— An  expression  used  of  articles 
sent  out  on  approval  and  returned. 
[Merely  an  extension  of  the  literal 
meaning  i.e.,  what  is  barren  of 
consolation  :  a  usage  dating  from 
the  sixteenth  century.] 

COLD  COOK,  subs,  (popular). — An 
undertaker.  [Literally  one  who 
has  to  deal  with  cold  meat,  i.e., 
the  lifeless  human  body.]  Cf., 
COLD  MEAT  and  its  derivatives. 

hunter ;  body  snatcher ;  death 
hunter  ;  black  worker  (see  BLACK 

balletir  de  refroidis  (thieves' :  an 
undertaker's  man  ;  literally  '  a 
packer  of  cold  meat '). 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1864.     HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  s.v. 

COLD  COOKS  HOP,  subs.  phr. 
(popular).  —  An  undertaker's 
premises. —  See  COLD  COOK. 


COLD  DECK,  subs.  (American 
hieves'). — A  prepared  pack  of 
cards.  Cf.,  CONCAVES  AND  CON- 
politely  a  good  hand  obtained  on 
first  dealing  and  without  drawing 
fresh  cards. 

1880.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark 
Twain').  Screamers.  I  never  have 
gambled  from  that  day  to  this  —  never 
once — without  a  COLD  DECK  in  my  pocket. 
I  cannot  even  tell  who  is  going  to  lose 
in  games  that  are  being  played  unless  I 
deal  myself. 

sense  2. 

COLD  MEAT,  subs,  (common).- -A 
corpse.  [The  human  carcass  is 
compared  to  butchers'  wares.] 
For  synonyms,  see  DEAD  MEAT. 
Among  medical  students  the  term 

COLD   MEAT  or   PICKLES  (q.V.}  — 

specimens  direct  from  the  subject. 

1819.  THOS.    MOORE,    Tom    C fib's 
Mem.  to  Con.,  p.  25.     In  the  Twelfth  and 
Last  Round  Sandy  fetched  him  a  downer, 
That  left  him  all's  one  as  COLD  MEAT  for 
the  Crowner. 

verbal  phr.  (common). — To  kill. 
For  synonyms,  see  COOK  ONE'S 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers, 
p.  148  (ed.  1857).  '  You  mustn't  handle 
your  piece  in  that  'ere  way,  when  you 
come  to  have  the  charge  in  it,  sir,'  said 
the  tall  gamekeeper,  gruffly,  'or  I'm 
damned  if  you  won't  MAKE  COLD  MEAT 
OF  some  of  us  ! ' 

COLD-MEAT  Box,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— A  coffin.  [From  COLD- 
MEAT,  a  corpse,  +  BOX,  a  recep- 
tacle. ]  For  synonyms,  see  ETER- 

1889.  Sporting  Times,  3  Aug.,  p.  i, 
col.  3.  'Well,  s'pose  I  perched  first?' 
'  Well,  replied  Pitcher,  I  should  just  come 
in  where  you  were  lying  in  the  COLD-MEAT 
BOX,  and  I  should  whisper  in  your  ear,'  etc. 

COLD-M  EAT  CART,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— A  hearse.  [From  COLD- 
MEAT,  a  corpse,  +  CART.]  Fr., 
mannequin  a  refroidis.  Cf., 

1820.  REYNOLDS  ('  Peter  Corcoran  '). 
The  Fancy,  p.  46.     He's  gone — how  very 
muddy  some  folks  die  ! — He's  for  the  COLD- 
MEAT  CART,  and  so  am  I. 

COLD-MEAT  TRAIN,  sttbs.  phr. 
(popular). — Generally,  the  funeral 
trains  to  Brookwood,  Kensal 
Green,  and  other  cemeteries. 

Cold  Pig. 


Cold  Slaw. 

Specifically,  the  last  train  at  night 
per  S.W.R.,  by  which  officers 
can  reach  Aldershot  in  time  for 
their  morning  duties.  It  starts 
about  2  a.m.  from  Nine  Elms, 
and  is  properly  a  goods  train, 
but  a  carriage  is  attached  which 
is  known  as  the  'Larky  Subaltern.' 
[It  is  an  error  to  suppose  that 
this  particular  train  received  its 
nickname  for  taking  corpses  to 
Woking  Cemetery.  It  carries 
nothing  more  dreadful  than  a 
portion  of  the  beef  and  mutton 
for  the  morning  ration  to  the 
troops  in  camp ;  and,  as  before 
stated,  a  few  belated  officers.] 

1876.  R.  M.  JEPHSON,  Girl  He  Left 
Behind  Him,  ch.  xi.  The  train  by  which 
Dorrien  journeyed  to  Aldershot  was  that 
one  known  as  the  COLD-MEAT. 

verbal  phr.  (common).  —  To 
waken  a  sleeper  either  by  sluic- 
ing him  with  cold  water,  or .  by 
suddenly  stripping  him  of  his 

1818.  J.  R.  PLANCHE,  Amoroso,  King 
o/Little^  Britain.  For  if  the  Queen  should 
come  this  way,  As  sure  as  fate  and  quarter 
day,  COLD  PIG  will  be  your  fare. 

1837.  Comic  Almanack,  June.  I  ve 
given  him  strap, — a  thick  rope's  end, — 
COLD  PIG  !  In  vain  !  —  There  lies  the 
stupid  clown,  As  if  the  Night  Mare  held 
him  down. 

1846.  THACKERAY,  J  earners  Diary  fin 
Punch,  vol.  II.,  p.  72).  'What  was  it  I 
red  there?  What  was  it  that  made  me 
spring  outabed  as  if  sumbady  had  given 
me  COLD  PIG  ? — I  red  Rewin  in  that  share 
list — the  Pannick  was  in  full  hoporation.' 

1869.  W.  BRADWOOD,  The  O.  V.  H., 
ch.  xxxv.  Then  he  came  back  rosy  and 
hungry,  and  revenged  himself  by  an  ad- 
ministration of  COLD  PIG  to  the  still  slum- 
bering Ralph. 

Subs,  (thieves'). — i.  A  person 
robbed  of  his  clothing.  Cf.t 
sense  2. 

2.  (thieves'). — A  corpse.  For 
synonyms,  see  DEAD  MEAT. 

3.  (commercial  travellers'). — 
The  '  empty  returns '  sent  back 
by  rail  to  wholesale  houses. 

COLD  SHIVERS,  mbs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— A  figure  of  speech  de- 
scribing the  effect  of  illness, 
intense  fear  or  any  violent 
emotion.  An  American  equiva- 
lent is  a  *  cold  shake,'  which  may 
refer  alike  to  a  period  of  cold 
weather,  and  an  attack  of  fever 
and  ague. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  50.  'There's 
our  friend  the  Littl'un,'  he  resumed  ;  '  he's 
all  shivery  shakey  as  if  he  got  the  stag- 
gers or  the  COLD  SHIVERS,  and  was  going 
wurra,  wurra,  wurra,  between  his  teeth,  as 
if  he  couldn't  help  himself.' 


verbal  phr.  (colloquial).  —  To 
treat  a  person  with  studied  cold- 
ness, neglect,  or  contempt ;  to 
'  cut,'  in  a  modified  form.  The 
phrase  appears  to  have  been  first 
used  by  Scott  in  the  Antiquary, 
in  the  glossary  to  which  it  is 
explained  as  '  to  appear  cold  and 
reserved.'  Jamieson  localizes  it 
in  the  South  of  Scotland. 

1816.  SCOTT,  Antiquary,  ch.  xxxiii. 
The  countess's  dislike  didna  gang  farther 
at  first  than  just  SHOWING  o'  THE  CAULD 

1840.  DICKENS,  Old  Curiosity  Shop, 
ch.  Ixvi.  He  GIVES  me  THE  COLD 
SHOULDER  on  this  very  matter,  as  if  he 
had  had  nothing  to  do  with  it,  instead  of 
being  the  first  to  propose  it. 

1880.  G.  R.  SIMS,  Three  Brass  Balls, 
pledge  iii.  They  were  not  received  every- 
where with  open  arms.  He  was,  of  course, 
but  the  wife  was  occasionally  COLD  SHOUL- 

c.  1882.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  Where's 
the  Cat?'  She  GAVE  HIM  THE  COLD 
SHOULDER,  and  quickly  told  him  to  de- 

COLD  SLAW, — See  CABBAGE,  sense 

Cold  Tea. 


COLD  TEA,  subs,  (common).  — 
Brandy  —  a  seventeenth  and 
eighteenth  century  colloquialism. 
For  synonyms,  see  DRINKS. 

1690.    Diet.  Cant.  Crew.    COLD  TEA  : 


1693.  Remonstrance  of  the  Batchelors, 
in  Harl.  Misc.  (ed.  Park),  IV.,  505.  Since 
their  sex  has  been  so  familiar  with  brandy 
(blasphemed  by  the  name  of  COLD  TEA). 

1857.  Notes  and  Queries,  2  S.,  iii., 
p.  59,  s.v. 

1888.  C.  J.  DUNPHIE,  The  Chame- 
leon, p.  235.  It  is  worthy  of  remark  that 
COLD  TEA  was  a  slang  name  for  Brandy  in 
the  i8th  century. 

COLD  WATER  ARMY,  subs.  phr. 
(colloquial). — The  general  body 
of  total  abstainers. 

COLD  WITHOUT,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— Spirits  and  cold  water 
without  sugar.  Cf. ,  CIDER  AND  ; 
also  HOT  WITH. 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  Ingoldsby 
Legends,  p.  156  (ed.  1862).  On  the  fire, 
too,  she  pops  some  nice  mutton-chops,  And 
she  mixes  a  stiff  glass  of  COLD  WITHOUT. 

1853.  BULWER  LYTTON,  My  Novel.  I 
laugh  at  fame.  Fame,  sir  !  not  worth  a 

glass  of  COLD  WITHOUT. 

COLE  or  COAL,  subs,  (popular). — 
Money.  For  synonyms,  see  ACT- 
UAL and  GILT. 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt.  I., 
ch.  v.,  p.  52  (1874).  Tip  the  COLE  to  Adam 
Tyler,  give  what  money  you  pocket-pickt 
to  the  next  party,  presently. 

167<5.  A  Warning  for  Housekeepers 
(canting  song).  But  when  that  we  come 
not  agen,  As  we  walk  along  the  street, 
We  bite  the  Culley  of  his  COLE. 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sq.  of  Alsatia,  I., 
in  wks.  (1720)  IV.,  16.  Cheat.  My  lusty 
rustick,  learn,  and  be  instructed.  COLE  is, 
in  the  language  of  the  witty,  money  ;  the 
ready,  the  rhino. 

16(?).  Song  of  Seventeenth  Century, 
(quoted  in  Halliwell  and  Wright's  ed.  of 
Mares'  Glossary).  The  twelfth  a  trapan, 
if  a  cull  he  doth  meet,  He  naps  all  his 
COLE,  and  turns  him  i'  th'  street. 

1741.  WALPOLE,  ballad  in  Letters  to 
Mann,  i.,  22.  This  our  captain  no  sooner 
had  finger'd  the  COLE,  But  he  hies  him 
aboard  with  his  good  Madam  Vole. 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  The  Ingoldsby 
Legends  (ed.  1862),  p.  398.  Moreover — 
the  whole  Of  the  said  cash  or  COLE;  Shall 
be  spent  for  the  good  of  the  said  Old 
Woman's  soul ! 

1844.  Puck,  p.  146.  Thank  you  for 
the  offer  of  your  bill ;  but  I  can  wait  until 
you  can  finger  the  COLE,  when  I  shan't 
stand  on  ceremony  about  taking  a  cool 
hundred  or  two.  .  . 

TO  POST  Or  TIP  THE  COLE, phr. 

(common). — Tohandover  money ; 
to  'shell'  or  'fork  out.'— See 
1671  quot.,  subs,  sense. 

Sheppard  [1889],  p.  13.  'Will  he  POST 
THE  COLE?  Will  he  come  down  with  the 
dues?  Ask  him  that,'  cried  Blueskin. 
Ibid.  If  he  don't  TIP  THE  COLE  without 
more  ado,  give  him  a  taste  of  the  pump, 
that's  all. 

1883.  G.  A.  S[ALA],  in  ///.  L.  News, 
Nov.  10,  p.  451,  col.  3.  The  lamented  J. 
B.  Buckstone,  at  a  Theatrical  Fund 
Dinner,  once  entreated  the  guests  present 
to  POST  THE  COLE,  i.e.,  to  be  prompt  with 
their  subscriptions  and  donations. 

COLFABIAS    or    COLFABIS.  —  See 


1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.  COL- 
FABIAS, a  Latinized  Irish  phrase  signifying 
the  closet  of  decency,  applied  as  a  slang 
term  to  a  place  of  resort  in  Trinity  College, 


subs.  (old).  —  Money.  —  Grose 
[1785].  For  synonyms,  see 

COLLAR,  verb  (common). — To  seize : 
appropriate;  steal;  e.g.,  'COLLAR 
his  dragons/  i.e.,  steal  his  sove- 
reigns. [Properly  '  to  seize  by 
the  collar' ;  hence,  by  transition, 
'to  lay  hold  of  anything  forcibly.'] 
For  synonyms,  see  NAB  and^PRic. 

1841.  ^  LEMAN  REDE,  Song$  '  Kit 
Clayton,'  in  Sixteen-String  Jack,  Act  i., 
Sc.  3.  Ve  COLLAR'D  the  blunt,  started  off 




for  town,  With  the  dashy,  splashy,  leary, 
little  stringer,  Horses  knock' d  up,  men 
knocked  down— Phililoo  ! 

1852.  DICKENS,  Bleak  House,  ch. 
Ivii.,  p.  476.  Look  well  after  your  own 
money,  for  they  are  dead  certain  to 
COLLAR  it,  if  they  can. 

1866.  London  Miscellany,  March  3, 
p.  58.  I  slept  in  Holborn  Workhouse. 
While  I  was  asleep  the  other  coves  tore 
every  rag  up  and  COLLAR'D  my  toke. 

1866.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  242.  Old  Sir  John 
Collywobbles  had  six  black  horses,  six 
white  horses,  and  six  pied  horses.  So  I 
recommended  my  father-which-is-in-law  to 
COLLAR  the  lot. 

1884.  W.  BESANT,  Julia,  ch.  iv. 
Your  grandmother  tells  me  you've  plucked 
up  spirit  at  last  and  won't  let  her  COLLAT? 
more  than  half  the  wages. 

SHOP,  verb.  phr.  (common). — 
To  be  easily  first  ;  to  surpass. 
—See  CAKE. 

OUT  OF  COLLAR,  adv.  phr. 
(colloquial). — Out  of  work  ;  out 
of  cash ;  not  in  training.  Con- 
versely, IN  COLLAR  =  in  work  ; 
in  comfortable  circumstances ; 
and,  as  regards  training,  '  fit '  or 
*  in  form.'  [Simile  taken  from 
the  stable,  in  allusion  to  a  horse, 
i.e.,  with  his  collar  on  or  off.] 

(tailors  '='  to  be  out  of  work  ' )  ; 
caler  (popular  and  nautical  = '  to 
sink ' ) ;  envoyer  a  la  comedie 
(popular  :  to  dismiss  a  workman 
for  want  of  work  to  give  him. 
Cf. ,  remporter  tine  veste) ;  etre  a  la 
comedie  ('to  be  out  of  work  ')  ; 
un  panas  (popular  :  '  one  out  of 
work  ' )  ;  un  inspedeur  des  paves 
(literally  'an  inspector  of  the 
pavement ') ;  avoir  de  la  laine  (to 
be  in  work). 

Vulgetf  Tongue,  A  decent  allowance 
made  to  seedy  swells,  head  robbers,  and 
flunkeys  OUT  OF  COLLAR. 

1867.  Scottish  Journal,  p.  39,  col.  i. 
There  is  nothing  that  so  materially  and 
frequently  effects  the  well-being  and 
social  position  of  a  working  man  as  the 
circumstances  arising  from  being,  in  his 
own  phrase,  'OUT  OF  COLLAR  ' — that  is, 
his  being  unable  to  obtain  work  when  he 
is  able  to  do  it  and  anxious  to  get  it  to 
do.  Ibid.  A  workman  on  tramp  will, 
if  he  is  tolerably  well  known  in  the  trade, 
and  if  he  have,  when  IN  COLLAR,  shown  a 
disposition  to  assist  those  who  were  out, 
often  be  kept  among  his  former  shopmates. 

1880.  MILLIKIN,  Punch's  A  Irnanack. 
Now  October!  Back  again  to  COLLAR, 
Funds  run  low,  reduced  to  last  'alf  dollar. 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  'Why 
Did  She  Leave  her  Jeremiah  ? '  When  I 
was  IN  COLLAR  I  loved  a  fair  maid,  With 
eyes  of  a  sweet  dark  blue. 

AGAINST  COLLAR,  adv.  phr. 
(common).  —  Uphill  ;  working 
against  difficulties,  or  against  the 

TO    BE    PUT   TO    THE    PIN    OF 

THE  COLLAR,  verbal  phr.  (com- 
mon). —  To  be  driven  to  ex- 
tremities ;  to  come  to  the  end  of 
one's  resources. 

TO  WEAR  THE  COLLAR,  verbal 
phr.  (colloquial). — To  be  subject 
to  control  not  altogether  to  one's 
liking.  The  antithesis  of  '  to 
have  the  whip  hand  '  and  '  to  wear 
the  breeches  ' ;  etc. 

COLLAR  AND  ELBOW,  subs.  phr. 
(wrestling). — A  term  for  a  pecu- 
liar style  of  wrestling — the  Corn- 
wall and  Devon  style. 

COLLAR-DAY,  .$•«&•.  (old). — Hanging 
day.  [In  allusion  to  the  hang- 
man's noose.]  Also  WRY- NECK- 
DAY  (q.v.)',  Fr.,  jour  de  la  St. 
Jean  Baptiste. 

verbal  phr.  (gaming).  —  To  be 
unable  to  play  one's  usual  game 
owing  to  temper,  •  funk,'  or  other 

Collared  Up. 


COLLARED  UP,///. adj.  (colloquial). 
— Kept  close  to  business.  Cf., 



See  BIG  BIRD,  and  for  synonyms, 

COLLAR  WORK,  subs.  phr.  (collo- 
quial). Laborious  work. — See 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  July  3,  p.  2, 
col.  i.  The  bald  patches  on  their 
shoulders  testified  to  their  intimate  ac- 
quaintance with  COLLAR  WORK  and  tug- 
ging on  stoney  roads  with  heavy  loads 
behind  them. 

1888.  ANT.  TROLLOPE,   What  I  Re- 
member.    And  when   Lucca  was  reached 
there  were  still  fourteen  miles,  nearly  all 
COLLAR    WORK,    between    that   and    the 

COLLECTOR,  subs.  (old). — A  high- 
wayman or  footpad. 

COLLEGE,  subs,  (thieves').  — A 
prison  ;  the  inmates  are  called 


(q.v.) ;  Newgate  was  formerly 
called  'the  CITY  COLLEGE.' 
The  Spanish  Germania  has  cole^io 
and  college  is  found  in  the  argot 
of  French  thieves. 

1703.  Title,  'The  History  of  Whit- 
tington's  COLLEDGE  otherwise  (vulgarly) 
called  Newgate.  London,  Printed  in  the 
Year  1703.' 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
COLLEGE,  Newgate,  or  any  other  prison. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  370  (ed.  1857).  '  Mornin', 
gen'l'mem',  said  Sam,  entering  at  the 
moment  with  the  shoes  and  gaiters ; 
'  avay  vith  melanchplly,  as  the  little  boy 
said  ven  his  schoolmissus  died.  Velcome 
to  the  COLLEGE,  genTmem.' 

1859.  MATSELL,  Vacabulum,  or 
Rogue's  Lexicon,  p.  20.  COLLEGE  :  a 
State  prison. 

1889.  Answers,  8  June,  p.  25.    I  have 
since  met  several  men  whom  I  knew  in 
prison  at  one  time  or  other,  and  most  of 
them  have  recognised  me  ;  but  only  one 
other  has  stopped  me  to  remind  me  that 
we  were  at  '  COLLEGE  '  together. 


COLLEGER,  subs.  (University  and 
public  schools'). — A  square  cap, 
otherwise  known  as  a  MORTAR- 
BOARD. For  general  synonyms, 


LEGE CHUM,  subs,  (thieves'). — The 
inmate  of  a  prison. — [See  COL- 

1743.  NORTH,  LifeofLordGuildford, 
I.,  123.  His  beginnings  were  debauched, 
and  his  study  and  first  practice  in  the  gaol. 
For  having  been  one  of  the  fiercest  town- 
rakes  and  spent  more  than  he  had  of  his 
own,  his  case  forced  him  upon  that  expe- 
dient for  a  lodging,  and  there  he  ... 
busied  himself  with  the  cases  of  his  fellow- 


1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  369  (ed.  1857).  '  I  say- 
do  you  expect  anybody  this  morning? 
Three  men — devilish  gentlemanly  fellows 
— have  been  asking  after  you  downstairs, 
and  knocking  at  every  door  on  the  hall 
flight  :  for  which  they've  been  most  infer- 
nally blown  up  by  the  COLLEGIANS  that 
had  the  trouble  of  opening  'em.1 

1859.  G.  W.  MATSELL,  Vocabulum, 
or  the  Rogues  Lexicon,  COLLEGE  CHUM  : 
a  fellow-prisoner. 

1884.  DICKENS.  [Quoted  in  Supple« 
ment  to  Annandale's  ed.  of  Ogilvie's 
Imperial  Diet. ,]  It  became  a  not  unusual 
circumstance  for  letters  to  be  put  under 
his  door  at  night  enclosing  half-a-crown 
.  .  .  for  the  father  of  the  Marshalsea, 
'with  the  compliments  of  a  COLLEGIAN 
taking  leave.' 

LADIES'  COLLEGE,  subs,  (gene- 
ral).— A  brothel.  For  synonyms, 

COLLOGUE,  verb  (colloquial).— To 
confer  confidentially  and  secretly; 
to  conspire;  to  wheedle;  or  flatter. 
The  term  is  also  used  in  a  humor- 
ous sense.  [From  Lat.  col,  toge- 




ther  +  Lat.  loquor^  to  speak,  in- 
fluenced probably  by  '  colleague  ' 
and  *  colloquy.'] 

1596.  NASHE,  Saffron  Walden,  in 
wks.  III.,  136.  For  once  before  I  had 
bin  so  cousend  by  his  COLLOGING,  though 
personally  we  neuer  met  face  to  face. 

1676.  EARL  OF  ROCHESTER,  Hist,  of 
Insipids,  st.  9.  When  to  give  Money  he 
can't  COLOGUE  'um,  He  doth  with  Scorn 
prorogue,  prorogue  'um. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
COLLOGUE  (v.):  to  treat  with  a  person 
underhandedly,  to  cheat,  flatter,  coax,  or 
sooth  a  person  in  order  to  get  a  secret  out 
of  him. 

1818.  SCOTT,  Rob  Roy,  ch.  xxxvii. 
It  was  hardly  possible  two  such  d — d 
rascals  should  COLLOGUE  together  with- 
out mischief  to  honest  people. 

1857.  BARHAM,  I.  L. (House-wanning), 
Miss  Alice,  in  short,  was  supposed  to  COL- 
LOGUE— I  Don't  much  like  the  word — with 
the  subtle  old  rogue,   I'Ve  heard  call'd  by 
so  many  names, — one  of  them's  Bogy. 

1858.  G.  ELIOT,   Mr.  GilfiFs  Love- 
Story,  ch.  iv.     '  We  shall  be  poisoned  wi' 
lime  an'  plaster,  and  hev  the  house  full  o' 
workmen  COLLOGEING  wi'  the  maids,   an' 
makin'  no  end  o'  mischief.' 

1861.  G.  ELIOT,  Silas  Marner,  ch.  ix. 
'And  how  long  have  you  been  so  thick 
with  Dunsey  that  you  must  COLLOGUE 
with  him  to  embezzle  my  money?" 

COLLY- MOLLY,  adj.  and  adv.  (old). 
— Melancholy.  [A  jocular  cor- 
ruption of  the  word.  Cf.,  So- 

-  LEMONCHOLY  and  (in  Dr.  Mari- 
golds Prescriptions}  LEMON- 

17(?).  Decl.  of  Pop.  Imp.  sign.  Q.  3. 
(quoted  in  Nares).  The  devil  was  a  little 
COLLI-MOLLIE  and  would  not  come  off. 

COLLY  WOBBLES,  subs,  (common). 
— The  stomach-ache;  also  the 
rumblings  of  flatulency ;  figura- 
tively, the  stomach. 

waffles  ;  gripes  ;  mulligrubs. 

FRENCH  SYNONYMS.     Mai  an 
brechet\  also  gargouillade. 

1853.  CUTHBERT  BEDE,  Verdant 
Green,  pt.  I.,  ch.  viii.  '  Peakyish  you  feel, 
don't  you,  now,  with  a  touch  of  the  mulli- 
grubs in  your  COLLYWOBBLES?' 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  Com- 
plaints '  or  'The  Ills  of  Life.'  Then  I've 
had  the  colic,  spasms,  dizziness,  and  swim- 
mings, Mullygrubs  and  COLLYWOBBLES, 
with  delicious  trimmings. 

COLOUR,  sit  fa.  (sporting). — i.  The 
handkerchief  worn  as  a  badge  by 
prize-fighters  and  other  profes- 
sional athletes.  Each  man  chooses 
his  own,  and  it  was  once  a  prac- 
tice to  sell  them  to  backers  to  be 
worn  at  the  ring-side.  The  pre- 
sent rules  of  the  Ring  provide  as 
follows  : — '  That  every  man  shall 
be  provided  with  a  handkerchief 
of  a  colour  suitable  to  his  own 
fancy,  and  that  the  seconds  pro- 
ceed to  entwine  these  handker- 
chiefs at  the  upper  end  of  one  of 
the  centre  stakes  of  the  ring  ;  that 
these  handkerchiefs  shall  be 
called  the  COLOURS,  and  that  the 
winner  of  the  battle  at  its  conclu- 
sion shall  be  entitled  to  their 
possession  as  the  trophy  of  vic- 
tory. '  For  a  description  of  various 
'fancies,'  see  BILLY.  In  racing 
circles  the  COLOURS  are  the 
owner's  and  are  shown  in  the 
jockeys'  caps  and  jackets. 

1818.  P.  EGAN,  Boxiana,  vol.  I.,  p. 
170.  The  Chicken  now  sported  the  blue- 
spotted  silk  handkerchief,  as  the  champion's 

1858.  A.  M  AYHEW,  Paved  with  Gold, 
bk.  II.,  ch.  xii.,  p.  189.  Each  of  the  men 
had,  previous  to  the  fight,  done  a  little 
profitable  business  by  selling  pocket- 
handkerchiefs,  which  they  called  their 

2.  (popular).  — Used  of  money ; 
e.g.)  '  I  have  not  seen  the  COLOUR 
of  his  money '  =  I  have  not  re- 
ceived payment. — See  quots. 

1736.  FIELDING,  Don  Quixote,  I.,  Hi. 
If  I  have  seen  the  COLOUR  of  gold  this 
fortnight,  may  I  never  see  Teresa  Pancha 

Colour  One's  Meerschaum.  IS7 


1836.  MARRYAT,  Midshipman  Easy, 
ch.  xix.  The  padrone  informed  them  that 
he  should  like  to  see  the  COLOUR  of  their 
money  before  they  went  on  board. 

(racing).  —  Having  the  colours 
in  which  a  jockey  is  to  ride  in- 
serted on  the  card  of  the  race. 

OFF  COLOUR,  adv.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— Exhausted  ;  run  down  ; 

c.  1876.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  That's 
Where  The  Money  Goes.1  London's  Police 
will  be  made  up  of  men,  Cold  Rabbit  Pie 
will  be  OFF  COLOUR  then. 

bal phr.  (common). — To  get 
brandy-faced  ;  to  drink  one's  nose 
into  a  state  of  pimples  and  scarlet. 

COLQUARRON,  subs,  (old)  —The 
neck.  For  synonyms,  see  SCRAG. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
COLQUARRON  :  a  man's  neck  (cant),  his 
COLQUARRON  is  just  about  to  be  twisted, 
he  is  just  going  to  be  hanged. 

1830.  SIR  E.  B.  LYTTON,  Paul 
Clifford,  p.  5  (ed.  1854).  '  'Tis  a  rum 
business,  and  puzzles  I !  but  mum's  the 
word,  for  my  own  little  COLQUARREN.' 

COLT,  subs,  (popular). — I.  A  person 
new  to  office,  or,  to  the  exercise 
of  any  art ;  e.g. ,  a  professional 
cricketer  during  his  first  season  ;  a 
first  •  time  juryman  ;  a  thief 
in  his  novitiate.  [Properly  a 
COLT  is  a  young  male  horse.] 

178^.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

1885.  Daily  News,  28  August,  p.  3, 
col.  7.  A  match  arranged  for  the  benefit 
of  the  young  players  of  the  county  was 
commenced  yesterday  at  Manchester, 
when  the  Lancashire  Eleven  were  opposed 
to  Twenty-six  COLTS. 

2.     (nautical). — See  quots. 

1830.  MARRYAT,  King's  Own,  ch. 
viii.  He  always  carried  in  his  pocket  a 
COLT  (i.e.,  a  foot  and  a  half  of  rope,  knotted 

at  one  end,  and  whipped  at  the  other),  for 
the  benefit  of  the  youngsters,  to  whom  he 
was  a  most  inordinate  tyrant. 

1836.  MARRYAT,  Midshipman  Easy, 
ch.  xii.  'He  knocked  me  down — and 
when  I  got  up  again  he  told  me  that  I 
could  stand  a  little  more — and  then  he  took 
out  his  COLT,  and  said  he  was  determined 
to  ride  the  high  horse.' 

3.  (thieves'). — Athief's weapon; 
otherwise  known  as  a  BILLY  (q.v .). 
For  synonyms,  see  NEDDY. 

4.  (thieves').  —  A    man    who 
hires    horses    to    burglars.      In 
America  he  is  called  a  COLT-MAN. 
[Quoted  by  Grose,  1785.] 

5.  (legal). — See  quot. 

1887.  SIR  F.  POLLOCK,  Pers.  Re- 
membr.,  vol.  I.,  p.  212.  In  April  I  accom- 
panied the  newly-made  Chief  Baron  [of 
Exchequer]  as  his  COLT  (the  so-called 
attendant  on  a  serjeant  at  his  making)  to 
the  Lord  Chancellor's  private  room  at 

Verb  (nautical).— i.  To  thrash; 
[From  COLT,  sense  2.]  Cf.^ 
BASTE,  and  for  synonyms,  see 

1836.  MARRYAT,  Midshipman  Easy, 
ch.  xii.  '  Then  he  COLTED  me  for  half-an- 
hour,  and  that's  all.' 

2.  (common).  —  To  cause  a 
person  to  stand  treat  by  way  of 
being  '  made  free  '  of  a  new  place  ; 
to  make  one  '  pay  one's  footing.' 
Cf.}  subs.,  sense  I. 

COLTAGE,  subs,  (old).— The  foot- 
ing paid  by  COLTS  (q.v.,  subs., 
sense  i)  on  their  first  appearance. 

COLTING,  verbal  subs,  (common). — 
A  thrashing.  For  general  syn- 
onyms, see  TANNING  and  BASTE. 

C  o  L  T-  M  A  N  .  —  See  COLT,  subs. , 
sense  4. 

Coifs  Tooth. 

Comb  One's  Hair. 

or  COLT'S  TOOTH,  verbal  phr.  (old). 
— To  be  fond  of  youthful  plea- 
sures ;  in  the  case  of  elderly 
persons,  to  have  juvenile 
tastes ;  to  be  of  wanton  dis- 
position and  capacity.  [In  allusion 
to  a  supposed  desire  to  shed  the 
teeth  and  see  life  over  again.] 

1500.  MARLOWE,  2  Tamburlaine,  iv., 
4.  Nay,  we  will  break  the  hedges  of  their 
mouths,  And  pull  their  kicking  COLTS  out 
of  their  pastures. 

160(5.  SIR  GYLES  GOOSECAPPE,  v.,  2, 
in  Bullen's  Old  Plays,  iii.,  87.  I  shood 
doe  my  country,  and  Court-ship  good 
service  to  beate  thy  COALTS  TEETH  out  of 
thy  head,  for  suffering  such  a  reverend 
word  to  passe  their  guarde. 

1637.  FLETCHER,  Elder  Brotner,  II., 
iii.  He  should  love  her  now,  As  he  hath 
a  COLT'S  TOOTH  yet. 

1753.  WALPOLE,  Lett,  to  Mann, 
27  April  (1833),  vol.  III.,  p.  89.  I  hear 
that  my  Lord  Granville  has  cut  another 
COLT'S  TOOTH — in  short,  they  say  he  is 
going  to  be  married  again  .  .  .  there  are 
not  above  two  or  three-and-forty  years 
difference  in  their  ages. 

1770.  COLMAN,  The  Portrait,  in 
wks.  (1777)  IV.,  215.  Tho'  not  in  the 
bloom  of  my  youth,  Yet  still  I  have  left  a 

1812.  C.  K.  SHARPE,  in  Correspon- 
dence (1888),  II.,  5.  Tyndall  and  I  always 
fought  about  noblemen,  tho'  I  suspected 
his  COLT'S  TOOTH  with  regard  to  Lord 
Apsley,  who  is  a  mighty  good  sort  of  man, 
but  only  captivating. 

COLUMBINE,  subs,  (theatrical).— A 
prostitute.  For  synonyms,  see 

COLUMBUS,  subs,  (theatrical).  — 
Failure.  A  REGULAR  COLUM- 
BUS =  an  utter  failure;  'dead 
frost.'  Fr.,  II  pleut!= the  play 
is  a  failure. 

CoMB-BRUSH,.wfo.  (old). — A  lady's 
maid.  [A  word  compounded  from 
the  names  of  two  familiar  toilet 
requisites.  C/.,  WHIP  =  a  coach- 
man.]— See  ABIGAIL. 

1750.  FIELDING,  Tom  Jones.  The 
maid  who  at  present  attended  on  Sophia 
was  recommended  by  Lady  Bellaston, 
with  whom  she  had  lived  for  some  time  in 
the  capacity  of  a  COMB-BRUSH. 

CUT,  verbal  phr.  (popular). — To 
be  mortified  ;  disgraced  ;  down  on 
one's  luck.  [A  simile  drawn  from 

COMB    DOWN. — See   COMB  ONE'S 


COMBIE,  subs,  (university).  -  A 
familiar  abbreviation  for  'Com- 
bination room,'  the  parlour  in 
which  college  dons  drink  wine 
after  Hall.  Also  a  garment ; 

COMBINATION,  subs,  (general). — A 
woman's  undergarment,  shift  and 
drawers  in  one.  Also  COMBIE,  and 
(American)  CHEMILOON  (g.v.), 
itself  a  combination  of  '  chemise ' 
and  *  pantaloon.' 

COMB  ONE'S  \\A\K,  verbal  phr.  ttrs. 
and  inlr.  (common). — To  take  to 
task  ;  to  scold  ;  to  keep  in  order. 
Sometimes  to  thrash,  and  gene- 
rally ill-treat.  Variants  are  TO 
or  JOINT  STOOL.  [A.S.  cemban  ; 
O.E.  kemben;  German,  kammen 
—  to  comb.  Halliwell  gives  kemb 
(a  Border  form)  =  to  comb  ;  also 
COMB  =  to  cut  a  person's  comb,  to 
disable  him.  The  word  seems  to 
have  always  involved  the  idea  of 
personal  castigation,  either  physi- 
cal or  figurative.  In  this  con- 
nection, cf.j  quot.,  1593.]  Fr., 
donner  une  peignee  and  laver  la 
tete ;  but  for  synonyms  in  the 
sense  of  '  to  scold,'  see  WIG  ;  and 
in  the  sense  of  'to  thrash,'  see 

Comb  the  Cat. 

Come  Down. 

1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  Taming  of  the 
Shrew,  i.,  i.  Kath  .  .  .  doubt  not  her 
cares  should  be  to  COMB  YOUR  NODDLE 
WITH  A  THREE-LEGG'D  STOOL,  And  paint 
your  face,  and  use  you  like  a  fool. 

1769.  JOHN  WALLIS,  Antiquities  of 
Northumberland.  [Speaking  of  Wark 
Castle.]  On  the  west  side  are  the  out- 
works, now  called  the  Kemb,  i.e.,  the 
camp  of  the  militia  designed  to  KEMB  or 
fight  an  enemy  ;  KEMB  being  a  word  often 
used  by  the  borderers  when  they  threaten 
in  a  passionate  tone  to  beat  an  assailant, 
—  they  will  KEMB  him,  i.e.,  drub  him 

1836.  W.  KIDD,  London  and  all  its 
Dangers.  '  Magistrates,'  p.  12.  The 
Magistrate  of  Hatton  Garden  has  lately 
HAD  HIS  'HAIR  COMBED'  by  the  Home 
Secretary  for  his  brutal  conduct. 

1852.  DICKENS,  Bleak  House,  ch. 
xxvii.,  p.  236.  '  If  you  had  only  settled 
down,  and  married  Joe  Pouch's  widow 
when  he  died  in  North  America,  she'd 
have  COMBED  YOUR  HAIR  for  you.' 

1866.  G.    ELIOT,   Felix   Holt,  ch. 
xliii.     But  you  see,  these  riots — it's  been 
a  nasty  business.     I  shall  HAVE  MY  HAIR 
COMBED    at    the    sessions    for  a  year  to 

1869 Ino  (played  at  Strand 

Theatre).     '  Since  Ino's  COMBED  MY  WOOL 
it's  ceased  to  grow.' 

COMB  THE  CAT,  verbal phr.  (nauti- 
cal). —See  quot. 

1867.  SMYTH,  Sailors'   Word  Book. 
COMBING  THE  CAT  :    the  boatswain,   or 
other  operator,  running  his  fingers  through 
the  cat-o'-nine  tails  to  separate  them. 

COME,  verb  (venery). — i.  To 
experience  the  sexual  spasm  ;  to 
achieve  emission ;  TO  SPEND 
(q.v.}.  The  expression  (which 
applies  to  the  agents  only  :  never 
to  the  proof,  or  effect,  of  their 
activity)  is  common  to  both 
the  sexes.  Cf.,  CREAM  (q.v.}  ; 
SPENDINGS  ;  q.v. ;  and  LETCH- 
WATER  (q.v.). 

2.  (general).  —  To  practice  ; 
to  understand  ;  to  act  the  part 
of.  C/.,  COME  OVER  and  COME 


1883.  GREENWOOD,  Tag,  Rag,  and 
Co.  We  ain't  two  by  ourselves  as  COMES 
that  dodge. 

3.     (old).— To  lend. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
Has  he  COME  it?  i.e.,  has  he  lent  it  ? 

TO   MAKE   DRUNK   COME,  phr. 

(American). — To  become  intoxi- 
cated. For  synonyms,  see 

COME  ABOUT  [ONE],  verbal  phr. 
(old). —  i.  To  circumvent.  Cf., 

1755.  JOHNSON,  Diet.  Eng.  Lang. 
(n  ed.,  1816),  s.v.  'About'  in  common 
language  they  say  to  COME  ABOUT  a  man. 
'  to  circumvent  him.' 

2.     (venery).  —  To    copulate. 
(Said  only  of  men  by  women). 

(nibs.,  sense  3). 


COME  AND  SEE  YOUR  PA,  phr. 
(common).  —  An  invitation  to 
drink.  For  synonyms,  see 


COME-DOWN,  subs,  (popular). — A 
fall,  whether  of  pride  or  worldly 
prospects ;  an  abandonment  of 
something  for  something  else  of 
less  value  or  moment. 

Verb. — [Used   either  indepen- 
dently or  in  combination  :    e.g. , 


NEEDFUL,  etc.]  (common). — i. 
To  pay,  i.e.,  to  'part';  or 

Come  Down. 


Come  Off. 

to  lay  down  (as  in  payment)  j  to 
'  fork  out. '  For  synonyms,  see 

1701.  STEELE,  The  Funeral,  Act  ii., 
Sc.  i.  I  must  do  according  to  my  orders 
.  .  .  ^except  you'd  COME  DOWN  a  little 
deeper  than  you  talk  of:  —  You  don't 
consider  the  charges  I've  been  at  already. 

1727.  GAY,  Beggar's  Opera,  Act  iii., 
Sc.  i.  Did  he  tip  handsomely  ?— How 
much  did  he  COME  DOWN  with  ? 

1842.  Punch,  vol.  III.,  p.  136. 
'  Bolt ! '  she  falter'd,  '  from  the  gov'nor  ? 
Oh,  my  Colin,  that  won't  pay  ;  He  will 
ne'er  COME  DOWN,  my  love,  nor  Help  us,  if 
we  run  away.' 

1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch. 
Ixix.  My  uncle  augurs  everything  from 
the  Begum's  generosity,  and  says  that 
she  will  COME  DOWN  very  handsomely. 

1889.  BARRERE,  SI.,  far.,  and  Cant, 
(quoted  in).  Dp  you  keep  the  gentleman 
in  discourse  while  I  speak  to  the  prisoner, 
and  see  how  he  can  COME  DOWN. 

2.  (trade). — To  abate  prices. 


verbal  phr.  (American).  —  To 
abandon  a  position.  C/C,  BACK 


COMEDY-MERCHANT,  subs,  (com- 
mon).— An  actor.  For  synonyms, 

COME  IT,  verb  (colloquial). — i.  To 
proceed  at  a  great  rate  ;  to  make 
a  splash  and  dash  (in  extrava- 
gance);  to  'cut  a  figure.'  Cf., 
COME  IT  STRONG  and  Go  IT. 

1840.  TH  ACKER  fCf, Paris  Sketch  Book, 
p.  22.  '  I  think  the  chaps  down  the  road 
will  stare,'  said  Sam,  'when  they  hear  how 
I've  been  COMING  IT.' 

2.     (thieves').  —  To      inform. 
For  synonyms,  see  PEACH. 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant,  3 
ed.,  p.  444.  To  in  form = TO  COME  IT. 

1864.  HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  p.  126. 
The  expression  COME  IT  (to  inform,  tell, 
or  disclose)  is  best  known  to  the  lower 
and  most  dangerous  classes. 

1889.  Daily  Telegraph.  He  heard 
one  of  the  others  say  in  reply,  '  COME  IT, 
meaning  to  tell— to  be  quiet. 

3.  (pugilistic). — To  show  fear. 

4.  (American). — To  succeed. 
Especially  in  YOU  CAN'T  COME  IT, 
i.e.,    you    cannot    succeed  :     an 
expression    of    disbelief    in    the 
ability  of  another.  Probably  a  sur- 
vival of  old  English  usage.     C/., 

COME  IT  STRONG,  verbal  phr. 
(popular).  —  To  exaggerate  ;  to 
*  lay  it  on  thick ' ;  to  carry  to 
extremes.  For  synonyms,  see 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Picfavick  Papeis, 
p.   356  (ed.    1857).      'Veil,   sir,'    rejoined 
Sam,  after  a  short  pause,  '  I  think  I  see 
your  drift ;  and  if  I  do  see  your  drift,  it's 
my  'pinion  that  you're  a  COMIN'  IT  A  GREAT 
DEAL  TOO  STRONG,  as  the  mail-coachman 
said  to  the  snow-storm,  ven  it  overtook  him.' 

1837.  BARHAM,  /.   L.  (Lay  of  St. 
Gengulphus},  ed.  1862,  p.  157.     He  here 
shook  his  head, — Right  little  he  said,  But 
he  thought  she  was  COMING  IT  RATHER  TOO 


1846.  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Yellow- 
plush.  '  Mr.  Deuceace  at  Paris.'  Now, 
though  master  was  a  scoundrill  and  no 
mistake,  he  was  a  gentleman  and  a  man  of 
good  breeding  ;  and  miss  CAME  A  LITTLE 
TOO  STRONG  (pardon  the  vulgarity  of  the 
expression),  with  her  harder  and  attach- 
mint  for  one  of  his  taste. 

1869.  BRET  HARTE,  The  Heathen 
Chinee.  In  his  sleeves,  which  were  long, 
He  had  twenty-four  packs.  Which  was 



COME  OFF,  verbal  phr.  (colloquial). 
— To  happen  j  to  occur  ;  to  re- 
sult from.  —  See  also  COME, 
sense  I. 

1609.  JONSON,  Case  is  Altered,  IV., 
iii.  His  muse  sometimes  cannot  curvet, 
nor  prognosticate,  and  COME  OFF  as  it 
should  ;  no  matter,  I'll  hammer  out  a 
paraphrase  for  thee  myself. 

Come  off  the  Grass. 

Come  Over. 

1857.  DICKENS,  The  Detective  Police, 
in  Reprinted  Pieces,  p.  239.  In  con- 
sequence of  which  appointment  the 
party  CAME  OFF,  which  we  are  about  to 

1870.  WILKIE  COLLINS,  Man  and 
Wife,  in  Casselfs  Mag.,  p.  292,  col.  i. 
'  The  betting's  at  five,  to  four,  my  dear. 
And  the  race  COMES  OFF  in  a  month  from 

1872.  Civilian,  10  Aug.  Unfortu- 
nately, the  event,  to  use  the  language  of 
the  turf,  did  not  COME  OFF,  and  con- 
siderable disappointment  was  manifested. 

1883.  Graphic,  August  n,  p.  138,  col; 
a.  Batting  is  his  forte,  though  he  does  not 
always  COME  OFF. 

TALL  GRASS!  phr.  (American); 
—  '  None  of  your  airs  ! '  '  Don't 
put  it  on  so  !'  'Don't  tell  any 
more  lies  !. '  The  French  say, 
As-tu  fini  tes  manieres  or 
magnes  ?  ne  fais  done  pas  ta 
Sophie ;  and  ne  fais  done  pas  ton 

COME  OUT, verbal  phr.  (common). — 
I.  To  make  an  appearance  ;  to 
display  oneself;  to  express  one- 
self vigorously  ;  to  make  an  im- 
pression (especially  in  sense  2). 
Sometimes  in  an  intensified  form 


[The  first  quot.  is  doubtful,  but  it 
looks  like  an  anticipation.] 

•  1637.  SL.  RUTHERFORD,  Letters,  No. 
167,  vol.  I.,  pi  390  (ed.  1862,  2  vols.). 
Christ  .  .  .  who  hath  given  you  eyes  to 
discern  the  devil  COMING  OUT  in  his 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomes,  II., 
14.  The  more  he  [Clive]  worked,  the  more 
he  was  discontented  with  his  performance, 
somehow ;  but  J.  J.  was  COMING  OUT 
VERY  STRONG  ;  J.  J.  was  going  to  be  a 

1865.  G.  F.  BERKELEY,  Life,  etc. 
II.,  135.  Our  inclination  to  quiz  him 
[Lord  Wm.  Lennox]  on  the  subject  iri- 
c  -eased  when  in  later  years  he  CAME  OUT 
STRONG  in  magazines  and  reviews,  as  a 
sporting  writer. 

1865.  Comhill  Magazine,  IV.,  218. 
'A  county  ball.'  The  native  COMES  OUT 
STRONG  in  waistcoats — his  array  in  that 
respect  being  gorgeous. 

1870.  Good  Words,  April.  'The 
Hand  Nailer.'  In  the  nailing  commu- 
nities, as  elsewhere,  woman  manages 
somehow  to  COME  OUT  EXTENSIVELY  on 

18(?).  PwrQwntTheDreepdaily Burghs, 
pi  2.  Let  me  confess  it.  I  had  of  late 


man  has  made  money  easily,  he  is  some- 
what prone  to  launch  into  expense. 

2.  (common). — To  turn  out  ; 
to  result ;  £.?.,  How  did  it  COME 
OUT?    Cf.,  COME  OFF. 

3.  (colloquial). — To    make    a 
first  appearance  in  society. 

END  OF  THE  HORN,  phr.  (Ameii- 

can). — To  fare  badly  ;  in  allusion 
to  the  thin  end  of  the  CORNU- 

, verbal  phr.  (colloquial). 
— To  influence;  to  overreach  ; 
to  cheat.  (If  the  quots.  are 
compared  chronologically  it  will 
be  seen  that  there  has  been  a 
gradual  deterioration  in  the 
meaning  of  this  colloquialism. ) 

1609.  DEKKER,  Guts  Horne-Booke, 
ch.  ii.  Care  not  for  those  coorse  painted 
cloath  rimes,  made  by  ye  University  of 
Salerne,  that  COME  OUER  you,  with  ,  .  . 
sweete  candied  councell. 

1667.  SHIRLEY,  Love  Tricks,  Act  ii., 
Sc.  i.  I  do  not  see  what  fault  she  can  find 
with  me  ;  and  if  I  had  some  good  word  to 
COME  OVER  her — but  I  must  help  it  out, 
an  need  be,  with  swearing. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
To  COME  OVER  any  one  :  to  cheat  or  over- 
reach him. 

1794.  Gent.  Mag.,  p.  1085.  I  lately 
CAME  OVER  him  for  a  good  round  sum. 

c.  1860.  Broadside  Ballad,  I'm  a 
young  man  from  the  country,  But  you 
don't  GET  OVER  me. 


Come  over  One. 


Come  to  Stay. 

c.  1879.  Music  Hall  Song  (sung  by 
Jenny  Hill,  the  'Vital  Spark').  You 
may  GET  OVER  water-butts,  You  may  GET 
OVER  fountains,  But  I'll  take  particular 
notice  that  you  dcn't  GET  OVER  Sal. 

1884.  Daily  Telegraph,  March  n, 
p.  2,  col.  i.  '  But  don't  you  try  and  COME 
IT  OVER  me,  or  you'll  find  yourself  in  the 
wrong  box.' 

COME  [THE  OLD  SOLDIER,  or  any 
person  or  thing]  OVER  ONE, 
verbal  phr.  (colloquial).: — To  im- 
itate ;  to  overbear  ;  to  wheedle  ; 
to  rule  by  an  assumption  of 
authority.  Fr. ,  essayer  de  monfer 
un  bateau  a  quelqu?un  ;  or  monter 
k  coup  or  un  battage. 

1713.  C.  SHADWELL,  Humours  of 
the  Army,  Act  iii.  Trie  Devil  a  Farthing 
he  owes  me — but  however,  I'll  PUT  THE 


1825.  SCOTT,  St'.  Ronans  Well,  chi 
xviii.  Were  it  not  that  I  think  he  has 
scarce  the  impudence  to  propose  such  a 
thing  to  succeed,  curse  me  but  I  should 
think  he  was  COMING  THE  OLD  SOLDIER 
OVER  ME,  and  keeping  up  his  garnet 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  369  (ed.  1857).  'Ah,  by 
jove,  he  has  ! '  replied  Smangle.  '  Hear 

BARROW— four  distinct  cats,  sir,  I  pledge 
my. honour  Now  you  know  that's 

you  my .  nono 
infirnal  clever 

1839.  The  Druid.  \  Post  and 
Paddock.'  The  only  way  his  crime  to 
cover,  To  hide  his  shame  from  children's 
eye,  Is  not  to  try  and  COME  THE  LOVER 
But  stable-wards  at  once  to  fly. 

1855..  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Thf 
Newcpmes,  II.,  253.  '  I  had  a  letter  this 
morning  from  my  liberal  and  punctual 
employer,  Thomas  Potts,  Esquire,  of  the 
Newcome  Independent,  who  states,  in 
language  scarcely  respectful,  that  Sir 
Barnes  Newcome  Newcome  is  trying  TO 


calls  it.' 

1877.  W;  BLACK,  Green  Past,  and 
Pice.,  ch.  i.  '  She's  rather  serious,  you 
know,  and  would  like  to  COME  THE 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  167.  To  hear  him  speak,  one 
might  imagine  him  as  innocent  as  a  lamb, 
and  as  green  as  a  schoolboy,  but  just  try 

TO    COME    THE    HANKY-PANKY    and    PLAY 

1877.  J.  GREENWOOD,  Dick  Temple. 
Permit  me,  if  you  and  your  two  friends 
think  of  COMING  what  is  vulgarly  called 
THE  OLD  SOLDIER  over  me,  to  make  you 
understand  that  you  had  better  abandon 
the  intention. 

COME  ROUND,  verbal  phr.  (collo- 
quial).— To  influence;  to  circum- 
vent ;  to  persuade.  Cf.,  COME 
OVER,  and  COME  ABOUT,  sense  i. 

1846.  THACKERAY,  V.  Fair,  ch.  xi. 
Finally,  the  reports  were  that  the 
governess  had  COME  ROUND  everybody, 
wrote  Sir  Pitt's  letters,  did  his  business, 
managed  his  accounts  —  had  the  upper 
Hand  of  the  whole  house. 

COME  SOUSE,  verbal  phr.  (pugi- 
listic).—To  fall  heavily.  Also 

1819.  T.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's  Mem. 
to  Cong.  As  it  was,  Master  Georgy  CAME 
SOUSE  with  the  whack,  And  there 
sprawled,  like  a  turtle  turned  queer  on  its 

COME  THE  GUM  GAME,  verbal  phr. 
(Western  American). — To  over- 
reach by  concealment^  [From 
the  preference  shown  by  hunted 
opossums  and  racoons  ;for  gum 
trees  as  places  of  refuge.] 

1869;  Kansas  City  A  dvertise  r,  7  May . 
You  can't  COME  THAT  GUM  GAME  over 
me  any  more  ;  I've  been  to  the  land-office 
and  know  all  about  the  place. 


verbal  phr.    (common). — To    be 
born  illegitimately. 

c.  1880.  Broadside  Ballad, '  The  Blessed 
Orphan.'  I  don't  think  I  was  born  at  all, 
No  parents  own  I  came  here ;  I  was  left  at 
a  house  of  call.  Close  by  a  Pickford's  van 
here,  Some  wicked  wretches  say,  but  I 
My  indignation  smother,  That  I  CAME 
THROUGH  A  SIDE  DOOR  In  this  world 
from  the  other. 

COME  TO  STAY,  verbal  phr.  (Ameri- 
can).— To  be  endowed  with  per- 
manent qualities.  Thus  the  New 
York  Morning  Journal  announces 

Come  to. 



that  earth  fuel,  a  new  material 
for  cooking  and  firing  purposes, 
has  COME  TO  STAY,  i.e.,  its  com- 
mercial success  is  assured. 

1888.  Pittsburgh  Bulletin,  In  the 
realm  of  advertising,  the  illustration  has 
evidently  COME  TO  STAY.  It  attracts  and 
retains  the  eye,  and  so  serves  a  double 

COME  To,  or  UP  To,  TIME,  verbal 
phr.  (pugilistic). — To  answer  the 
call  of  '  Time  ! '  after  the  thirty 
seconds'  rest  between  round  and 
round  ;  hence,  by  analogy,  to  be 
on  the  alert ;  to  be  ready. 

1869.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  M.  orN., 
p.  n.  The  surprise  staggered  him  like  a 
blow.  From  blows,  however,  we 
soon  COME  TO  T!ME,  willing  to  take  any 
amount  of  similar  punishment. 

COM  E  TRICKS. — See  COME,  sense  2. 

COME  UP  SMILING,  verbal  phr. 
(pugilistic). — To  laugh  (or  grin) 
at  '  punishment ' ;  hence  (gene- 
rally) to  be  superior  to  rebuff  or 
disaster ;  to  face  defeat  without 

1887.  JOHN  STRANGE  WINTER,  That 
Imp,  p.  67.  And  yet  COME  UP  SMILING 
at  the  end  of  it. 

COME    UP    TO   THE  CHALK:— See 


[Some  othe.  slang  uses  of  the  verb  To 
COME  are  To  COME  THE  ARTFUL  =  to 
essay  to  deceive  ;  To  COME  THE  HEAVY 
=  to  affect  a  vastly  superior  position  ;  To 
COME  THE  UGLY=IO  threaten  ;  To  COME 
THE  NOB,  or  THE  DON  — to  put  on  airs] 
To  COME  THE  L,ARDY-DARDY=to  dress 
for  the  public  and  '  look  up  to  your 
clobber';  To  COME  THE  SERJEANT  =  IO 
issue  peremptory  orders ;  To  COME  THE 
SPOON  =  to  make  love;  To  COME  THE 
GYPSY=IO  try  to  defraud  ;  To  COME  THE 
RoTHSCHiLD  =  to  pretend  to  be  rich  ;  and 
To  COME  THE  TRAVIATA  (prostitutes', 
now  obsolete)  =  to  feign  consumption, 
to  put  on  '  the  Traviata  cough '  (ff.v.) 
with  a  view  to  beguiling  charitable  males.  ] 

COM  FLOGISTICATE,  verb  (American). 
— To  embarrass  ;  put  out  of  coun- 
tenance ;  confuse  ;  or  hoax. — See 

COM  FOOZLED,  adj.  (rare). — Over- 
come ;  exhausted. 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xxxix., 
p.  340.  '  Well,'  said  Sam,  '  he's  in  a 
horrid  state  o'  love ;  reg'larly  COM- 
FOOZLED,  and  done  over  with  it.' 


subs.  (old). — A  wife ;  also  a 
mistress  in  a  wife's  position.  Fr. , 
Mon  gouvernement.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  DUTCH. 

COMICAL,  subs,  (common).  —  A 

To  BE  STRUCK  COMICAL,  verb, 
phr.  (popular). — To  be  astonished. 

COMING,  ppL  adj.  (old).  —  i. 
Wanton  ;  forward  ;  sexual.  — 
See  COME,  sense  I. 

1750.  FIELDING,  Tom  Jones,  ch.  xii. 
I  dares  to  swear  the  wench  was  as  willing 
as  he,  for  she  was  always  a  forward  kind 
of  body.  And  when  wenches  are  so 
COMING,  young  men  are  not  so  much  to 
be  blamed  neither,  for  to  be  sure  they  do 
no  more  than  what  is  natural. 

1785.     GROSE,   Diet'.    Vulg.   Tongue, 

2.     (old). — Sextlally    capable. 
— See  COME,  sense  i. 

COMMERCIAL,  subs',  (thieves') — See 

1886.  Tit-Bits,  31  July,  p.  252.  He 
is  one  of  the  cleverest  COMMERCIALS 
(this  is  the  polite  name  for  rogues  and 
vagabonds  generally)  on  the  road. 

2.  (common). — An  abbreviation 
of  '  commercial  traveller. ' 

COMMISSION  or  MISH,  subs.  (old). 
— A  shirt.     [From  the  Italian. — 



Common  Sewer. 

See  CAMESA.] 
see  FLESH  BAG. 

For  synonyms, 
1567.     HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  65, 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p,  37  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874),  s.v. 

1622.  JOHN  FLETCHER,  The  Beggars 
Bush.  I  crown  thy  nab  with  a  gag  of  ben- 
bouse,  And  stall  thee  by  the  salmon  into 
clowes  To  maund  on  the  pad  and  strike  all 
the  cheats  To  mill  from  the  Ruffmans,  and 
COMMISSION,  and  slates. 

1630.  TAYLOR  .('  The  Water  Poet  '), 
wks.  quoted  in  Nares.  As  from  our  beds 
we  doe  oft  cast  our  eyes,  Cleane  linnen 
yeelds  a  shirt  before  we  rise,  Which  is  a 
garment  shifting  in  condition,  And  in  the 
canting  tongue  is  a  COMMISSION  ;  In  weale 
or  woe,  in  joy  or  dangerous  drifts,  A  shirt 
will  put  a  man  unto  his  shifts. 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt.  L  , 
ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874),  s.v. 

COM  MISTER,  subs,  (bid);  —A 
clergyman.  The  same  as 
CAMISTER  (q.v.}.  For  synonyms, 

COMMODITY,  subs.  (old).  —  The 
female  pudendum.  For  synonyms, 

1596.  SHAKSPEARE,  King  John,  ii., 
2.  Tickling  COMMODITY  ;  COMMODITY  — 
the  bias  of  the  world. 

1785:  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 
1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

COMMON-BOUNCE,  subs.  (low).  — 
One  using  a  lad  as  a  decoy  to 
prefer  a  chaige  of  unnatural  inter- 

1886.  M."  DAVITT,  Leaves  from  a 
Prison  Diary,  p.  109.  THE  COMMON 
BOUNCE  Of  all  the  scoundrels  that  stalk 
abroad  in  the  world  unhung  for  u>  detected 
enormities,  this  is  the  most  infamous. 

COM  MON*DoiNGS,j-fcfo.  (American). 
—  Every-day  fare.  [A  phrase  of 
Western  origin,  at  first  restricted 
in  its  meaning,  but  now  including 
ordinary  transactions  as  com- 
pared to  those  either  large 
or  peculiarly  profitable;  applied 

to  men,  actions,  and  things. 
'  What  shall  we  do  ?  '  says  a  poor 
frontiersman's  wife,  when  she 
hears  of  a  Federal  Officer  who  is 
to  take  up  his  quarters  at  her 
cabin  for  a  day  ;  *  I  can't  give 

1835.  HALiBtRTON  ('Sam  Slick'), 
The  Clockmaker,  38.!  guess  I'll  order 
supper.  What  shall  it  be?  Cornbread 
and  COMMON  DOINS,  or  wheatbread  and 
chicken  fixins  ? 

COMMONER- GRUB,  subs.  (Win- 
chester College).— A  dinner  for- 
merly given  by  Commoners  to 
College  after  cricket  matches. 
[Commoners  are  boys  not  on  the 

COM  MONEY,  subs,  (schoolboys').— 
A  clay  marble.  Cf. ,  ALLEY. 

,  1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwitk  -Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  28  (ed.  1857).  On  one 
occasion  he  patted  the  boy  on  the  head, 
and  after  inquiring  whether  he  had  won 
any  alley  tors  or  COM  MONEYS  lately  (both 
of  which  I  understand  to  be  a  particular 
species  of  marbles  much  prized  by  the 
youth  of  this  town),  made  use  of  this  re- 
markable expression — '  How  should  you 
like  to  have  another  father?' 

COMMON-JACK,  subs,  (military). — 
A  prostitute.  For  synonyms,  see 

COMMON-PLUGS,  subs.  (American). 
— Ordinary  members  of  society. 

CdMMONSENsipAL,  adj.  (collo- 
quial). — Marked  with  common 

1880.  Frazer's Magazine,  Sep.,  p.  308. 
The  manner  in  which  he  (Alexander 
Russell)  begins  must  have  delighted  the 
COMMONSENSICAL  mind  of  old  Charles 

COMMON  SEWER,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— i.  A  drink  ;  dram  ;  or 
'  go.'  [From  common  sewer  =  'a 
drain.']  For  synonyms,  see  Go. 


165    Concaves  and  Convexes. 

2.     (venery). — A  prostitute. 

COMMUNICATOR,  verbalphr.  (com- 
mon).— To  ring  the  bell. 

COMP,  subs,  (printers'). — A  com- 
positor. [An  abbreviated  form 
of  '  companion  '  now  peculiar  to 
compositors,  but  originally  applied 
to  pressmen  who  work  in  couples, 
as  well  as  to  compositors  who 
work  in  a  'companionship,'  or 
SHIP  (q.v.}.~\  GALLEY  -  SLAVE 
(q.v.)  is  a  variant;  so  are 
ASS  (q.v.)  and  DONKEY  (q.v}. 
C/.,  1'iG. 

1870.  Sportsman,  17  Dec.  '  A  Chape} 
Meeting.'  I  stood  before  the  world  a  jour- 
neyman COMP. 

1886.  Tit-Bits,  31  July,  p.  252.  At 
provincial  newspaper  offices  and  other  es>- 
tablishments  applications  for  work  from 
travelling  COM  PS  are  frequent. 

1888.  W.  BLADES,  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  7  S.,  vi.,  365.  The  printers  who 
work  together  in  one  room  are  to  this  day 
called  COMPS. 

verbal  phr.  (prostitutes').  —  To 
live  by  prostitution  ;  TO  TAKE  IN 

FANCY  WORK  (q.V.}. 
1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v< 

COMPETITION  WALLAH,  subs.  phr. 
(Anglo-Indian/. — Orie  who  enters 
the  Indian  Civil  Service  by 
examination.  [FVom  COMPETI- 
TION 4-  ffindustani  wallah,  '  a 
man'  or  "'person;'] 

1863.  G.  O.  TREVELYAN,  Title,  THE 

1886.  ///.  Lon.  News,  g  Jan.,  p.  31, 
col.  3.  It  is  quite  certain  that,  if  justice  is 
ever  to  be  done  to  India,  our  COMPETI- 
TION WALLAHS  must  not  be  encouraged 
to  look  upon  it  as  a  mere  Totn  Tidler's 

ground,  where  they  are  to  remain  just  so 
long  as  they  require  for  picking  up  gold 
and  silver  (in  the  form  of  pension  and 

COMPO,  subs,  (nautical). — A  sailor's 
'  term  for  his  monthly  advance  of 

COMPY-SHOP,  subs,  (workmen's). — 
A  truck-shop.  [  Probably  a  cor- 
ruption of '  company-shop ' :  work- 
men before  the  'passing  of 
certain  Truck  Acts,  having  been 
frequently  compelled  to  make 
their  weekly  purchases  at  shops 
either  "kept  by,  or  worked  to  the 
profit  of,  their  employer.] 

1870.  Globe,  24  Sept.  The  Acts  of 
Parliament  which  have  been  passed  from 
time  to  time  in  reference  to  truck  are  easily 
evaded,  for  as  a  rule  no  workman  is  told 
that  he  must  buy  at  the  COMPY-SHOP,  but 
the  workmen  well  know  that  if  they  did  not 
resort  thither  they  would  soon  be  dis- 
m'issed  their  employment. 

CON,  subs.  (Winchester  College). — 
A  rap  on  the  head  with  the 
knuckles,  or  with  anything  hard, 
such  as  a  cricket  ball.  [For  sug- 
gested derivations,  see  verbal 
sense.  ] 

Verb.  —  To  rap  with  the 
knuckles.  [The  derivation  for- 
merly accepted  at  Winchester  was 
from  KovlvKov  =  a  knuckle,  but 
the  editors  of  the  Wykehamist 
suggest  its  origin  in  the  North 
Country  con,  '  to  fillip,'  with 
which  the  French  se  corner  exactly 

ph  .  (cardsharners').  Cards  pre- 
pared for  cheating.  All  from  the 
eight  to  the  king  are  cut  CONVEX, 
and  all  from  the  deuce  to  the 
sever  CONCAVE  ;  so  that  by  cut- 
ting the  pack  broadwise  you  cut 
CONVEX,  and  by  cutting  them 


1 66 


lengthwise  you  cut  CONCAVE. 
Sometimes  they  are  shaped  the 
reverse  way,  so  that,  if  suspicion 
arise,  a  pack  so  treated  may  be 
substituted  lor  the  other  to  the 
same  effect.  In  this  trick  the 
sharper  has  less  in  his  favour 
than  in  others,  because  the 
intended  victim  may  cut  in 
the  usual  way,  and  so  cut  a  low 
card  to  the  dealer.  But  the  cer- 
tainty of  being  able  to  cut  or 
deal  a  high  or  low  card  at  plea- 
sure, gives  him  an  advantage 
4  against  which  skill  ir>  of  none  avail. 
Other  modes  of  sharping  are  by 
means  of  REFLECTORS  (q.v.)  ; 

LONGS  AND  SHORTS  (q.V.)  ; 
BRIDGE  (q.V.)  ;  SKINNING  (q.V.)  \ 
WEAVING  (q.V. )  ;  THE  GRADUS  or 
STEP  (q.V.)  ;  PALMING  (q.V.)  ; 
and  THE  TELEGRAPH  (q.v.).  A 
French  term  for  prepared  cards  is 
les  aiguilles  a  tricoter  les  cdles 
(Anglice  —  OLD  GENTLEMEN,^,  v. ) ; 
also  une  cartotichiere  a  portees  (a 
pack  of  prepared  cards)  ;  and  les 
harnais  —  STOCKED  BROADS  (q.v. ). 
— See  also  STOCK  BROADS. 

CONCERN,  subs,  (general). — The 
pudenda,  male  or  female. — See 
LABLE respectively  for  syno- 

CONCERNED, ppl.  adj.  (old).  — 
Drunk.  For  synonyms,  see 

1686.  Magdalen  College  and  King 
James  II.  (Oxford  Hist.  Soc.),  quoted  in 
Athenaum,  8  Jan.,  1887,  p.  56.  When 
Mr.  Anthony  Farmer  came  to  the  Lobster 
about  eleven  at  night,  he  came  much 
CONCERNED  in  drink. 

17(?,).  SWIFT.  [Quoted  in  DAVIES' 
Supp.  Lex.]  (Mary,  the  cook-maid  to 
Dr.  Sheridan.)  Which,  and  I  am  sure 
I  have  been  his  servant  four  years  sine*? 
October,  And  never  call'd  me  worse  than 

sweetheart,  drunk  or  sober  ;  Not  that  I 
know  his  Reverence  was  ever  CONCERN'D 
to  my  knowledge  ;  Tho'  you  and  your 
come-rogues  keep  him  out  so  late  in  your 
wicked  college. 

1834.  TAYLOR,  Ph.  van  Art.,  pt.  II., 
iii.,  3.  Oh,  she's  a  light  skirts !  yea,  and 
at  this  present  A  little,  as  you  see,  CON- 
CERN'D with  liquor. 

CONCHERS,  subs.  (Australian).  - 
Tame  or  quiet  cattle. 

CON  DIDDLE,  verb  (old). — To  pur- 
loin or  steal.  [From  Latin  con, 
a  pleonastic  prefix,  +  DIDDLE, 
'to  cheat.'  CONDIDDLED  is 
quoted  by  Grose  in  the  Provincial 
Glossary,  1787,  as  signifying  'dis- 
persed. '] 

1825.  SCOTT,  St.  Ronaris  Well,  ch. 
iv.  '  Twig  the  old  connoissoeur,'  said  the 
Squire  to  the  Knight,  'he  is  CONDIDDLING 
the  drawing." 

CON  DOG,  verb  (common).  —  To 
agree  with.  [A  facetious  varia- 
tion of  '  concur  ' ;  '  cur '  =  dog.] 

CON  FA  B,  subs,  (colloquial).  — 
Familiar  talk.  [A  contraction  of 
confabulation ;  Latin  confabulatio.  ] 

1778.  D'ARBLAY,  Diary,  etc.  (1876), 
vol.  I.,  p.  37.  We  had  a  very  nice  CON- 
FAB about  various  books. 

1789.  WOLCOT  ('P.  Pindar'),  Sub- 
jects for  Painters,  in  wks.  (Dublin,  1795), 
vol.  II.,  p.  26.  For  lo,  with  many  a 
King  and  many  a  Queen,  in  close  CONFAB 
the  gentleman  is  seen. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  75.  Sibthorp, 
meeting  Peel  in  the  House  of  Commons 
after  congratulating  him  on  his  present 
enviable  position,  finished  the  CONFAB 
with  the  following  unrivalled  conundrum. 

1850.  F.  E.  SMEDLEY,  Frank  Fair- 
leigh,  ch.  xxv.  '  Mr.  Harry  .  .  .  called 
Mr.  Archer  into  his  own  room,  and  they 
had  a  CONFAB.' 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  JacKs  Court- 
ship, ch.  viii.  This  ended  our  CONFAB 
and  half  an  hour  afterwards  I  stood  in 
the  hall  shaking  hands  all  round. 

Verb. — T'o  talk    in  a  familiar 
manner;  to  chat. — See  stibs. , sense. 



1778.  D'ARBLAY,  Diary,  etc.  (1876), 
vol.  I.  p.  85.  Mrs.  Thrale  and  I  were 
dressing,  and,  as  usual,  CONFABBING. 

CONFECTIONERY,  subs.  (American). 
— A  drinking  bar.  An  analogous 
term  is  GROCERY,  but  for  syno- 
nyms, see  LUSH-CRIB. 

BUCK,  stibs.  phr.  (common). — A 
process  of  swindling,  the  basis  of 
which  consists  in  obtaining  trust 
with  the  deliberate  intention  of 
betraying  it  to  your  own  ad- 
vantage. A  greenhorn  meets  (or 
rather  is  picked  up  by)  a  stranger 
who  invites  him  to  drink.  The 
stranger  admires  him  openly,  pro- 
tests his  CONFIDENCE  in  him,  and 
to  prove  his  sincerity  hands  him 
over  a  large  amount  of  money 
[snide]  or  valuables  [bogus],  with 
which  to  walk  off  and  return. 
The  greenhorn  does  both,  where- 
upon the  stranger  suggests  that  it 
is  his  turn  next,  and  being 
favoured  with  certain  proofs  of 
'  confidence,'  which  in  this  case 
are  real,  decamps  and  is  no  more 
seen.  This  is  the  simplest  form 
of  the  trick,  but  the  CONFIDENCE 
MAN  is  inexhaustible  in  devices. 
In  many  cases  the  subject's 
idiosyncrasy  takes  the  form  of 
an  idiotic  desire  to  overreach  his 
fellows;  i.e.,  he  is  only  a  knave, 
wrong  side  out,  and  it  is  upon  this 
idiosyncrasy  that  the  operator 
works.  He  offers  a  sham  gold 
watch  at  the  price  of  a  nickel  one  ; 
he  calls  with  presents  from  no- 
where where  none  sre  expected  ; 
he  writes  letters  announcing  huge 
legacies  to  persons  absolutely 
kinless  ;  and  as  his  appeal  is  ad- 
dressed to  the  sister  passions  of 
greed  and  dishonesty  he  seldom 
fails  of  his  reward.  Fr.,  mener 
en  bateau  un  pante  pour  le  rc- 

faire  —  'to  stick  a  jay  and  flap 

CONFLABBERATED,   ppl.  adj.  (com- 

mon). — Bothered  ;  upset;  'flum- 
moxed. ' 

CONFLABBERATION,       subs.       (com- 

mon). — A  confused   wrangle  ;    a 

CONFOUNDED,  adj.  (colloquial). — 
Excessive  ;  odious ;  detestable  ; 
e.g.,  a  CONFOUNDED  nuisance, 
lie,  humbug,  etc.  [CONFOUND 
is  properly  '  to  mistake  one  for 
another,'  or  'to  throw  into  con- 
sternation.' In  its  colloquial 
sense  CONFOUNDEP  is  misused 
much  as  are  'awful,?  'beastly,' 
and  other  'strumpets  of  speech.'] 

1766.      O.     GOLDSMITH,      Yicar    °f 
Wakefield,  eft.  vii.'(ed.  1827),  p.  427     Mr 
Thornhill,  loQ.  :  '  For  what  are  tythes  and 
tricks  but  an  imposition,  all  CONFOUNDED 

CONFUBUSCATE,  verb  (popular). 
—See  quot.,  and  Cf.,  CONFUS- 


1880.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  You  mustn't 
tickle  me.'  I  hope  I  don't  CONFUBUSCATE, 
I'se  Topsy  from  the  Georgia  State. 

CON  FUSTIGATE,  verb  (American). 
— To  confuse. 

CONIACKER,  subs,  (thieves'). — A 
counterfeiter  ;  smasher  ;  or 
'  queer-bit '  faker.  [Obviously  a 
play  upon  COIN,  money,  and 
HACK,  to  mutilate.]  Fr.,  un 
mornifleur  tarte. 

1871.  DE  VERB,  A  mericanisms,  p.  296. 
False  coins,  the  makers  of  which  are  curi- 
ously called  CONIACKERS. 

CONISH,  adj.  (old). — See  quot. 

1830.  SIR.  E.  B.  LVTTON,  Paul 
Clifford,  p.  29  (ed.  1854).  '  Paul,  my  ben 
cull,'  said  he  with  a  knowing  wink,  and 




nudging  the  young  gentleman  in  the  left 
side,  '  vot  do  you  say  to  a  drop  o'  blue 
ruin?  or,  as  you  likes  to  be  CONISH  (gen- 
teel), I  doesn't  care  if  I  sports  you  a  glass 
of  port.' 

CONK,  subs,  (popular). — The  nose. 
[Hotten  says  :  possibly  from  the 
Latin  concha,  a  shell.  Greek, 
Koyxn  —  hence  anything  hollow. 
A  parallel  is  testa  =a.n  earthen- 
ware pot,  a  shell,  in  Latin  ;  and  in 
later  Latin- a  skull  ;  whence  the 
French  teste  or  tete  =  head.  C/., 
quot.,  l8j8.] 

or  boco ;  proboscis ;  smeller 
bowsprit;  claret-jug;  gig;  muzzle 
cheese-cutter  ;  beak  ;  snuff-box 
snorter  ;  post-horn  ;  paste-horn 
handle;  snout;  nozzle;  smelling 
cheat  ;  snotter  ;  candlestick 
celestial  ;  snottle-box  ;  snuffler 
trumpet  ;  snorer  ;  peak. 

bouteille  (popular  :  literally  '  a 
bottle  ') ;  un  Bourbon  (popular  : 
an  abbreviated  form  of  nez  h  la 
Bourbon.  In  allusion  to  the  thick, 
prominent,  and  almost  aquiline 
Bourbon  nose)  ;  un  blair  or  blaire 
(popular)  ;  un  caillou  (popular  : 
properly  '  a  flint.'  In  allusion  to 
a  Bardolphiari,  a  light  -  giving, 
quality) ;  un  tubercule  (familiar  : 
applied  to  a  big  nose.  In  medicine 
'  a  tumour,'  '  swelling,'  or  '  pro- 
tuberance ')  ;  un  pivase  (popular : 
a  nose  of  large  dimensions. 
Michel  derives  the  word  from 
pive=.l&  grog-blossom'  or  'pin- 
point,' properly  a  fir-apple) ;  un 
pi  ton  (popular :  literally  a  geo- 
graphical term  meaning  'a  peak.' 
Un  piton  passe  a  lencaustique,  a 
red  or  '  copper-nose ') ;  un  pif  or 
pifre  (general)  ;  une  t'ompe 
(literally  '  a  horn  '  or  *  trumpet ')  ; 
une  truffe  (popular  :  literally  '  a 

truffle,'  for  which  pigs  are  trained 
to  search.  Hence  a  French- 
man when  he  wants  to  call  a 
man  a  pig,  says  //  a  tin  nez  a 
ch'ercherdes truffes] ;  une  trompette 
(popular  :  literally  *  a  trumpet ') ; 
tin.  naze  (popular  and  thieves'  : 
a  Proven9alism)  ;  tin  nazaret 
(popular)  ;  un  chandelier  (popu- 
lar) ;  une  iasse  (popular)  ;  un 
sabot  (popular) ;  un  os  &  moelle 
(thieves':  literally  'a  marrow- 
bone.' Faire  juter  Fos  a  moelle 
=  to  use  the  fingeis  as  a  hand- 
kerchief) ;  un  eteignoir  (popular  : 
a  large  nose  ;  literally,  '  an  extin- 
guisher'); un  nazonnant  (popu- 
lar) ;  un  minois  (thieves'  : 
obsolete) ;  un  nurliton  (popular); 
un  morviau  (popular). 

or  Muffett  (from  muffen,  muffeln, 
or  murfeln  = '  to  smell ');  Schntitz- 
ling  or  Schnauzling  \  Schnut  (a 
North  German  form  of  Schnauze. 
Schnut  is  a  favourite  nickname 
among  thieves,  especially  for 
those  who  possess  long  noses  ; 
also  a  pet.  name  for  a  sweet-hearc 
or  doxy.  Schnutenmelech  or 
Schnutcnkdnig\  the  nosey  king, 
or  nosey  one)  ;  Schniffling. 

(this  exactly  corresponds  to  the 
English  '  snorter  ' ;  it  signifies 
literally  'blowing'  or  'breath- 
ing ')  >  fiauto  or  Jlauto  (properly 
'  a  flute  ')  ;  maremagno  (Jiterally 
*the  great  sea'). 

1838.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  158.  I 
have  inserted  a  small  item  from  my  sur- 
geon's bill,  for  repairs  of  his  companions' 
noses,  damaged  by  his  passion  for  CON- 


1840.  H.  COCKTON,  Valentine  Vox, 
ch.  xxviii.  He  fancied  it  proper  to  put  on 
his  nose  before  he  alighted  from  the  cab. 
'  Oh  !  oh  !  there's  a  CONK  !  there's  a 
smeller!  Oh!  oh!'  exclaimed  about  fifty- 
voices  in  chorus. 



Const  it  u  tional. 

1859.  Punch,  vol.  XXXVII.,  p.  54. 
'  Essence  of  Parliament.'    July  25,  Mon- 
day,    Lord  Lyndhurst  let  fly  and  caught 
him  what  (if  pugilistic  terms  be  not  out  of 
place   when  one  is  alluding  to  so  pacific 
a   personage)  may  be   designated  an  ex- 
tremely neat  one  on  the  CONK. 

1860.  Chambers  Journal,  vol.  XIII., 
p.  348.     His  nose  is  his  CONK. 

1887.     ATKIN,   House  Scraps, 
'dexter  ogle'  has  a  ' mouse '•  Hl'c 
devoid  of  bark. 

His  CONK'S 

1889.  Ansivers,  p  Feb.  That  portion 
of  his  countenance  which  is  euphemistically 
described  in  the  language  of  lower  London 
as  a  CONK. 


CONSCIENCE,  subs,  (theatrical). — 
Thus  explained  in  Slang,  Jargon, 
and  Cant :  A  kind  of  association 
in  a  small  company  for  the  aljot- 
ment  of  shares  in  the  profits,  etc. 
The  man  who  is  lucky  enough  to 
have  a  concern  of  his  own,  gener- 
ally a  very  small  affair,  however 
badly  jie  may  act,  must  be  the 
leading  man  or  first  low  comedian, 
perhaps  both.  He  becomes  the 
manager,  of  course,  and  thus  has 
one  share  for  'fit-up,'  one  for 
scenery,  one  and  a  half  for 
management,  one  for  wardrobe, 
one  and  a  half  as  leading  man  ; 
and  the  same  is  given  to  the  wife, 
who,  of  course,  will  not  play 
anything  but  the  juvenile  lead, 
but  who  at  any  other  time  would 
be  glad  to  play  first  old  woman. 


phr.  (common). — To  go  in  for  a 
bout  of  dissipation. 

CONSONANT  -  CHOKER,  subs,  (com- 
mon). —  One  that  clips  his  G's 
and  muffles  his  R's. 

THE  CONSTABLE,  verbal  phr. 
(common). — To  live  beyond  one's 
means  and  get  into  debt;  also,  in 
a  figurative  sense,  to  escape  from 
a  bad  argument  ;  '  to  change  the 
subject';  to  1alk  about  what  is 
not  understood. 

1663.  BUTLER,  Hudibras, pt.  I.,  canto 
iii.,  1.  1367.  Quoth  Hudibras,  Friend 
Ralph,  mod  hast  OUT-RUN  THE  CON- 
STABLE at  last';  For  thou  art  fallen  as  a 
new  Dispute,  as  senseless  as  untrue,  But 
to  the  former  opposite,  And  contrary  as 
black  to  white. 

1748.  SMOLLETT,  Rad.  Random,  ch. 
xxjji.  He  inquired,  '  how  far  have  you 

OVERRUN    THE    CONSTABLE?'      I    told    him 

that  the  debt  amounted  to  eleven  pounds. 

1766.  ANSTEY,  New  Bath  Guide, 
letter  vii.  And  some  people  think  with 
such  haste  he  began,  That  soon  he  THE 

1782.  WOLCOT  ('P.  Pindar'),  Rights 
of  Kings,  ode  xi.  Got  deep  in  debt,  THE 


1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  ch.  xli., 
p.  357.  '  He  RUN  a  match  agin  THE 
CONSTABLE,  and  vun  it.'  '  In  other  words,  I 
suppose.'  said  Mr.  Pickwick,  'he  got  into 
debt.'  'Just  that,  sir,'  replied  Sam. 

CONSTICIAN,   subs,    (theatrical). — 
A  member  of  the  orchestra. 

CONSTITUTIONAL,  subs,  (colloquial). 
— A  walk  undertaken  for  the  sake 
of  health  and  exercise  [/.£.,  for 
the  benefit  of  the  constitution]. 
Tronchiner,  from  Doctor  Tron- 
chin,  is  French  for  the  verb, 
tronchinade  for  the  act. 

1850.  F.  E.  SMEDLEY,  Frank  Fair- 
leigh,  ch.  xxix.  One  evening,  about  a  week 
before  the  examinations  were  to  begin,  I 
was  taking  my  usual  CONSTITUTIONAL 
after  Hall. 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('Cuthbert 
Bede'),  Verdant  Green,  pt.  II.,  p.  41. 
At  one  time  he  was  a  great  friend  of  Cocky 
Palmer's,  and  used  to  go  with  him  to  the 
Cock  fights  at  Wheatley — that  Village  just 
on  the  other  side  Shotover  Hill — where  we 
did  a  CONSTITUTIONAL  the  other  day. 




1871.  City  of  London  Directory. 
1  Facts  and  Anomalies."  The  valetudi- 
narian has  not  much  choice  in  the  city  for 
a  CONSTITUTIONAL,  seeing  that  it  possesses 
but  three  walks,  and  '  Long  Walk '  is  the 

CONTANGO, subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
— A  fine  paid  by  the  buyer  to  the 
seller  of  stock  for  carrying  over 
the  engagement  to  another 
settling  day,  and  representing  a 
kind  of  interest  for  a  fourteen 
days'  extension.  [Thought  to  be 
a  corruption  of  *  continuation.'] 

1853.  Notes  and  Queries,  17  Dec.,  p. 
586,  col.  2.  CONTANGO  :  a  technical  term 
m  use  among  the  sharebrokers  of  Liver- 
pool, and  I  presume  elsewhere,  signifying 
a  sum  of  money  paid  for  accommodating 
either  a  buyer  or  seller  by  carrying  the 
engagement  to  pay  money  or  deliver 
shares  over  to  the  next  account  day. 

1871.  Daily  News,  27  Feb.     A  large 
amount  of  money  was  offered  in  the  Stock 
Exchange,   in   connection  with    the   fort- 
nightly settlement,  which  began  this  morn- 
ing,   and     the    CONTANGOES    on    British 
railway    securities   were   light,  while   the 
supply  of  stock  was  small. 

1872.  Evening-   Standard,    n   Dec. 
1  City     Intelligence.'       Erie     Shares    are 
steady  ;  the  CONTANGO  is  3d.  to  gd. 

1884.  Daily  Nevus,  Nov.  13,  p.  5,  col. 
i.  City  shop  is  not  less  baffling,  and  it  is 
perhaps  impossible  for  laymen  to  under- 
stand what  CONTANGO  means.  CON- 
TANGO, by  the  way,  would  be  a  proud 
motto  for  an  ennobled  stockbroker,  and 
would  look  well  under  a  crest. 

1887.  ATKIN,  House Scraps.  B  stands 
for  broker,  for  bull  and  for  bear,  C's  the 
CONTANGO  that's  paid  by  the  bull. 

CONTENT,  adv.  (old). — Dead.  For 
synonyms,  see  ALOFT  and  HOP 


1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  VuJg.  Tmigue. 
The  cull's  CONTENT  :  the  man  is  past 
complaining  (cant),  saying  of  a  person 
murdered  for  resisting  the  robbers. 

CONTINENT,  adv.  (Winchester  Col- 
lege).—Ill  ;  on  the  sick  list. 
[Ft  om  eontinens  cameram  vel  Jec- 
tum,  keeping  one's  room  or  bed.] 
— See  ABROAD. 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School  Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  146.  When  a  boy 
felt  ill,  or  inclined  to  quit  school  for  a 
period,  he  had  to  get  leave  CONTINENT 
which  was  done  by  sending  a  boy  in  the 
morning  first  to  get  leave  from  his  tutor, 
and  then  from  the  Head  Master. 

1878.  ADAMS,  Wykehamica^  p.  224 
We  suggested  the  '  CONTINENT  room  ' ; 
and  on  being  required  to  say  what  was 
to  become  of  the  sick  boys  ?  replied,  that 
it  was  notorious  that  there  was  never 
anything  the  matter  with  them  ! 


CONTINENTAL         DAMN,          phr. 

(American). — To  be  worthless  ; 
net  to  care  in  the  least  degree. 
[CONTINENTAL  was  the  common 
qualification  at  the  time  of  the 
Revolution  of  whatever  concerned 
the  American  Colonies  before 
they  were  united  into  a  con- 
federacy ;  hence  CONTINENTAL 
congress,  CONTINENTAL  money, 
CONTINENTAL  troops  ;  while  the 
people  themselves  were  generally 
spoken  of  as  CONTINENTALLERS 
TAL DAMN,  a  term  almost  uni- 
versally applied  to  the  worthless 
CONTINENTAL  paper  money  of 
those  days  is,  nevertheless  held 
by  James  Grant  White  (Words 
and  their  Uses}  to  be  a  counter- 
part, if  not  a  mere  modification, 
of  other  phrases  of  the  same 
kidney — a  tinker's  or  trooper's 
damn,  etc. — and  as  the  colonial 
troops  were  called  CONTI- 
during  the  war,  and  for  many 
years  afterwards,  it  is  probable 
that  it  began  as  a  CONTINENTAL'S 
DAMN.  Pass:ng  to  the  general 
phrase  '  not  worth  a  damn  '  Mr. 
White  thinks  that  the  'damn  '  = 
A.  S.  cerse.  =  watercress.  Piers 
Ploughman  (1362)  sa)s*  wisdom 
and  witt  nowe  is  not  worth  a 
kerse  '  and  transition,  by  reason 




of  identity  of  sound  and  a  love 
of  variety,  from  '  not  worth  a 
curse '  to  '  not  worth  a  damn '  is 
easy.] — See  CARE  and  CURSE. 

1869.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark 
Twain '),  The  Innocents  at  Home,  p.  20. 
He  didn't  give  a  CONTINENTAL  for  any- 
body. Beg  your  pardon,  friend,  for  coming 
so  near  saying  a  cuss-word. 

1888.  Missouri  Republican,  16  Feb. 
I  am  not  worrying  about  the  nomination, 
if  I  don't  receive  it. 

CONTINUATIONS,  subs,  (general). — 
Trousers.  [Of  analogous  deriva- 
etc.]  For  synonyms,  see  BAGS 
and  KICKS. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  4,  col.  i. 
Like  the  London  dustmen,  the  Newmarket 
jockeys,  the  peripatetic  vendors,  or  buyers 
of  '  old  clo','  or  the  Albert  CONTINUATIONS 
at  one  pound  one,  they  appear  to  be  made 
to  measure  for  the  same. 

1853.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  Digby 
Grand,  ch.  xx.  To  whose  wonderfully- 
fitting  CONTINUATIONS,  'pants'  he  calls 
them,  the  '  Ananyridians '  themselves  are 
but  as  a  Dutchman's  drawers. 

CONTRAPTIONS,  subs.  (American). 
— Small  articles  ;  tools ;  and  so 

1833.  J.  C.  NEAL,  Charcoal  Sketches. 
For  my  part,  I  can't  say  as  how  I  see 
what's  to  be  the  end  of  all  of  them  new- 
fangled CONTRAPTIONS.  [DE  V.] 

CONTROL  FORTUNE,  verbal  phr. 
(card-sharpers').  —  To  cheat  at 
cards. — See  ROOK. 

CONVENIENCE,  subs,  (common). — 
A  water-closet  or  chamber-pot. 

CONVENIENT,  subs,  (old).— A  mis- 
tress. For  synonyms,  see  BAR- 

1676.  ETHEREGE,  Man  of  Modf, 
III.,  iii.,  in  wks.  (1704),  233.  Dorimant's 
CONVENIENT,  Madam  Loveit. 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sq.  of  Alsatia,  II., 
in  wks.  (1720),  iv.,  47.  But  where's  your 
lady,  captain,  and  the  blowing,  that  is  to 
be  my  natural,  my  CONVENIENT,  my  pure? 
Ibid,  I.,  iv.,  p.  22.  Shamweli.  Thou  art 
i'  th'  right  ;  but,  captain,  where's  the 
CONVENIENT,  the  Natural?  Hackum. 
Why,  at  my  house  ;  my  wife  has  brought 
her  into  a  good  humour ;  she  is  very 

1785.    GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,*.v. 
1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 


CONVEY,  verb  (old). — To  steal.  [In 
law,  to  transfer  from  one  person 
to  another  5  by  which  it  will  be 
seen  th^t  '  there  is  a  certain 
humour  in  the  expression.]  For 
synonyms,  see  PRIG.  Cf.,  ANNEX. 

1596,  SHAKSPEARE,  Merry  Wives 
a/  Windsor,  Act  i.,  Sc.  3.  Nym.  The 
good  humour  is,  to  steal  at  a  minute's 
rest.  Pist.  CONVEY,  the  wise  it  call. 

1607.  MARSTON,  What  You  Will, 
II.,  260.  Bu  t,  as  I  am  Crack,  I  will  CONVEY, 
crossbite,  and  cheat  upon  Simplicius. 

1883.  A.  DOBSON,  Old  World 
Idylls,  p.  237.  If  they  hint,  O  Musician, 
the  piece  that  you  played  Is  nought  but  a 
copy  of  Chopin  or  Spohr  ;  That  the  ballad 
you  sing  is  but  merely  CONVEYED  From 
the  stock  of  the  Arnes  and  the  Purcells  of 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  31  Oct.,  p.  3, 
col.    i.     Three    great    works    of   research 
and  collaboration  have  been  projected  and 
partially  or  wholly  executed   in   England 
within  the  lifetime  of  thepresentgeneration. 
They  are   the  Encyclopedia  Britannica, 
the  Dictionary  of  National  Biography, 
and  the  New  English  Dictionary.     Each 
of  these,  but  especially  the  last  (from  which 
the  Century  crew  have  CONVEYED  freely) 
is   as   perfect   in   its   way  as  any  human 
undertaking  can  be. 

1890.  Scots  Observer,  14  June,  p.  98, 
col.  i.     Lest  this  may  seem  an  ungenerous 
suspicion,   I  hasten   to  say   that  it  would 
never  have  crossed   my  mind  had   not  so 
many  of  the  other  characters  in  this  re- 
markable production    (?)   been    obviously 
CONVEYED    (delicious    word !)    from   well- 
known  novels. 



Cony- Catcher. 

CONVEYANCE,  subs.  (old). —A  theft. 
— [See  CONVEY  and  CONVEY- 

1592.  SHAKSPEARE,  /.  Hen.  VI.,  i.,  3. 
Since  Henry's  death,  I  fear  there  is 


1712.  Spectator,  No.  305.  Provided 
the  CONVEYANCE  was  clean  and  unsus- 
pected, a  youth  might  afterwards  boast 
of  it. 

CONVEYANCER,  subs.  (old).  —  A 
thief.  [From  CONVEY,  to  steal. 
In  law,  one  whose  occupation  is 
to  draw  conveyances  or  transfers 
of  property,  deeds,  etc.]  —  See 

1857.  SNOWDRN,  Mag.  Assistant  (3 
ed.),  p.  445.  To  pick  pockets  :  to  buzz, 
buzzmen,  clyfakeis,  CONVEYANCERS. 

CONVEYANCING,  verbal  subs  (com- 
mon).— Thieving.  [In  law,  the 
act  or  practice  of  drawing  up  deeds, 
leases,  etc.,  for  transferring  the 
title  to  property  from  one  per- 
son to  another.  C/7,  CONVEY, 
to  steal.] 

1865.  MR.  SMOLLETT,  in  House  of 
Commons,  14  March.  '  Speech  on  the 
Nawab  of  the  Carnatic.'  Pickpockets  in 
I^ondon,  when  they  appropriated  purses 
or  watches,  called  the  transaction  CON- 

1889.  Modern  Society  (quoted  in  .9., 
/.  and  C.),  p.  269.  The  green  youth  who 

attempted    to    decamp  with 's    watch 

.  .  .  was  properly  punished  for  his  verdancy 
in  the  art  of  CONVEYANCING. 

CONVEYER,  subs,  (old).— A  thief. 
[One  who  conveys  or  steals.] 
Fr.,  emposleur. 

1597.  SHAKSPEARE,  Richard II.,  iv., 
sub.  fin.  O  good  convey  !  CONVEYERS  are 
you  all,  That  rise  thus  nimbly  by  a  true 
king's  fall. 

CONY  or  TOM  CONY,  subs.  (old). — 
A  simpleton.  [From  the  pro- 
verbial simplicity  of  the  rabbit 
or  CONY.] — See  CONY -CATCH, 

verb,  and  for  synonyms,  BUFFLE- 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vul.  Tongue,  s.v. 

CoNY-CATCH,ew£  (old).— To  cheat; 
deceive  ;  trick  ;  or  '  BITE  '  (q.v.}. 
[Literally  'to  catch  conies.'] 
Dekker,  in  his  English  Villainies, 
describes  the  system  which  is 
obviously  the  equivalent  of  the 
(q.v. ).  A  society  of  sharpers  of 
this  type  was  called  'a  warren,' 
and  their  dupes  '  rabbit-suckers  ' 
(that  is,  baby  rabbits),  or  conies. 
At  other  times  the  gang  were 
'  bird-catchers,'  and  their  quarry 
was  '  a  gull,'  etc.  For  synonyms, 
see  STICK. 

1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  Tawing  of  the 
Shrew,  v.,  i.  Take  heed,  signor  Baptista, 
lest  you  be  CONNY-CATCHED  in  this 

1596.  NASHE,  Saffron  Walden,  in 
wks.  III.,  158.  Hereby  hee  thought  to 
CONNY-CATCH  the  simple  world. 

1604.  DEKKER,  Honest  Wk.,  in  wks. 
(1873)  II.,  12.  Why,  sister,  do  you  thinke 
He  CONNY-CATCH  you,  when  you  are  my 
cozen  ? 

CONY  CATCHER,  sttbs.  (old).  —  A 
cheat ;  sharper  ;  or  trickster. 
[From  CONY-CATCH,  verb  (q.v.\ 
+  ER.  ]  For  synonyms,  see  ROOK. 

1592.  JOHN  DAY,  Blind  Beggar,  Act 
Hi.,  Sc.  3,  p.  57.  We'll  go  seek  out 
those  CONY-CATCHERS  ;  and  ere  I  catch 
them,  I'll  make  them  pay  soundly  all  for 
their  roguery. 

1599.  MINSHEW,  Dict.,s.v.  ACONIE- 
CATCHER  :  a  name  given  to  deceivers,  by 
a  metaphor,  taken  from  those  that  rob 
warrens,  and  conie-grounds,  using  all 
means,  sleights,  and  cunning  to  deceive 
them,  as  pitching  of  haies  before  their 
holes,  fetching  them  in  by  tumblers,  etc. 

1602.  ROWLANDS,  Greenes  Ghost,  p. 
3.  (Hunterian  Club's  Repr.)  And  the 
name  of  CONICATCHERS  is  so  odious,  that 
now  a  dayes  it  is  had  vp,  and  vsed  for  an 
opprobrious  name  for  euerie  one  that 
sheweth  the  least  occasion  for  deceit. 

Cony-Catching.          *73 


1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xxiii.  Marry,  thou  hast  me  on  the  hip 
there,  thou  old  miserly  CONY-CATCHER  ! 

CONY-CATCHING,  verbal  subs.  (old). 
— Cheating  ;  trickery  ;  swindling 
after  the  manner  of  CONY- 
CATCHERS  (q.v.)-  Shakspeare, 
says  Nares,  has  once  used  it  to 
express  harmless  roguery,  play- 
ing jocular  tricks,  and  no  more 
[seeqaot.,  1593].  For  synonyms, 
see  SELL. 

1592.  GREENE,  Groundwork  of  Canny- 
Catching,    p.  2.  ...  this   booke,  wherein 
thou  shall  find  the  ground-worke  of  CONNY- 


1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  Taming  of  the 
Shrew,  iv.,   i.     Come,   you  are  so  full  of 


1608.  MIDDLETON,  Trick  to  Catch 
the  Old  One,  III.,  iv.  Thou  hast  more 
CONY-CATCHING  devices  than  all  London. 

1703.  WARD,  London  Spy,  pt.  XL, 
3.  260.  And  being  almost  Drunk,  their 


p.   260. 
Brains  r 

1884.  Daily  News,  Jan.  5,  p.  5,  col.  2. 
CONEY-CATCHING,  or  its  modern  equiva- 
lent, the  confidence  trick. 

Ppl.  adj.  (old).—  Mutatis  fnu- 
tandis,  the  same  as  the  substan- 
tive (q.v.}. 

159*5.  SHAKSPEARE,  Merry  Wives  of 
Windsor,  i.,  i.  Marry,  sir,  I  have  matter 
in  my  head  against  you  ;  and.  against  your 
CONEY-CATCHING  rascals,  Bardolph  Nym, 
and  Pistol. 

1596.  BEN  ,  JONSON,  Every  Man  in 
His  Humour,  iii.,  i.  Whoreson  CONEY- 
CATCHING  rascal  1  I  could  eat  the  very 
hilts  for  anger. 

COO-E-E-E,  or  Coo-EY,  subs.  (Aus- 
tralian). —  A  signal  cry  of  the 
Australian  blackfellow,  adopted 
by  the  invading  whites.  The 
final  '  e '  is  a  very  high  note,  a 
sort  of  prolonged  screech,  that 
resounds  for  miles  through  the 
bush,  and  thus  enables  parties 
that  have  lost  each  other  to 
ascertain  their  relative  positions. 

1883.  _  Graphic,  July  7,  p.  6,  col.  3. 
COO-E-E  is  the  Australian  cry  for  help. 
When  the  two  hands  are  used,  and  the 
coo  properly  pitched,  it  can  be  heard  a 
wonderful  distance.  Whenever  a  COO-E-E 
is  heard  in  the  bush  it  is  a  matter  of  con- 
science to  answer  it  and  see  what  is 

.  1887;  G:  L.  APPERSON,  in  All  the 
Year  Round,  30  July,  p.  67,  col.  i.  A 
common  mode  of  expression  is  to  be  '  within 
COOEY  '  of  a  place.  Originally,  no  doubt, 
this  meant  to  be  within  the  distance  at 
which  the  well-known  COOEY  or  bush  cry, 
could  be  heard ;  now  it  simply  means 
within  easy  reach  of  a  place.  To  be 
'within,  COOEY'  of  Sydney  is  to  be  at 
the  distance  of  an  easy  journey  there- 

1889.  E.  S.  RAWSON,  In  Australian 
Wilds.  '  A  Queensla,nd  Mystery.'  It  is 
solely  on  this^  or  the  mad  theory,  that 
one  could  account  for  the  startling  effects 
of  Jim's  COOEE  or  otherwise  to  the  be- 
lated wanderer  it  would  have  been  a 
revelation  of  joy  and  rescue. 

COOK,  verb  (colloquial).  —  i.  To 
tamper  with,  garble,  or  falsify. 
Accounts  are  COOKED  when  so 
altered  as  to  look  better  than  they 
are.  Pictures  are  COOKED  when 
dodged-up  for  sale.  Painters  say 
that  a  picture  will  not  COOK  when 
it  is  so  excellent  as  to  be  b'eyond 

1751.  SMOLLETT,  Peregrine  Pickle, 
ch.  xcviii.  Some  falsified  printed  accounts, 
artfully  COOKED  up,  on  purpose  to  mislead 
and  deceive. 

1856.  Punch,  vol.  XXXI.,  p.  189. 
'  Advertisement  of  Bubble  Bank  Book- 
keeping,' by  Prof.  McDooall.  It  is 
remarkable  especially  for  the  facilities  it 
offers  for  COOKING  the  accounts,  as  it 
entirely  prevents  any  possibility  of 
checking  them. 

18H3.  C.  READE,  Hard  Cash,  Hi,  p. 
19.  When  A.  has  been  looking  up  to  B 
for  thirty  years,  he  cannot  look  down 
on  him  all  of  a  sudden,  just  because  he 
catches  him  falsifying  accounts.  Why, 
man  is  a  COOKING  animal ;  commercial 
man  especially. 

1871.  The  Athenaeum,  4  Feb.  The 
great  work  of  art  of  Ivan  Turgeneff, 
the  Notes  by  a  Sportsman  had  been  what 
is  vulgarly  called  COOKED  for  the  French 




1872.  SPENCER,  Study  of  Sociology, 
ch.  yi.,  p.  119  (9  ed.).  The  dishonesty 
implied  in  the  adulterations  of  tradesmen 
and  manufacturers  ...  in  COOKING  of 
railway  accounts  and  financial  pros- 

1888.  GRANT  ALLEN,  This  Mortal  Coil, 
ch.  v.  Where  Warren  Relf  was  seated 
COOKING  a  sky  in  one  of  his  hasty  seaside 


1890.  Saturday  Review,  i  Feb.,  p. 
_  ,,  col.  i.  We  referred,  in  our  last  article 
upon  this  [gambling]  subject,  to  the  Pat  is 
Mutuels,  and  explained  their  working. 
Now  money  has  to  be  found  somehow  for 
the  poorer  classes  to  get  to  the  Mutuel 
and  back  their  fancies,  and  the  clerk 
COOKS  his  books,  and  the  shop-boy  '  fingers 
the  till.1 

2.  See  COOK  ONE'S  GOOSE,  of 
which  it  is  an  abbreviation. 

3.  (colloquial).  —  To    swelter 
with  heat   and   sweat.       In   this 
sense  the  Fourbesque  has  ansare ; 
literally  *  to  be  out  of  breath.' 

To  COOK  ONE'S  GOOSE,  -verbal 
phr.  (common).  —  To  '  settle  '  ; 
'  worst ' ;  kill ;  or  ruin. 

anodyne  ;  to  put  to  bed  ;  to  snuff 
out ;  to  give,  or  cook  one's 
gruel ;  to  corpse  ;  to  cooper  up  ; 
to  wipe  out ;  to  spiflicate ;  to 
settle,  or  settle  one's  hash ;  to 
squash;  to  shut  up;  to  send  to  pot; 
to  smash;  to  finish;  to  do  for  ;  to 
bugger  up ;  to  put  one's  light  out ; 
to  stop  one's  little  game ;  to 
stop  one's  galloping ;  to  put  on 
an  extinguisher ;  to  clap  a 
stopper  on ;  to  bottle  up  ;  to 
squelch;  to  play  hell  (orbuggeiy) 
with  ;  to  rot  ;  to  squash  up ;  to 
stash;  to  give  a  croaker.  For 
synonyms  in  the  sense  of  cir- 
cumvention, see  FLOORED. 

son  affaire  (familiar :  this  aho 
means  to  have  got  'a  settler,' 

and  '  to  be  absolutely  drunk  ' )  ; 
buter  (thieves'  =  '  to  kill '  or 
'  execute  ')  ;  escarper  (thieves')  ; 
envoy  er  essay  er  une  chemise  desapin 
(military  :  literally  '  to  send  one 
to  try  on  a  deal  shirt.'  Cf., 
'  wooden  surtout '  =  coffin)  ;  faire 
suer  un  chene  (popular  :  suer  = 
to  sweat  ;  chene  =  cove) ;  Jaire 
passer  le  gout  du  pain  (familiar 
=  *  to  give  one  his  gruel ')  ; 
coffier  (thieves' :  an  abbreviation 
of  escoffier,  to  kill) ;  conir 
(thieves') ;  <#<w/r  (thieves' :  former- 
ly esbasir;  Fourbesque  sbasire  and 
Germania  esbasir] ;  mettre  a 
f  ombre  (general  =  to  put  in  the 
shade) ;  endormir  (thieves') ; 
entailler  (thieves') ;  abasonrdir 
(thieves'  :  properly  '  to  astound') ; 
chouriner  or  suriner  (thieves'  : 
'  chourin '  or  surin  =  a  knife) ; 
estonrbir  (thieves')  ;  scionner 
(thieves':  from  sci0n  =  a.  knife); 
faire  un  machabee  (thieves' :  in 
cant  machabee  =  a  drowned 
corpse.  Michel  thinks  the 
expression  originated  either  in 
the  reading  of  //.  Macabees,  ch. 
xii.,  which  is  still  retained  in  the 
Mass  for  the  Dead,  or  through 
la  danse  macabre,  the  Dance  of 
Death  shown  in  the  engravings  of 
the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries);  faire  flatter  un  pante 
( popular  =  to  cook  one's  goose  by 
drowning.  Plotter  =  to  float,  i.e., 
like  a  corpse)  ;  crever  la  paillasse 
(popular  :  literally  '  to  rip  open 
the  mattress')  ;  laver  le  linge dans 
la  saignante  (thieves'  :  to  wash 
linen  in  blood) :  devisserle  trognon 
a  quelqu'un  (popular)  ;  enionner 
(popular  :  see  Michel) ;  estran- 
gouiller  (popular  =  *  to  strangle  '  ; 
from  a  veterinary  term  etran- 
guillon  =  i  the  strangles') ;  tortilh'r 
la  vis,  or  le  gaviau  (thieves'); 
terrer  (thieves' :  to  *  guillotine')  ; 
faire  la  grande  soulasse 




(thieves'  :  soulas,  Old  French 
=  '  solace  '  or  '  comfort  ')  ; 
rebatir  un  pante  (thieves')  ;  sonner 
(popular)  ;  lingrer  (popular)  ; 
envoy  er  ad  patres  (popular  =  '  to 
send  to  one's  fathers  ')  ;  envoy  er  en 
paradis  (general  =  '  to  send  to 
kingdom-come  ')  ;  envoyer  en 
parade  (thieves'  =  '  to  send  on 
parade  ')  ;  capahtiter  (thieves'  = 
to  get  rid  of  an  accomplice  to 
secure  his  share  of  the  booty  ; 
sometimes  rendered  by  refroidir 
a  la  capahut)  ;  decrocher  (mili- 
tary :  literally  'to  unhook,'  'to 
take  down  ')  ;  descendre  quel- 
qu'un  (popular  =  to  bring  down)  ; 
couper  le  sifflet  (popular  =  to 
cut  one's  whistle)  ;  watriniset 
(popular  :  in  reference  to  M. 
Watrin,  who  was  murdered 
by  the  Decazeville  miners  in 
1886.  C/.,  the  English  'to 
burke');  moucher  le  qiiinquet 
(popular  :  '  to  snuff  the  lamp  ')  ; 
faire  saigner  du  nez  (thieves'  = 
'  to  give  a  bloody  nose  ')  ;  sabler 
(thieves')  ;  faire  banque  (common]  ij 
suager  (thieves'  :  from  suer^'  to 

SYNONYMS.  Abjetzen 
(to  kill  by  cutting  or  stabbing)  ; 
abmeken,  abmacken  (Hebrew 
mocho  =  to  put  aside,  to  destroy, 
or  to  give  'tit  for  tat.'  North 
German  afmurksen}  ;  bekern 
machen  (from  the  Hebrew  peger. 
Used  of  animals  it  is  the  equiva- 
lent of  krepieren)  ;  hargenen  or 
horeg  sein  (  '  to  kill  '  or  '  murder.  ' 
Horeg,  the  murderer  ;  Horug,  the 
murdered  ;  nehros?,  murdered  ; 
nehrog  zverden,  to  be  murdered  ; 
Here?  or  ffaripo,  the  murder)  ; 
heimih^^n)  or  heimerlich  spiehn 
(heim,  a  corruption  of  the 
Hebrew  chajim  =  life)  ;  Kappore 
machen  or  fetzen  (literally  *  to 
make  purified.'  From  the  He- 

brew kophar)  •  memissen  or 
memissren  ;  die  Neschome  nehmen 
(Hebrew  neschomo,  the  soul  or 
life);  pegern  or peigern  ;  rozechenen 
or  rozchenen  (Hebrew,  rozach  = 
to  kill)  \schachten  (Hebrew,  scho- 

(literally  '  to  cause  to  faint '  or 
'swoon.'  Sbasire  su  le  juni  = 
to  swoon  on  the  rope,  i.e.t  to  be 

d  uno  la  nuez  (properly  to  clutch 
the  Adam's  apple,  i.e.,  the 
throat) ;  apiolar  (properly  '  to 
gyve  a  hawk'  or  'to  tie  game 
together  by  the  legs '  ;  and 
metaphorically,  '  to  seize '  or 
apprehend)  j  despabilar  (literally 
'to  snuff  a  candle.'  Cf.,  Fr. 
moucher  le  quinquet  and  the  Eng. 
'to  put  on,  an  extinguisher ') ; 
apercollfir  (also,  '  to  seize  one  by 
the  collar  '). 

•1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  L on.  Poor,  vol.  III.,  p.  360.  When 
the  clarences,  the  cabs  that  carry  four, 
came  in,  they  COOKED  the  hackney-coach- 
men in  no  time. 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ('  Cuthbert 
Bede '),  Adventures  of  Verdant  Green,  p. 
270.  Billy's  too  big  in  the  Westphalia's 
gig-lamps,  you're  the  boy  to  COOK  Fos- 
brooke's  GOOSE. 

1861.  A.  TROLLOPE,  Framley  Par- 
sonage, ch.  xlii.  Chaldicotes,  Gagebee, 
is  a  COOKED  GOOSE,  as  far  as  Sowerby  is 
concerned!  And  what  difference  could  it 
make  to  him  whether  the  Duke  is  to  own 
it  or  Miss  Dunstable. 

186?.  G.  A.  SALA  ,  Trip  to  Barbary, 
ch.  v.  The  first  Napoleon  .  .  .  once 
nearly  killed  himself  by  his  addictedness 
to  Provensal  cookery.  Yes ;  a  mess  of 
mutton  and  garlic — 'tis  said  it  was  poisoned 
— very  nearly  COOKED  THE  GOOSE  of 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  ii.,  p.  128.  Seeing  how  the  fellow  was 
acting  he  sent  him  two  'shise'  notes,  which 
gave  him  a  dose  that  COOKED  him.  I  saw 
the  man  myself,  serving  his  time  at 




1888.  Puck's  Library,  May,  p.  10. 
When  the  chromo  first  emerged  from 
chaos,  the  producers  of  that  kind  of  pic- 
ture insisted  that  the  GOOSE  of  the  artist 
was  COOKED. 

COOKEY  or  COOKIE.    To   BET   A 

COOKIE,  verbal  pkr.  (American). 
— The  custom  of  preparing  the 
cakes  still  knowri  in  Scotland  as 
COOKIES  was  part  and  parcel  of 
American  life.  [The  COOKEY, 
like  the  English  pancake  on 
Shrove  Tuesday,  and  the  hot 
cross  bun  on  Good  Friday,  forms 
a  special  old-fashioned  dainty,  at 
Christmas-tide  and  New  Year. 
From  the  Dutch  kcekje,  dim.  of 
keek,  a  cake.] 

1870.  BRET  HARTE,  Luck  of  Roar- 
ing Camp,  p.  227.  Don't  know  what  he 
is  !  He  lost  every  hoof  and  hide,  I'll  BET  A 


1872.  Lloyd's  Weekly,  28  April.  '  Pro- 
bate Court  Report.'  Might  have  said  she 
would  BKT  A  COOKEY  that  the  will  was  in 
America.  (Laughter.) 

1888.  Detroit  Free  Press,  31  March. 
A  book  has  just  been  published  to  instruct 
reporters  in  ,the  use  of  proper  phrases.  We 
BET  A  COOKEY  no  reporter  will  ever  read  it. 

COOKEYSHINE,     Subs,     (old     Scots). 

— An  afternoon  meal  at  which 
COOKIES  (q.v.)  form  a  staple  dish. 
etc.  (q.v.}.  [From  COOKEY,  a 
small  cake,  +  SHINE  (q.v.),  an 

1863.  C.  READE,  Hard  Cash,  I.,  103. 
Dr.  Sampson,  log.  :  We  shall  see  whether 
we  are  on  the  right  system  :  and  if  so, 
we'll  dose  her  with  useful  society  in  a  more 
irrashinal  forrm  ;  conversaziones,  COOKEY- 
SHINES,  et  cetera.  And  if  we  find  ourselves 
on  the  wrong  tack,  why  then  we'll  hark 

COOK-RUFFIAN,  stibs.  (old).— A  bad 
or  indifferent  cook,  'who  w<  uld 
cook  the  devil  in  his  feathers.' 

COOL,  adj.  (colloquial). -  I.  Imper- 
tinent ;  audacious  ;  calmly  impu- 

1870.  Figaro,  22  May.  It  is  con- 
sidered to  be  COOL  to  take  a  man's  hat 
with  his  name  written  in  it,  simply  because 
you  want  to  get  his  autograph. 

(common). — Without  heat  ;  also, 
metaphorically,  calm  and  com- 

2.  (In   reference   to   money  ; 
e.g.,  a  COOL  hundred,  thousand, 
etc.)     Commonly   expletive;  but 
sometimes  used  to  cover  a  sum  a 
little  above  the  figure  stated. 

1750.  FIELDING,  Tom  /ones,  bk. 
VIII.,  ch.  xii.  Mr.  Watson,  too,  after 
much  variety  of  luck,  rose  from  the  table 
in  some  heat,  and  declared  he  had  lost  a 
COOL  hundred,  and  would  play  no  longer. 

1771.  SMOLLETT,  Humphry  Clinker, 
1.  41.  I'll  bet  a  COOL  hundred  he  swings 
before  Christmas. 

18251  Miss  EDGEWORTH,  Love  and 
Law,  i.,  2.  Suppose  you  don't  get  six- 
pence cos,ts,  and  lose  your  COOL  hundred 
by  it,  still  it's  a  great  advantage. 

1841.  LYTTON,  Night  and  Morning, 
bk.  II.,  ch.  x.  Borrowed  his  money  under 
pretence  of  investing  it  in  the  New  Grand 
Anti-Dry-Rot  Company  ;  COOL  hundred — 
it's  only  just  gone,  sir. 

1890.  Illustrated  Bits,  29  March,  p. 
8,  col.  2.  I  made  three  thousand  last  year, 
but  if  I  have  good  luck  this  year  I  shall 
make  a  COOL  fifty  thousand. 

3.  (Eton  College).—  Ste  COOL 
KICK  and  the  following. 

Verb  (Eton  College).— To  kick 

COOL -CRAPE,  subs.  (old). — A 
shroud,  or  winding  sheet. — Grose. 

COOLER,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  woman. 
— Grose  [1785].  For  synonyms, 

1742.  CHARLES  JOHNSON,  Highway- 
men and  Pyrates  p.  293.  '  Not  I,'  replied 
Jones,  very  readily,  '1  neither  know  nor 




care  who  you  are,  tho'  before  you  spoke  I 
took  you  for  a  brewer  because  you  travel 
with  your  COOLER  by  your  side.' 

2.  (American     thieves'). — A 
prison.    For  synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

3.  (common). — Ale    or    stout 
after   spirits   and  water.     Some- 
times called  'putting  the  beggar 
on  the  gentleman  ' ;  also  DAMPER 


1821.  P.  EGAN,  Tom  and  Jerry  (ed. 
1890),  p.  76.  Many  persons  ...  in  order 
to  allay  the  heat  or  thirst  arising  from  the 
pernicious  use  of  such  quantities  of  ardent 
spirits,  frequently  take  a  glass  of  porter, 
which  is  termed  a  COOLER,  '  a  damper,"  etc. 

COOL-KICK,  subs.  (Eton  College). 
—  When  a  BEHIND  (q.v.)  or 
'  back '  gets  a  kick  with  no  one 
up  to  him. 

COOL- LADY,  subs.  (old). — A.  female 
follower  of  the  camp  who  sells 
brandy. — Grose  [1785]. 

COOL-NANTZ,  subs,  (old).— Brandy. 
For  synonyms,  see  DRINKS. 

COOL  ONE'S  COPPERS,  verbal phr. 
(popular). — To  allay  the  morn- 
ing's thirst  after  a  night  of  drink. 
C/.t  HOT-COPPERS  and  DRY  AS  A 


1861.     T.   HUGHES,    Tom  Brown  at 
ford,  ch.  iii.     We  were    pla 
John  in  Blake's  rooms  till  three 

Oxford,  ch.  iii.     We  were    playing    Van 
ree  last  night, 
and  he  gave  us  devilled  bones  and  mulled 

port.  A  fellow  can't  enjoy  his  breakfast 
after  that  without  something  TO  COOL  HIS 

1870.  Sportsman,  17  Dec.  'A  Chapel 
Meeting.'  Bring  me  a  mouthful,  George, 
shouted  a  grasping  Typo  one  day  to  his 
churn,  who,  at  the  trough  in  the  furthest 
corner  of  the  room,  was  cooLiNG  His  COP- 
PERS with  cold  water. 

COON,  subs.  (American). — I.  A 
man.  [COON,  a  curtailment  of 
'  racoon '  ( Procyon  lotor},  is  thought 
to  be  of  Indian  origin  (Algonquin, 

aroughcun,  the  scratcher),  though 
some  trace  it  to  the  French  rat  on. 
The  contraction  dates  fiom  about 
1840,  when  the  racoon  was  used 
as  a  kind  of  political  totem.] 

1860.  Punch,  vol.  XXXIX.,  p.  227. 
'  The  Baby  in  the  House.'  I  sign  him, 
said  the  Curate  Howe,  O'er  Samuel  Bur- 
bott  George  Hethune,  Then  baby  kicked  up 
such  a  row  As  terrified  that  reverend  COON. 

2.  (American).  —  A  nigger, 
£»£.,  a  coons'  bawdy  house  =  a 
house  where  none  are  kept  but 
girls  of  colour. 

GONE  COON,  subs.  phr. 
(American). — One  in  a  serious  or 
hopeless  difficulty.  A  Scots 
equivalent  is  GONE  CORBIE,  t.e.y 
a  dead  crow.  Cf.,  GONE  GOOSE. 
[The  explanation  generally  given 
is  that  during  the  American  War 
a  spy  dress-  d  in  racoon  skins 
ensconced  himself  in  a  tree.  An 
English  rifleman  (the  nationalities 
are  reversible)  levelled  his  piece 
at  him,  whereupon  the  American 
exclaimed  :  '  Don't  shoot,  I'll 
come  down.  I  know  I  am  a 


1845.  MR.  GIDDINGS,  in  Congress 
(quoted  in  De  Vere).  Besides  the  acquisi- 
tion of  Canada,  which  is  put  down  on  all 
sides  as  a  GONK  COON. 

1857,  DICKENS,  Lying  Awake,  in 
Reprinted  Pieces,  p.  192.  1  must  think  of 
something  else  as  I  lie  awake  ;  or,  like 
that  sagacious  animal  in  the  United  States 
who  recognised  the  colonel  who  was  such  a 
dead  shot,  I  am  a  GONE  COON. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  51.  We  shan't 
get  to  your  advice  till  the  crack's  hocussed 
and  done  for,  and  we're  all  RUINED  AS 


1867.  London  Herald,  23  March,  p. 
221,  col.  3.  '  We're  safe  to  nab  him  ;  safe 
as  houses.  He's  a  GONE  COON,  sir.' 

1883.  CALVERLRY,  Fly  Leaves,  p.  83. 
'  On  the  Brink.'  She  stood  so  calm,  so  like 
a  ghost,  Betwixt  me  and  that  magic  moon. 
That  I  already  was  almost  A  FINISHED 


Ci>oiis  Age. 



verbal  phr.  (American).  =  '  To 
go  the  whole  hog.' 

COON'S  AGE,  subs.  phr.  (American). 
— A  long  time  ;  '  a  blue  moon. ' 
The  racoon  is  held  to  be  a  long- 
lived  animal. 

b.  1780,  d.  1851.  AUDUBON,  Life,  I., 
p.  178.  '  Wall,  Pete,  whar  have  you  been  ? 
I  hav'n't  seen  you  this  COON'S  AGE." 

COOP,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  prison. 
For  synonyms,  see  CAGE. 

1866.  London  Miscellany,  3  Mar.,  p. 
58,  col.  3.  I  don't  think  that's  no  little  let- 
down for  a  cove  as  has  been  tip-topper  in 
his  time,  and  smelt  the  insides  of  all  the 
COOPS  in  the  three  kingdoms; 

1877.  J.  GREENWOOD,  Dick  Temple. 
You  say  that  you  have  been  in  the  COOP  as 
many  times  as  I  have. 

COOPED-UP,  ppL,  adj.,  phr.  (old). 
— Imprisoned.  [From  COOP (q.v.), 
a  place  of  detention.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  LIMBO. 

COOPER  or  COOPER  UP,  verb 
(thieves'  and  vagrants'). — I.  To 
destroy ;  spoil  ;  settle  ;  or  finish. 

2;     (thieves'). — To  forge; 

3.  (American). — To  under- 
stand. For  synonyms,  see  TWIG. 

COOPERED,  pph  adj.  (racing, 
thieves',  and  vagrants').  —  Ho- 
cussed  ;  spoiled  ;  ruined  ;  e.g. , 
a  house  is  said  to  be  COOPERED 
when  the  importunity  of  many 
tramps  has  caused  its  inmates  to 
cold-shoulder  the  whole  frater- 
nity ;  a  COOPERED  horse  is  a 
horse  that  has  been  '  got  at '  with 
a  view  to  prevent  its  running. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.Poor,\o\.  I., p.  232.  'COOPER'D,' 
spoiled  by  the  imprudence  of  some  other 

COOPED,  adj.  (old). — Whipped. — 
D.  HAGGART,  Life,  Glossary,  p. 
171  [1821]. 

COOT,  subs.  (American). — A  stupid 
fellow ;  generally  *  a  silly '  or 
'mad  old  COOT.'  Stupid  as  a 
COOT  is  a  common  English  pro- 
vincialism .  [The  fulica  altra,  the 
bald  or  common  COOT,  like  the 
ostrich,  is  said  to  bury  its  head 
when  pursued,  thinking  none  can 
see  it,  as  it  cannot  see  itself.]  For 
synonyms,  see  BUFFLE-HEAD  and 


COP,  subs,  (common). — A  police- 
man. [From  COP,  verb,  sense  I.] 
For  synonyms,  see  BEAK,  sense  I, 
and  COPPER. 

1859.  MATSELL,  Vocabulum,  or 
Rogue's  Lexicon,  p.  124.  Oh  !  where  will 
be  the  culls  of  the  bing  .  .  .  And  all 
the  COPS  and  beaks  so  knowin',  A  hun- 
dred stretches  hence  ? 

1879.  Punch,  3  May,  p.  201,  col.  i. 
I  suppose  if  the  Toffs  took  a  fancy  for 
chewing  a  stror  or  a  twig,  Like  a  tout  or  a 
hostler,  or  tumbled  to  carryin1  a  bludgeon 
as  big  As  a  crib  cracker's  nobby  persuader, 
Pall  Mall  would  be  jolly  soon  gay  With 
blue-blooded  blokes  a  green  COP  might 
mistake  for  foot-pads  on  the  lay. 

Verb  (common). — I.  To  seize  ; 
steal ;  catch  ;  take  an  unfair  ad- 
vantage in  a  bet  or  bargain. 
[Cop  has  been  associated  with 
the  root  of  the  Latin  cap-io,  to 
seize,  to  snatch ;  also  with  the 
Gypsy  kap  or  cop  =  to  take  ; 
Scotch  kep  ;  and  "Gallic  ceapan. 
Probably,  however,  its  true  radix 
is  to  be  found  in  the  Hebrew 
cop  =  a  hand  or  palm.  Low- 
class  Jews  employ  the  term,  and 
understand  it  to  refer  to  the  act  of 
snatching.  ] 

[Cop  like  CHUCK  (g.v.),  is  a  sort  of 
general  utility  verb.  Thus  to  COP  THE 




NEEDLE  =  to  get  angry ;  to  COP  THE 
BULLET  or  THE  DOOR  =  to  get  the  sack  ; 
to  COP  IT  HOT  =  to  be  severely  clapped  ; 
to  COP  IT  (said  ol  women)  =  to  be  got 
with  child  ;  and  to  COP  THE  BREWER  = 
to  be  drunk.] 

For  synonyms  in  the  sense  of 
to  steal,  see  PRIG  ;  and  in  the 
sense  of  to  seize,  see  NAB. 

1864.  Manchester  Courier^  13  June. 
'  Copper "...  a  slang  name  for  a  police- 
man derived  from  COP,  which  is  a  well 
known  and  generally  used  vulgarism  for 
'  catch.1 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mag.,  XL.,  p.  500.  I  was  taken  by  two 
pals  (companions)  to  an  orchard  to  COP 
(steal)  some  fruit. 

1883.  Punch,  Sept.  29,  p.  146,  col.  2. 
1  Bill's  not  such  a  fool  as  you  think  ;  He'll 
COP  my  truncheon,  pat,  Jam  the  whistle 
into  my  month,  And  stretch  the  Peeler 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villotfs 
Straight  Tip  to  all  Cross  Coves.  Booze 
and  the  blowens  COP  the  lot. 

2.  trs.  and  intrs.  (thieves'). — 
To  arrest  ;  imprison  ;  betray  ; 

the  clinch  ;  to  make  one  kiss  the 
clink  ;  to  accommodate  ;  to 
nobble;  to  bag;  to  box;  to  fist  (old); 
to  scoop;  to  take  up;  to  victimize; 
to  run  in  ;  to  give  or  get  one  the 
boat ;  to  buckle  ;  to  smug ;  to 
nab ;  to  collar ;  to  pinch  ;  to 
nail ;  to  rope  in  ;  to  shake  ;  to 
pull  up. 

pioler  (thieves')  ;  tomber  au  plan 
(thieves'  =  to  be  apprehended)  ; 
etre  mis  au  plan  (thieves'  =  to 
be  imprisoned)  ;  enfourailler 
(thieves')  ;  bdcler  or  bonder 
(thieves'  :  literally  to  buckle, 
put  a  ring  to)  ;  bloquer  (military  : 
properly  to  blockade) ;  etre  le  bon 

(popular  =  to  be  arrested  ;  also  to 
be  the  right  man) ;  boulotter  de  or 
coucher  a  la  boite  (military  =  to  get 
frequently  locked  up.  La  grosse 
boite  =  a  prison  ;  boile  aux  re- 
flexions =  a  prison  cell)  ;  mettre 
quelqu'un  dans  la  blouse  (familiar 
=  to  'pocket,'  as  at  billiards) ;  se 
faire  cuire  (popular  =  to  be  ar- 
rested) ;  cloiier  (popular  :  clou  = 
guard-room  or  cell) ;  caller  au  bloc 
(popular  :  caller  is  properly  to 
stick,  as  with  glue,  but  in  a  slang 
sense  it  carries  the  meaning  of  to 
place  or  put ;  bloc  =  prison)  ; 
piper  (familiar) ;  poisser  (popular 
and  thieves') ;  grimer  (popular)  ; 
cogtier  (thieves' :  also,  to  peach  or 
inform)  ;  enflacquer  (thieves')  ; 
mettre  otfOurrer  dedans  (familiar  : 
literally  to  put  inside) ;  mettre  a 
F  ombre  (common  :  literally  to  put 
in  the  shade) ;  mettre  au  violon 
(popular  :  see  violon  under 
CAGE)  ;  grappiner  (popular)  ; 
poser  un  gluau  (thieves'  =  to 
lime,  as  in  snaring  birds)  ; 
empoigner  (popular  =  to  fist ; 
possibly  a  dictionary  word) ;  piger 
(popular) ;  emballer  (popular  and 
thieves' ;  properly  to  pack  up)  ; 
gripper  (this  has  passed  into  the 
language)  ;  encoffrer  (popular  = 
to  'box  up');  encager  (familiar 
=  to  cage) ;  accrocher  (pro- 
perly to  hook)  ;  ramasser  de 
la  boite  (military  :  also  ramasser 
quelqrfun  and  se  faire  remasser} ; 
souffler  (thieves')  ;  faire  tomber 
malade  (popular  =  to  make  one 
ill)  ;  agrafer  (literally  to  hook  or 
clasp  ;  avoir  son  linge  lave 
(thieves'  =  to  have  one's  linen 

scheften  (from  the  Hebrew  kaari) ; 
im  Kiihlen  sitzen  (literally  to  sit 
in  the  cold.  Cf.,  Fr.,  mettre  a 
V ombre]  \  krank  werden  (literally 


i  So 


to  fall  ill ;  equivalent  to  the  Fr. 
faire  tomber  malade] ;  ins  Leek 
baun  (Viennese  thieves.'  M.H.G. 
luken  =  to  lock  up)  ;  millek  sein 
(to  be  imprisoned)  ;  trefe  j alien 
(to  be  apprehended  un«er  grave 
circumstances  ;  e.g.,  with  burg- 
lar's instruments  or  stolen  goods); 
versargen  (to  imprison  for  a  long 
time)  ;  abfassen  (students'  slang)  ; 
ankappen  (popular  colloquialism) ; 
klemmen  (M.H.G.  klembern  =  to 
press  heavily);  taffen,  tofesnehmen, 
tofes  lokechnen,  or  tojes  lekichnen 
(from  the  .Hebrew  topkas] ;  ver- 
chewehii  vercheifeln  or  verheifeln 
(from  the  Hebrew  chobal\  also  to 
bind  or  gag). 

COPBUSY,  verb  (thieves'). — See 

1857;  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant, 
3  ed.,  p.  445.  To  hand  over  the  booty  to  a 
confederate  or  girl — to  COPBUSY. 

COPPER,  subs,  (popular). — A  police- 
man. [From  COP,  verb,  senses  I 
and  2,  (q.v.\  to  catch,  +  ER  ; 
literally  a  catcher.]  Equivalents 
M.P.  (i.e.,  member  of  police]  ;  COP- 
PERMAN  (an  Australian  prison 
term)  ;  but  for  synonyms,  see 
BEAK,  to  which  may  be  added  the 

chasse  -  coquin  (popular:  also  = 
a  '  beadle'  and  'bad  wine.'  Liter- 
ally '  a  beggar-driver  '  :  Cf., 
chasse-chien  =  a  beadle  employed 
to  drive  away  dogs)  ;  un  chasse- 
noble  (thieves')  ;  le  cadratin 
(police  ;  a  term  applied  to  ihe 
detective  force  ;  properly  what 
printers  call  an  '  em  quad  ')  ;  fen- 
plaque  (thieves') ;  une  fauvette  & 
tfre  noire  (thieves' :  literally  '  a 
bldck-cap  ')  ;  tin  bricul  or  bricule 
(thieves':  an  inspector  of  police) ; 

une  casserole  (thieves'  =  a  detec- 
tive ;  also  a  prostitute.  Pro- 
perly 'a  saucepan'  or  warming- 
pan)  ;  un  emballeur  (thieves'  : 
properly  'a  packer');  un ficard 
(thieves') ;  un  amacq  or  arnnche 
(thieves');  ttn  vesto  de  la  cuisine 
(thieves'  =  a  detective.  Vesto 
=  haricot  bean  ;  cuisine  =  de- 
tective force)  ;  rabatteur  de 
f  antes  (thieves'  =  a  beater  of 
game,  man  being  the  quarry)  ; 
un  bigorneau  (properly  a  peri- 
winkle) ;  un  cognac  (thieves')  ; 
un  quart  (pop:  faire  son  quart 
—  to  be  on  the  watch)  \  un  radis 
noir  (common  :  also  =  a  priest  or 
devil  -  dodger)  ;  un  renifleiir 
(thieves':  remfler  =  to  sniff) ; 
mart  Robin  (thieves');  un 
marchand  or  sollicetw  de  lacets 
(thieves'  :  lacets  =  hand-cuffs) ; 
laf>m  ferre  (a  mounted  police- 
man) ;  un  liege  (thieves'). 

kragen  (Viennese  thieves' :  for  an 
armed  policeman;  literally  'a 
blue  collar,'  in  allusion  to  the 
uniform)  ;  Blitzableiter  (literally 
'  the  lightning  conductor')  ; 
Bosser-Isch  (a  play  upon  words 
is  involved  in  this  term.  It  is 
derived  from  the  Hebrew  bosar  — 
meat.  Bosser  -  Isck  signifies 
literally  'meat-man,'  i.e.,  a 
butcher,  Or  translated  into 
literary  German,  Fleischmann. 
In  the  first  half  of  the  last  century 
a  certain  Lieutenant  Fleisch- 
mann was  especially  zealous  in 
'  persecuting '  the  robber  gangs 
infesting  the  district  between 
Frankfurt  and  Darmstadt.  Every 
hunter  of  rogues  and  vagabonds 
has  since  then  been  called  a 
Bosser  -  Isch  or  Fleischmann. 
Hence  its  application  to  the 
police) ;  Greiferci  (specially  ap- 
plied to  the  '  criminal '  police)  ; 




Hadatsch  or  Hatschier  (Viennese 
thieves')  ;  aie  Herren  (the  police 
force  generally ;  literally  *  the 
gentlemen ') ;  Husche,  Huscher, 
Husskiefel  or  Husskopf(p.  mounted 
policeman)  ;  lltis  or  lltisch 
(thieves')  ;  Kapdon  (from  the 
Hebrew  kophad  :  literally  '  to 
draw  together,'  or  intransitively 
'  to  cat  off ' ;  applied  to  a  clever 
policeman)  ;  Karten  (the  police. 
Cf.,  Garden  =  guards) ;  Koberer 
(the  officer  in  charge  of  the  re- 
gulations over  registered  prosti- 
tutes ;  Koberer  =  'fancy-man,'  or 
'protector');  Klisto  (a  mounted 
policeman;  from  the  Hano- 
verian gyp^y  glistd) ;  Kreuzritter 
(Viennese  thieves'  =  a  policeman 
who  is  also  a  soldier  ;  more  cor- 
rectly, a  police-soldier)  ;  Lailesch- 
mir  (a  night  policeman ;  from 
the  Hebrew  lailo,  '  the  night ')  ; 
Lateme  (Viennese  thieves')  ;  Le- 
deizeug  (a  mounted  policeman)  ; 
Mischpoche  (a  Hebrew  word 
signifying  '  the  family,'  '  the 
relations  ' ;  gang  of  robbers  ;  the 
inmates  of  a  prison  ;  the  police 
force  taken  as  a  whole) ;  Polenk 
or  Polente  (Hanoverian  slang  for 
the  police;  possibly  from  the 
GyP^y polontschero  =  'the  night- 
watchman'  or  'herdsman'); 
Poliquetsch  (a  term  applied  either 
to  the  force  or  to  a  single 
member)  ;  Quetsch  (Cf.,  fore- 
going) ;  Schin  (an  abbreviation, 
being  the  Hebrew  letter  £>,  for 
the  turnkey  of  a  prison,  a  police- 
man, etc.  ;  ein  plotter  Schin,  a 
policeman  who  makes  common 
cause  with  a  burglar ;  miser  Schin, 
a  policeman  who  is  hated) ; 
Spinatwtichter  (soldiers'  for  a 
police-soldier  ;  in  allusion  to  the 
green  uniform) ;  Spitz  or  Spitzl 
(a  vigilant  policeman,  from  Spitz 
=  pointed,  from  which  is  de- 
rived Spitz-bube,  a  thief)  ;  Teckel 

(Hanoverian  for  foot-police)  ; 
Zaddik  (from  the  Hebrew  signify- 
ing "  the  just '  or  '  pious  one  ' ; 
used  sarcastically  as  a  nickname 
for  the  guardians  of  the  right)  ; 
Zenserei  (Viennese  thieves' : 
Zenserer  —  a  police  superin- 
tendent. Apparently  the  modern 
form  of  the  old  Sens,  Sins,  Sons, 
Sims,  or  Simser,  of  which  the 
derivation  is  clearly  to  be  found 
in  Zentox  Cent,  from  the  Centence 
of  the  Prankish  kings,  who 
divided  the  counties  into  Centence 
and  Decania  for  the  purposes  of 

de  draghetti  (literally  '  a  hawk 
preying  on  schoolboys  ') ;  sbirre. 

(m  ;  literally  '  one  who  em- 
braces' ;  abrazar  =  to  hug,  or 

1859.  MATSELL,  Vocabulum,  or 
Rogues  Lexicon,  p.  21.  ' The  knuck  was 
copped  to  rights,  a  skin  full  of  honey  was 
found  in  his  kick's  poke  by  the  COPPER 
when  he  frisked  him';  [i.e.]  the  pick- 
pocket was  arrested,  and  when  searched  by 
the  officer  a  purse  was  found  in  his 
pantaloons  pocket  full  of  money. 

1864.  Manchester  Courier,  13  June. 
The  professors  of  slang,  however,  having 
coined  the  word,  associate  that  with  the 
metal,  and  as  they  pass  a  policeman  they 
will,  to  annoy  him,  exhibit  a  copper  coin, 
which  is  equivalent  to  calling  the  officer 


1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  237.  I  daresay  the  COPPERS 
quite  expected  us  the  next  night,  and 
looked  out  for  us.  ...  COPPERS,  I 
may  inform  the  reader,  is  slang  for  police. 

1889.  Punch,  3  Aug.,  p.  49,  col.  2. 
Young  'Opkins  took  the  reins,  but  soon  in 
slumber  he  was  sunk — (Indignantly)  When 
a  interfering  COPPER  ran  us  in  for  being 
drunk ! 

COPPERHEADS,  subs.  (American). 
— A  nickname  applied  to  differ- 
ent sections  of  the  American 
nation:  first  to  the  Indian  ;  then 


Copy  of  Countenance. 

to  the  Dutch  colonist  (see  Irving, 
Knickerbocker]  ;  lastly,  during 
the  Civil  War,  to  certain  North- 
ern Democrats  who  sympathised 
with  the  South.  [Properly  the 
Trigonocephalus  contortrix  .~\ 

1864.  WALT.  WHITMAN,  Diary,  10 
April  [in  Century  Mag.,  Oct.,  1888]. 
Exciting  times  in  Congress.  The  COPPER- 
HEADS are  getting  furious,  and  want  to 
recognise  the  Southern  Confederacy. 

1872.  Daily  Telegraph,  29  Aug. 
Should  he  [Mr.  Greeley]  be  elected,  he  will 
owe  his  victory  to  ...  the  COPPER- 
HEAD ring  of  the  Democratic  party. 

1881.  W.  D.  HOWELI.S,  Dr.  Breeris 
Practice,  ch.  ix.  He  lived  to  cast  a  dying 
vote  for  General  Jackson,  and  his  son,  the 
first  Dr.  Mulbridge,  survived  to  illustrate 
the  magnanimity  of  his  fellow-townsmen 
during  the  first  year  of  the  civil  war,  as  a 
tolerated  COPPERHEAD. 

1888.  Daily  Inter-Ocean,  2  March. 
Gay  was  executed,  I  think,  in  November, 
1862,  at  Indianapolis.  He  was  ...  a 
virulent  COPPERHEAD. 

COPPERMAN,  subs.  (Australian 
prison). — A  policeman.  Cf., 

COPPER-NOSE,  subs.  (old). — The 
swollen,  pimply  nose  of  habitual 
drunkards.  A  '  jolly  '  or  '  bottle ' 
nose  ;  in  Fr.,  une  bette-rave,  i.e.^ 
a  beetroot  ;  also  un  piton  passe 
a  f  encaustique.  Cf.,  GROG- 
BLOSSOM.  For  synonyms  for  the 
nose  generally,  see  CONK. 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel, 
ch.  x.  '  The  stoutest  raven  dared  not 
come  within  a  yard  of  that  COPPER  NOSE. 

COPPER'S  NARK,  subs,  (thieves'). 
— A  police  spy  ;  one  in  the  pay  of 
the  police.  [From  COPPER  (q.v.\ 
a  policeman,  +  NARK,  a  spy  ; 
used  as  a  verb  NARK  signifies  to 
watch  or  look  after.  ] 

1879.  THOS.  SATCHELL,  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  5  S.,  xi.,  406.  COPPER'S  NARK  : 
A  police  spy. 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon  s  Good 
Night.  Likewise  you  COPPERS'  NARKS  and 
dubs  What  pinched  me  when  upon  the 

1889.  Answers,  20  July,  p.  121,  col.  i. 
He  instructed  me  ...  on  no  account 
to  appear  to  be  anxious  to  pry  into  their 
secrets,  lest  I  should  be  mistaken  for  a 
COPPER'S  NARK,  i.e.,  a  person  in  the  pay  of 
the  police. 

COPPERSTICK,  subs,  (venery). — The 
penis.  For  synonyms,  see  CREAM- 

COPUS,  subs.  (Univ.). — A  wine  or 
beer  cup,  which  was  commonly 
imposed  as  a  fine  upon  those  who 
talked  Latin  in  hall  or  committed 
other  breaches  of  etiquette.  Dr. 
Johnson  derives  it  from  episcopus, 
and  if  this  be  correct  it  is  doubt- 
less the  same  as  BISHOP. 

COPY  OF  COUNTENANCE,  subs.phr. 
(old). — A  sham  ;  humbug  ;  pre- 

1579.  GOSSON,  Apol.  of  the  Schoole 
of  Abuse,  p.  64  (Arber).  They  have  eaten 
bulbief,  and  threatned  highly,  too  put 
water  in  my  woortes,  whensoeuer  they 
catche  me  ;  I  hope  it  is  but  a  COPPY  OF 


1607.  DEKKER,  Westward  Ho,  Act 
ii.,  Sc.  i.  I  shall  love  a  puritan's  face  the 
worse,  whilst  I  live,  for  that  COPY  OF  THY 


1637.  FLETCHER,  Elder  Brother, 
V.,  i.  Nor  can  I  change  my  COPY,  if  I 
purpose  to  be  of  your  society. 

1754.  FIELDING,  Jonathan  Wild,  bk. 
III.,  ch.  xiv.  This,  as  he  atterwards  con- 
fessed on  his  death-bed,  i.e.,  in  the  court 
at  Tyburn,  was  only  a  COPY  OF  HIS  COUN- 
TENANCE ;  for  that  he  was  at  that  time  as 
sincere  and  hearty  in  his  opposition  to  Wild 
as  any  of  his  companions. 

1756.  FOOTE,  Englishman  from 
Paris,  Act  i.  And  if  the  application  for 
my  advice  is  not  a  COPY  OF  YOUR  COUNTE- 
NANCE, a  mask  ;  if  you  are  obedient,  I  may 
set  you  right. 

Coral  Branch. 



CORAL  BRANCH, subs.phr.  (venery). 
— Thepents. 

CORE,  COREING,  verb  and  verbal 
subs.  (old). — See  quot. 

1821.  D.  HAGGART,  Life,  Glossary, 
p.  171.  COREING  :  picking  up  small 
articles  in  shops. 

CORINTH,  subs.  (old). — A  brothel. 
For  synonyms,  see  NAN  NY- SHOP. 


1609.  SHAKSPEARE,  Timon of 'Athens, 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  2.  Would  we  could  see  you 
at  Corinth ! 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1859.  MATSELL,  Vocabulum,  or 
Rogue's  Lexicon,  s.v. 

CORiNTHlAN,.r«fo.(old). — I.  A  rake; 
a  loose  liver  ;  sometimes  specifi- 
cally, a  fashionable  whore. 
Shakspeare  has  it,  '  a  lad  of  met- 
tle,' but  in  another  place  he  uses 
CORINTH  as  above.  In  the  slang 
sense  an  allusion  to  the  notoriety 
of  Corinth  as  a  centre  of  prosti- 
tution, i.e.,  the  temple-city  of 
Aphrodite.  KopivOiatvdai,  =  to 
CORINTHIANISE  was  Greek  slang. 
Hence  the  proverb — Ow  irarrog 
avdpoc  a'e  K6pii/0ov  iaO'  6  TrA.of>c  : 
and  Horace,  Epist.  lib.  I,  xvii., 

'  Non   cuivis  homini  contingit  adire   Co- 

Also  used  as  an  adjective,  a 
verbal  form  being  TO  CORIN- 
THIANIZE.  Cf.,  Shakspeare's  use 
of  EPHESIANS  in  II.  King  Henry 
IV.,  ii.  2.  For  synonyms,  see 

1598.  SHAKSPEARE,  /  Henry  IV., 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  4.  And  tell  me  flatly  I  am  no 
proud  Jack,  like  Falstaff;  but  a  CORIN- 
THIAN, a  lad  of  mettle,  a  good  boy. 

b.  1608.  d.  1674.    MILTON,  Apology  for 
Smect.      And  raps  up,  without  pity,  the' 
sage  and  rheumatic  old  prelatess,  with  all 
.heryoung  CORINTHIAN  laity. 

1890.  Daily  Telegraph,  25  Feb.,  p.  4, 
col.  7.  Is  it  not  curious  that  hotel  pro- 
prietors [at  Monte  Carlo]  should  counte- 
nance, if  not  encourage,  a  Tom  and  Jerry 
tone  and  a  wild  CORINTHIAN  element,  even 
in  well-conducted  restaurants  ? 

Beau  Austin,  iii.,  i.  I  assure  you,  Aunt 
Evelina,  we  are  CORINTHIAN  to  the  last 

2.  A  dandy  ;  specifically  ap- 
plied in  the  early  part  of  the 
present  century  to  a  man  of 
fashion  ;  e.g.,  CORINTHIAN  Tom, 
in  Pierce  Egan's  Life  in  London. 
For  synonyms,  see  DANDY. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1819.  T.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's  Me- 
morial, p.  9.  'Twas  diverting  to  see,  as  one 
ogled  around,  How  CORINTHIANS  and 
Commoners  mixed  on  the  ground. 

1832.  PIERCE  EGAN,  Book  of  Sports, 
p.  210.  '  I  would  be  a  CORINTHIAN  to  the 
end  of  the  chapter  if  I  could — but  the  truth 
is,  I  was  not  lucky  enough  to  be  born  a 

1853.  WH.  MELVILLE,  Digby  Grand, 
ch.  iv.     Where  the   hospitable    'Jem'   re- 
ceived his  more  aristocratic  visitors,  and  to 
whichj   as  CORINTHIANS,  or   '  swells,'  we 
were  immediately  admitted. 

1854.  THACKERAY,  Leech's  Pictures 
in  Quarterly  Review,  No.  191,  Dec.    COR- 
INTHIAN, it  appears,  was  the  phrase  ap- 
pliecl  to  men  of  fashion  and  ton  .  .  .  they 
were    the    brilliant    predecessors     of    the 
'  swell '  of  the  present  period. 

CORINTHIANISM,  subs,  (old  and 
modern). — See  CORINTHIAN,  in 
both  senses  of  which,  mutatis 
mutandis,  CORINTHIANISM  is  em- 

CORK,  subs,  (common).  —  i.  A 
bankrupt.  For  analogous  terms, 
see  QUIZBY. 

2.  (Scotch).  —  The  general 
name  in  Glasgow  and  neigh- 
bourhood for  the  head  of  an 
establishment,  e.g.,  of  a. factory, 
or  the  like. 




To  DRAW  A  CORK,  verbal phr. 
(pugilistic). — To  draw  blood. 
A  variant  is  TO  TAP  ONE'S 


1818.  P.  EGAN,  Boxiana,  vol.  I.,  p. 
136.     Severa     blows    exchanged,    but    no 
CORKS  were  DRAWN. 

1819.  THOS.    MOORE,     Tom    Crib's 
Mem.  to  Cong'.,  p.  25.  .  .  .  This  being  the 
first  Royal  claret  let  flow,  Since  Tom  took 
the  Holy  Alliance  in  tow,  The  UNCORKING 
produced  much  sensation   about,   As  bets 
had  \>z.zn  flush  on  the  first  painted  snout. 

1837.     S.  WARREN,  Diary  of  a  Late 
Physician,  ch.xii.     Tap  his  claret  cask — 


CORK- BRAIN  ED,  adj.  phr.  (old). — 
Light  headed ;  foolish. 

CORKER,  subs,  (common). — i.  That 
which  closes  an  argument,  or 
puts  an  end  to  a  course  of  action  ; 
a  SETTLER  ;  a  FINISHER  (q.v.}  ; 
specifically  a  lie.  C/,  WHOPPER. 

2.  Anything  unusually  large, 
or  of  first-rate  quality  ;  remark- 
able in  some  respect  or  another  ; 
e.g.,  a  heavy  blow ;  a  monstrous 
lie.  —  See  WHOPPER. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i  S,, 
ch.  xi<c.  'Then  I  lets  him  have  it,  right, 
left,  nght,  jist  three  CO'-KERS,  beginning 
with  the  right  hand,  shifting  to  the  left, 
and  then  with  the  right  hand  ag'in.' 

TO     PLAY    THE     CORKER. — To 

indulge  in  the  uncommon  ;  to 
exhibit  exaggerated  peculiarities 
of  demeanour ;  specifically  in 
school  and  university  slang  to 
make  oneself  objectionable  to 
one's  fellows. 

1882.  F.  ANSTEY,  Vice  Versa,  ch. 
vii.  '  Why,  you're  sticking  up  for  him 
now  ! '  said  Tom  .  .  .  astonished  at  this 
apparent  change  of  front.  '  If  you  choose 
to  come  back  and  PLAY  THE  CORKER  like 
this,  it's  your  look-out.' 

CORKS,  subs,  (general).  —  i.  A 
butler.  [An  allusion  to  one  of 
the  duties  of  the  office.]  C/., 
BURN-CRUST,  a  baker ;  MASTER 
OF  THE  MINT,  a  gardener; 
CINDER-GARBLER,  a  maid-of-all- 
work,  etc. 

2.  (nautical).  —  Money.  [A 
facetious  allusion  to  money  as 
the  means  of  '  keeping  afloat. '] 
For  synonyms,  see  ACTUAL  and 

CORKSCREWING,  verbal  subs,  (com 
mon).  —  The  straggling,  spiral 
walk  of  tipsiness. 

CORKSCREWS,  subs.  pi.  (general) 
— Very  stiff  and  foimal  curls,  once 

1890.  Notes  and  Queries,  5  April. 
BOTTLE-SCREWS —Dr.  Murray  has  this 
word  in  the  N.E.D.  as  obsolete,  meaning 
COKK-SCREWS,  as  we  now  call  them. 

CORKY,  adj.  (colloquial). — Spright- 
ly ;  lively.  [An  allusion  to  the 
buoyancy  of  a  cork.]  Shakspeare 
uses  it  in  King  Lear,  iii.,  7. 
Com.,  'Bind  fast  his  CORKY  arms '; 
but  with  him  (1605)  ^  = 
'  withered.' 

CORN,  suds.  (American).  —  i.  Food; 
sustenance ;  GRUB.  [A  figura- 
tive usage  of  the  legitimate 

1870.  Green  Bay  (Wis.)  Gaz.,  Oct. 
I  therefore  take  thus  to  forewarn  You  not 
to  trust  her  with  a  straw,  For  I  will  never 
pay  her  CORN  Unless  compelled  to  by  the 

2.  (American).  —  An  abbre- 
viated form  of  CORN-JUICE  (q.v.), 
i.e.,  whiskey. 

1843.  JOHN  S.  ROBB.  'The  Standing 
Candidate."  'Ef  you  war  a  babby,  just 
new  born,  "Twould  do  you  good  this  juicy 
CORN  ! 





phr.    (American). — See  ACKNOW- 
LEDGE, and  the  following  quote  : 

1846.  ^New  York  Herald,  27  June. 
The  Evening  Mirrot  very  naively  comes 
out  and  ACKNOWLEDGES  THE  CORN,  admits 
that  a  demand  was  made,  etc. 

CORNED,  ppl.  adj.  (common). — i. 
Drunk.  [HoTTEN  :  'possibly 
from  soaking  or  pickling  oneself 
like  salt  -  beef. '  BARRERE  : 
*  almost  beyond  doubt  ...  an 
Americanism  from  CORN,  a 
very  common  name  for  whisky.' 
Both  are  wrong  ;  the  verb  '  to 
corn '  is  a  common  provincialism 
and  Scotticism  signifying  '  to 
be  drunk.']  For  synonyms,  see 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1808.  JAMIESON,  Etymolog.  Diet. 
Scottish,  Lang.  The  lads  are  weel  CORNED. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  The  Clock- 
maker,  p.  257  (ed.  1862).  '  I  was  pretty 
well  CORNED  thet  arternoon,  but  still  I 
knew  what  I  was  about.' 

2.  (sailors').— Pleased. 

CORNER,    subs,    (colloquial).  —  i. 
— See  verbal  sense. 

1884.  HAWLEY  SMART,  From  Post 
to  Fiuisk}  p.  309.  Mr.  Bill  Greyson 
thought  it  much  more  likely  that  a 
syndicate  of  bookmakers  had  plotted  tp 
make  a  good  thing  out  of  the  horse  by- 
working  him  in  the  betting-market  like  any 
other  CORNER  on  the  Stock  Exchange. 

2.  (sporting).  —  Tattersall's 
Subscription  Rooms  once  situate 
at  the  top  of  Grosvenor  Place, 
near  Hyde  Park  Corner  ;  now  re- 
moved to  Albert  Gate,  but  still 
known  by  the  old  nickname. 

1848.  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Book  of 
Snobs,  ch.  x.  He  is  a  regular  attendant  at 
the  CORNER,  where  he  compiles  a  limited 
but  comfortable  libretto. 

1874.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Hagarene, 
ch.  v.  She  heard  how  —  without  antici- 
pating the  stable  commission,  or  making 
any  demonstration  at  the  CORNER  —  the 
cream  of  the  long  odds  against  the  Pirate 
had  been  skimmed. 

3.  (sporting).  —  Short      for 
Tattenham     Comer,     a     crucial 
point   on   the   Derby   course   on 
Epsom  Downs. 

4.  (thieves'). — A    share  ;    an 
opportunity  of  '  standing  in '  for 
the  proceeds  of  a  robbery. 

Verb  (colloquial).  —  To  get 
control  of  a  stock  or  commodity 
and  so  monopolize  the  market; 
applied  to  persons,  to  drive  or 
force  into  a  position  of  difficulty 
or  surrender,  e.g.,  in  an  argu- 
ment. [Probably  American,  being 
a  simple  extension  of  the  legiti- 
mate meaning  of  the  word  to 
drive  or  force  into  a  corner  or 
place  from  which  there  is  no 
means  of  escape.]  French 
equivalents  are  etre  en  fine 
pegrene,  and  se  mettre  sur  les  fonts 
de  bapteme.  Tailors  speak  of  a 
man  as  CORNERED  who  has 
pawned  work  entrusted  to  him, 
and  cannot  redeem  it.  Also 
used  as  &ppl.  adj. 

1848.  LOWELL,  Fable  for  Critics, 
p.  24.  Such  [books]  as  Crusoe  might  dip 
in,  altho'  there  are  few  so  Outrageously 
CORNERED  by  fate  as  poor  Crusoe. 

1851.  HAWTHORNE,  House  of  Seven 
Gables,  ch.  v.  A  recluse,  like  Hepzibah, 
usually  displays  remarkable  frankness,  and 
at  least  temporary  affability,  on  being 
absolutely  CORNERED,  and  brought  to  the 
point  of  personal  intercourse. 

1883.  Graphic,  April  21,  p.  406,  col.  2. 
Chief  member  of  a  ring  which  has 
CORNERED  colza  oil  thi>  winter  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  price  has  been  very  con- 
siderably enhanced  during  the  last  few 

verbal  phr.  (common).—  To  get 
round  or  ahead  of  one's  fellows 


1 86 


by  dishonest  cuts,  doublings, 
twists,  and  turns.  For  synonyms, 
see  KNOWING. 

TO   TURN   THE   CORNER,    phr. 

(common).  —  To  get  over  the 
worst ;  to  begin  to  mend  in 
health  or  fortune. 

To  BE  CORNERED,  verbal  phr. 
(common). — To  be  in  a  'fix.' 
Fr.,  fore  dans  le  lac. 

CORNER-MAN  or  COVE,  subs,  (com- 
mon).— I.  A  loafer;  literally  a 
lounger  at  corners. 

1851.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab,  and 
Lon.  Poor,  IV.,  445.  I  mean  by  CORNER- 
COVES  them  sort  of  men  who  is  always  a 
standing  at  the  corners  of  the  streets  and 
chaffing  respectable  folks  a-passing  by  ! 

1885.  Chamb.  Journal,  Feb.  28,  p. 
136.  Curley  Bond  was  well  known  in  the 
district  as  a  loafer  and  CORNER-MAN. 

2.  (music  hall). — The  '  Bones' 
and  '  Tambourine  '  in  a  band  of 
negro  minstrels. 

CORN  SN  EGYPT,  subs.  phr.  (collo- 
quial).— Plenty  of  all  kinds. 

CORNISH  DUCK,  subs,  (trade). — 
A  pilchard.  Cf.,  YARMOUTH 

CORN -JuiCE,  subs.  (American). — 
Whiskey.  For  synonyms,  see 

1888.  Detroit  Free  Press,  May. 
.  .  .  Don't  be  for  ever  loafing  whar  the 

CORN-JUICE  flows. 

CORNSTALK,  subs.  (Australian).— 
Generic  for  persons  of  European 
descent,  but  especially  applied 
to  girls.  The  children 'of  Anglo- 
Australians  are  generally  taller 
and  slighter  in  build  than  their 
parents.  Originally  a  native  of 
New  South  Wales  ;  now  general. 

1885.  Chambers'  Journal,  March  21, 
p.  191.  The  stockman — a  young  six-foot 
CORNSTALK  (or  native  of  New  South 

1887.  G.  L.  APPERSON,  in  All  the  Year 
Round,  30  July,  p.  67,  col.  2.  A  native  of 
New  South  Wales  is  known  as  a  CORN- 

1888.  Colonies  and  India,  14  Nov. 
Auld  Jamie  Inglis  has  written  'anither 
buik,  ye  ken  '  ...  for  the  delectation 
of  the  youthful  CORNSTALK'S  mind. 

CORNSTEALERS,  subs.  (American). 
— The  hands.  For  synonyms,  see 

1835.  HALIBURTON  ('  Sam  Slick  '), 
The  Clock  maker.  '  How  is  you  been,  my 
old  bullock  ? '  and  he  squeezed  his  CORN- 
STEALERS till  the  old  gineral  began  to 
dance  like  a  bear  on  red-hot  iron. 

CORNY-FACED,  adj.  (old). — Red 
and  pimply  with  drink.  [From 
CORN,  to  render  intoxicated,  + 


CORONER,  subs,  (common).  —  A 
severe  fall.  [Literally  a  fall 
likely  to  produce  a  coroner's 
inquest.  ] 

AND  FOUR,  verbal  phr.  (old). — 
To  practice  masturbation. — See 

CORPORATION,  subs,  (colloquial). — 
A  protuberant  stomach.  For 
synonyms,  see  BREAD-BASKET 

1785.    GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 

1849.  C.  BRONTE,  Shirley,  ch.  xvi. 
The  former,  looming  large  in  full  canoni- 
cals, walking  as  became  a  beneficed  priest, 
under  the  canopy  of  a  shovel  hat,  with  the 
dignity  of  an  ample  CORPORATION. 

1887.  W.  P.  FRITH,  Autobiog.,  i.,  49. 
Very  stout  men  ....  each  possessing 
larger  CORPORATIONS  than  are  commonly 




CORPSE,  subs,  (sporting).  —  A  horse 
in  the  betting  for  market  pur- 
poses alone  ;  otherwise  A 
STIFF'UN.  —  See  COCK,  suds., 
sense  4. 

Verb  (theatrical).—  I.  To  con- 
fuse ;  '  to  queer  '  ;  to  blunder 
and  so  *  put  out  '  one's  fellows  : 
to  spoil  a  scene.  —  See  REGULAR 

1864.     HOTTEN,  Slang  Diet.,  s.v. 

1886.  Graphic,  April  10,  p.  399.  An 
actor  who  forgets  his  words  is  said  to 
'  stick,'  or  be  '  CORPSED.' 

1886.  Cornhill  Mag.,   Oct.,   p.   436. 
He  expressed   a  hope   that    Miss   Tudor 
'  wouldn't    CORPSE    his  business  '  over  the 
forge-door  again  that  evening. 

2.  (common).  —  To  kill  (liter- 
ally to  make  a  corpse  of  one). 
A  Fr.  equivalent  is  parler  sur 
quelqitun.  For  synonyms,  see 

1884.  EDITOR  of  Notes  and  Queries 
[in  '  Answers  to  Correspondents  '  (6  S.  , 
ix.,  120),  says  that].  'To  CORPSE  ...  is 
one  of  many  customary  and  coarse  ways 
of  menacing  the  infliction  of  death.  It  is 
horribly  familiar  in  London.' 

1887.  W.   E.    HENLEY    AND  R.   L. 
STEVENSON,     Deacon      Brodie,    Act     4. 
MOORE.      And     is     he     thundering    well 
CORPSED?     .     .     .     Then  damme,  I  don't 
mind  swinging. 

CORPSE-PROVIDER,^/^,  (common). 
—  A  doctor  or  physician.  For 
synonyms,  see  CROCUS. 

fo.^r.  (Ameri- 
can). —  A  mixed  drink.  —  See 

1871.  Birmingham  Daily  Post,  22 
Dec.  And  our  American  refreshment  bars, 
In  drinks  of  all  descriptions  cut  a  dash, 
From  CORPSE  REVIVERS  down  to  '  brandy 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  March  8, 
p.  7,  col.  i.  In  winter  the  dash  into  the 
open  air  or  the  standing  for  a  few  minutes 
in  a  line  of  comrades  will  certainly  enhance 
the  joys  of  the  English  equivalents  for  the 

CORRECT  or    K'RECT  CARD. — See 


CORROBOREE,  subs.  (Australian). — 
A  disturbance.  [Properly  a 
tremendous  native  dance.] 

Verb.  —  To   boil.  —  See    pre- 

CORSICAN, subs,  (sporting). — Some- 
thing out  of  the  common  ;  a 
'  buster.'  [A  '  Burnandism.'] 

1889.     Polytechnic   Mag.,    18  April, 
p.  232,  col.  2.    This  heat  was  a  CORSICAN. 

CORYBUNGUS,  subs,  (pugilistic). — 
The  posteriors. — See  BLIND 


COSH,  szibs.  (popular  and  thieves'). 
— A  •  neddy  '  ;  a  life-preserver  ; 
a  short,  loaded  bludgeon.  Also 
a  policeman's  truncheon. 


COSSACK,  subs,  (common). — A  po- 
liceman. For  synonyms,  see 

1886.  Graphic,  Jan.  30,  p.  130,  col. 
i.  A  policeman  is  also  called  a  '  COSSACK,' 
a  '  Philistine,'  and  a  '  frog.' 

COSTARD,  subs.  (old). — The  head. 
[Properly  an  apple.]  For 
synonyms,  see  CRUMPET. 

1534.  N.  UDALL,  Roister  Doister, 
III.,  v.,  p.  58  (Arber).  I  knocke  youre 
COSTARDE  if  ye  offer  to  strike  me. 

1605.  SHAKSPEARE,  King  Lear,  Act 
iv.  Sc.  6.  Edg.  .  .  .  Nay,  come  not  near 
th'  old  man  ;  keep  out,  che  vor  ye,  or  ise 
try  whether  your  COSTARD  or  my  bat 
be  the  harder. 

1787.  GROSE,  Prov.  Glossary,  COS- 
TARD, the  head  ;  a  kind  of  opprobrious 
wordj  used  by  way  of  contempt,  probably 
alluding  to  a  costard  apple. 


1 88 

Cotton  To. 

1817.  SCOTT,  Rob  Roy,  ch.  xii.  '  It's 
hard  I  should  get  raps  over  the  COSTARD.' 

COTCH,  verb  (vulgar). — To  catch. 
[A  corruption.]  Also  ppl.  adj., 


1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  Oct.  12,  p.  5, 
col.  2.  Taken  before  some  French  beak 
whom  he  did  not  know,  and  an  interpreter 
brought,  the  COTCHED  culprit  was  made  to 
pay  20  f. 

COTS,  subs.  (Christ's  Hospital). — 
See  quot.  [A  corruption  of 

1810.  CHARLES  LAMB,  Recollections 
of  Christ's  Hospital  [1835],  p.  24.  The 
COTS,  or  superior  Shoe  Strings  of  the 

r.  (old). — A  sheep.  Mentioned 
Ray   in   his   proverbs.      For 
synonyms,  see  WOOL-BIRD. 

1615.  HARINGTON,  Epigrams,  bk. 
III.,  ep.  18.  Lo  then  the  mystery  from 
whence  the  name  Of  COTSOLD  LYONS  first 
to  England  came. 

COTTON -LORD  or  KING,  subs,  (com? 
mon). — A  wealthy  cotton  manu- 

1883.  HAWLEY  SMART,  Hard  Lines, 
ch.  xix.     '  But,  Mr.  Fulsby  [a  Manchester 
man],  the  country  wilj  never     ...     dp 
away  with  the  army  because  you  COTTON 
LOKDS  consider  it  unnecessary.' 

COTTONOPOLJS,  subs,  (general). — 
Manchester.  [In  allusion  to  the 
staple.]  Cf.,  ALBERTO POLIS, 

1884.  Echo,  May  12,  p.  4,  col.  2.     For 
the  big   race   [Manchester   Cup]  at   COT- 
TONOPOLIS a  fine  lot  are  let  in. 

COTTONS,  subs.  (Stock  Exchange). 
— Confederate  Bonds.  [From 
the  staple  pf  the  Southerp 
States.  ] 

COTTON  To,  verb  (common). — To 
take  a  fancy  to ;  to  unite  with  ; 
to  agree  with.  In  the  last  sense 
it  is  found  occasionally  in  the 
Elizabethan  writers,  and  is 
American  by  survival.  [As  re- 
gards derivation,  it  comes  from 
the  Welsh  cytuno,  to  agree,  to 
consent.  ] 

Some  French  analogues 
are  : — Avoir  un  beguin  pour 
quelqrfun  and  avoir  un  pepin 
pour  une  femme ;  one  who 
COTTONS  TO  another  is  by 
students  called  un  colleur  ;  while 
concubinage  by  sheer  force  of 
habit  is  damned  as  le  collage. 

1582.  STANYHURST,  Virgil,  p.  19 
(Arber).  If  this  geare  GOTTEN,  what 
wight  wyl  yeelde  to  myn  aulters  Bright 
honor  and  Saci  ifice. 

1605.  Play  of  Stucley,  I.,  290.  John 
a  Nokes  and  John  a  Style  and  I  cannot 


1837.  B ARH AM,  I.  L .  (  The  Bagman's 
Story),  For  when  once  Madam  Fortune 
deals  out  her  hard  raps,  It's  amazing  to 
think,  How  one  COTTONS  to  drink  ! 

1846.  Punch,  vol.  II.,  p.  12.  I  agree 
in  the  words  of  Mrs.  Judy,  who  says, 
'  My  dear,  I  hope  one  day  to  see  Peel  and 
Cobden  COTTON  together. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  152.  'You  stop 
here  and  COTTON  UP  TO  the  gipsies,' 
exclaimed  Charley  Brickwood. 

1880.  OUIDA,  Moths,  ch.  vii.  '  Ride? 
Ah  !  That's  a  thing  I  don't  COTTON  TO 
anyhow,'  said  Miss  Fuschia  Leach,  who 
had  found  that  her  talent  did  not  lie  that 

TO     DIE     WITH      COTTON      IN 

ONE'S    EARS,   phr.   (obsolete). — 
See  quots. 

1821.  P.  EGAN,  Tom  and  Jerry  [ed 
1890),  p. 92.  Many  of  the  most  hardened 
and  desperate  offenders,  from  the  kindness, 
attention,  and  soothing  conduct  of  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Cotton  [the  chaplain  at  Newgate, 
1821],  who  is  indefatigable  in  administering 
consolation  to  their  troubled  minds,  have 
become  the  most  sincere  penitents. 

1864.     Athenceum,  29  Oct.,  No.  1931. 
Rev.  of  SI,  Diet.'    When  a  late  chaplain 

Cotton-  Top. 



of  Newgate  [Rev.  Mr.  Cotton]  used  to 
attend  poor  wretches  to  the  scaffold,  stand- 
ing by  their  side  to  the  last  moment,  they 
were  said  to  '  DIE  WITH  COTTON  IN  THEIR 
EARS  !'  Let  us  add  here,  that  Rowe  in- 
vented the  phrase  '  launched  into  eternity,1 
to  signify  the  simple  but  solemn  matter  of 

This  was  by  no  means  the  only 
instance  of  a  popular  punning 
allusion  to  the  name  of  Cotton. 
The  Jesuit  Father  Coton,  having 
obtained  a  great  ascendency 
over  Henri  IV.,  it  was  remarked 
by  that  monarch's  subjects  that, 
unfortunately,  '  HIS  EARS  WERE 


COTTON-TOP,  subs,  (obsolete). — 
A  woman  loose  in  fact,  but 
keeping  up  some  sort  ot  appear- 
ance. [In  allusion  to  cotton 
stockings  with  silk  feet.  ] 

COUCH  A  HOGSHEAD,  verbal phr. 
(old). — To  lie  down  and  sleep. 
[CoucH,  to  lie  down,  was  in 
common  use  in  Shakspeare's  time 
(Merry  Wives  of  Windsor  ^  v. ,  2). 
HOGSHEAD  =  the  head*]  —  See, 
however,  quot.,  1610,  and  for 
synonyms,  see  BALMY. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
To  COUCH  A  HOGSHEAD  \  to  ly  downe  and 
slepe.  Ibid;  I  COUCHED  A  HOGSHEAD  in  a 
skypper  this  darkemans. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  38  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  COWCH  A 
HOGSHEAD  :  to  lie  doune  and  sleepe  ;  this 
phrase  is  like  an  Alminacke  that  is  out  of 
date  :  now  the  duch  word  to  slope  is  with 
them  vsed,  to  sleepe,  and  liggen,  to  lie 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  iv.,  p.  37  (1874).  The  fumes  of 
drink  had  now  ascended  into  their  brain, 
wherefore  they  COUCHT  A  HOGS-HEAD,  and 
went  to  sleep. 

1706.     E.  COLES,  Eng .  Diet. ,  s.v. 

1818.  SCOTT,  Heart  of  Midlothian, 
ch.  xxx.  '  We'll  COUCH  A  HOGSHEAD,  and 
so  better  had  you.  They  retired  to  repose, 


COURT,  subs,  (old).— A  pettifog- 
ging lawyer.  [The  Pipowder 
Court  was  one  held  at  fairs, 
where  justice  was  done  to  any  in- 
jured person  before  the  dust  of 
the  fair  was  off  his  feet ;  the  name 
being  derived  from  the  French 
pie poudre.  Some,  however,  think 
that  it  had  its  origin  in  pied-poul- 
drtux,  a  pedlar,  and  signifies  a 
pedlars'  court. 

COUNCIL-OF-TEN,  subs.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— The  toes  of  a  man  who 
walks  DUCK-FOOTED  (q.v.\  Cf., 

TEN         COMMANDMENTS.          Ft., 

COUNSELLOR,  subs.  (Irish). — A  bar- 
rister.    Fr. ,  un  gerbier. 

1889.  Answers,  9  Feb.  I  referred 
him  to  my  solicitors,  who  very  kindly  lent 
their  services  for  nothing,  giving  the  £3  he 
had  to  the  COUNSELLOR  (thieves  always 
call  barristers  COUNSELLORS)  employed. 

COUNT,  subs,  (common). — A  man  of 
fashion ;  a  swell. — ^quot.,  1883, 
and  DANDY  for  synonyms. 

1859.  SALA,  Twice  Round  the  Clock, 
6  p.m.,  par.  2Oi  Tremendous  COUNTS  are 
the  clerks  in  the  secretary's  office,  jaunty 
bureaucrats,  who  ride  upon  park  hacks, 
and  are  '  come  for '  by  ringlets  in  broughams 
at  closing  time. 

1883.  G.  A.  S[ALA],  in  ///.  London 
News,  April  21,  p.  379,  col.  2.  Fops 
flourished  before  my  time,  but  I  can  re- 
member the  'dandy,'  who  was  superseded 
by  the  COUNT,  the  'toff,'  and  other  varie- 
ties of  the  '  swell. 

COUNTER,  verb  (pugilistic).  —  To 
strike  while  parrying.  Also  used 
as  a  verbal  subs.,  COUNTERING. 
Figuratively,  to  oppose  ;  to  cir- 

1853.  C.  BEDE,  Verdant  Green,  pt. 
I.,  p.  106.  His  kissing  traps  COUNTERED, 
his  ribs  roasted. 

Counterfeit-  Cranke.        1 9° 


1857.  O.  W.  HOLMES,  Autocrat  of 
the  Breakfast  Table,  ch.  vii.  He  will 
certainly  knock  the  little  man's  head  off,  if 
he  strikes  him.  Feinting,  dodging,  stop- 
ping, hitting,  COUNTERING  —  little  man's 
head  not  off  yet. 

1871.  Daily  News,  17  April,  p.  2, 
col.  2.  The  Jockey  Club  met  on  Wed- 
nesday last,  when  they  COUNTERED  the 
Hunt  Committee  ...  by  refusing  to 
father  the  said  '  wrangling  stakes  '  by  a 
majority  of  eleven  to  three. 

1873.  Consei  vative,  1  5  Feb.  If  'The 
Druid  '  is  the  prettier  sparrer,  '  The  ^Edile  ' 
must  be  admitted  to  have  shown  unex- 
pected powers  of  COUNTERING,  and  has 
stood  up  gamely  to  his  bigger  opponent. 


COUNTERFEIT-CRANKE,  subs.  (old). 
—  Explained  in  quots.  —  Set 

1567.     HARMAN,  Caveat.    These  that 

do  COUNTERFET  THE  CRANKE  be  yong 

knaves  and  yonge  harlots,  that  deeply  dis- 
semble the  falling  sickness; 

1621.  BURTON,  Anatomy  of  Melan- 
choly, p.   159.     A  lawyer  of  Bruges  hath 
some  notable  examples  of  such  COUNTER- 
FEIT CRANKS.      Ibid,    436.      Thou  art    a 
COUNTERFEIT  CRANK;  a  cheater. 

1622.  FLETCHER,  Beggars  Bush,  ii., 
i.     And  these,  what  name  or  title  e'er  they 
bear,  Jarkman,   or  Patrico,   CRANKE,   or 
Clapper-dudgeon,  Frater,  or  Abram-man, 
I  speak  to  all  That  stand  in  fair  election  for 
the  title  Of  king  of  beggars. 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  39  (1874),.  s.v. 

subs,  (common).  —  Adraper's  assis- 
tant ;  a  shopman.  Fr.  ,  chevalier 
du  metre.  For  synonyms,  see 
COUNTER-JUMP  =  to  act  as  a  shop- 
assistant,  and  COUNTER-JUMPING, 
verbal  subs. 

1855.  C.  KINGSLEY,  Westward  Ho. 
'  Why,'  said  he,  stifling  his  anger,  '  it 
seems  free  enough  to  every  COUNTER- 
JUMPER  in  the  town.' 

1860.  Guide  to  Eton,  p.  236.  They 
are  like  the  young  COUNTER-JUMPER,  men- 

tioned by  Dickens,  on  the  outside  of  a 
coach,  who  lighted  a  great  many  cigars, 
and  threw  them  away  when  he  thought  no 
one  was  looking. 

1863.  C.   READE,   Hard  Cash,    II., 
189.     Mamma,  dear,  you  open  that  gigan- 
tic wardrobe  of  yours,  and  I'll  oil  my  hair, 
whitewash  my  mug  (a  little  moan  from  Mrs. 
D.),  and  do  the  COUNTER-JUMPING  business 
to  the  life. 

1864.  G.  A.  SALA,  in   Temple  Bar, 
Dec.,    p.    40.      He   is  as   dextrous  as    a 
Regent    Street    COUNTER-JUMPER    in   the 
questionable  art  of  '  shaving  the  ladies.' 

1876.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Joshua 
Haggard,  ch.  viii.  I  don't  want  my  son 
and  heir  to  keep  company  with  COUNTER 


GOUNT-NOSES,  verbal phr.  (parlia- 
mentary).— To  count  the  'Ayes' 
and  '  ft  oes. '  [A  punning  allusion 
to  the  latter.]  Generally,  to  take 
the  sense  of  any  assembly. 

COUNTRY,  subs,  (cricket).  — That 
part  of  the  ground  at  a  great  dis- 
tance from  the  wicket ;  thus,  a 
fielder  at  *  deep  -  long  -  off,'  or 
*  long-on  '  is  said  '  to  be  in  the 
COUNTRY,'  and  a  ball  hit  to  the 
far  boundary  is  'hit  into  the 

COUNTRY- PUT,  subs.  (old). — An 
ignorant,  country  fellow.  For 
synonyms,  see  JOSKIN. 

1717.  MRS.  CENTLIVRE,  Bold  Stroke 
for  a  Wife,  Act  iv.,  Sc.  2.  Col.  F. 
Enough.  Now  for  the  COUNTRY-PUT. 

COUNTY- CROP,  subs,  (general). — 
The  hair  cut  close  to  the  skull ; 
a  mode  once  common  to  all 
prisoners,  but  now  to  convicts 
only.  Also  PRISON-CROP.  [An 
abbreviation  of  COUNTY-PRISON 
CROP.]  Used  likewise  adjectively. 

1867.  JAS.  GREENWOOD,  Unsent. 
Joiirneys,  xxv.,  199.  A  slangy,  low- 




browed,   bull-necked,    COUNTY  -CROPPED 
.  .  .  crew. 

COUPLE-  (  also  BUCKLE-)  BEGGAR, 

subs,  (old).  —  A  celebrant  ot  irreg- 
ular marriages  —  as  the  Chaplain 
of  the  Fleet;  a  hedge  priest.  A 
Spanish  colloquialism  for  such  a 
marriage  is  bodijo. 

1737.  SWIFT,  Proposal  for  Badges  to 
the  Beggars.  Nay,  their  happiness  is  often 
deferred  until  they  find  credit  to  borrow,  or 
cunning  to  steal,  a  shilling  to  pay  their 
popish  priest,  or  infamous  COUPLE-BEGGAR. 

1842.  LEVER,  Handy  Andy,  ch.  xxix. 
This  was  a  degraded  clergyman,  known  in 
Ireland  under  the  title  of  COUPLE-BEGGAR, 
who  was  ready  to  perform  irregular 
marriages  on  such  urgent  occasions  as  the 



COUPLING-HOUSE,  suds.  (old).  —  A 
brothel.  [From  COUPLING,  the 
act  of  copulating,  -T-HOU^E.]  For 
synonyms,  see  NANNY-SHOP. 


r#fo.  (old).  —  A  beau, 
For  synonyms;   see 




PROMiSES,.rafo./>£r.  (old).  —  Fair 
speeches  without  performance. 

COUSIN  BETTY,  subs,  (colloquial):  — 
A  half-  willed  person.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BUFFLE  and  CABBAGE- 

I860.  MRS.  GASKELL,  Sylvia's 
Lozters,  ch.  xiv.  I  dunnot  think  there's 
a  man  living  —  or  dead  for  that  matter  — 
as  can  say  Foster's  wrong  him  of  a  penny, 
or  gave  short  measure  to  a  child  or  a 


COUSIN  TRUMPS,  subs.  (old).  —  One 
of  a  kind  :  brother  smut  ;  brother 

1825.  English  Spy,  p.  255.  Most 
noMe  cracks,  and  worthy  COUSIN-TRUMPS, 

COUTER  or  COOTER,  subs,  (com- 
mon).— A  sovereign.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  CANARY,  sense  3. 
HALF  A  COUTER  =  half-a-sove- 
1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant  (3 

ed.),  p.  444,  s.v. 

1877.  Five  Years  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  243.  '  A  foulcher,  with  flimsies 
and  COUTERS  for  a  score  of  quid  in  it.' 

1880.  JAMES  PAYN,  A  Confidential 
Agent,  I.,  207.  '  Well,  tie  gave  us  half  a 
COUTER  at  all  events,'  pleaded  John  in 


and,  in  the  feminine,  COVESS, 
subs,  (general). — I.  A  person; 
a  companion.  [Some  derive 
COVE  from  the  Gypsy  cova^  covo 
—  that  man,  com  —  that  woman  ; 
Cova,  says  Pott  (quoted  in 
Annandale),  has  a  far  wider 
application  than  the  Latin  res ; 
there  is  no  expression  more  fre- 
quent in  a  gypsy's  mouth.  Oihers 
connect  it  with  the  north  country 
coofi  a  lout  or  dolt.]  COVE  enters 
into  many  combinations  :  e.g., 
CROSS -COVE  =  a  robber. 
FLASH-COVE  =  a  thief  of 


KINCHIN-COVE    =  a  little  man. 
FLOGGING-COVE  =  a  beadle. 
SMACKING-COVE  =  a  coachman. 
NARRY-COVE       =  a  drunkard. 
TOPPING-COVE     =  a      highway- 

ABRAM-COVE       =  a  beggar. 
QUEER-COVE        =  a  rogue. 
NUBBING-COVE    =  the  hangman. 
GENTRY-COVE     =  a  gentleman. 
DOWNY-COVE       =  shrewd  man. 
RUM-COVE  =  a    doubtful 

NIB-COVE  =  a  gentleman, 

etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  all  which  see. 




chap  ;  cull  ;  cully  ;  customer  ; 
kidoy  ;  homo  or  omee  ;  fish  ;  put ; 
bloke ;  gloak  ;  party  ;  cuss  ; 
codger  ;  butfer  ;  gaffer  ;  dam  her  ; 
duck  ;  chip. 

pain  (popular  :  literally  a  bread- 
eater  ;  also  a  man  who  '  keeps ' 
a  woman) ;  un  bonhomme  (fami- 
liar) ;  un  type  (prostitutes'  =  a 
dupe) ;  un  gonce,  gonse  or  gonze, 
and  une  gonzesse  (thieves')  ;  un 
goncier  (thieves') ;  un  gonsale 
(thieves');  ungadouille  ;  un  mere 
or  niert ;  un  pante  (thieves' : 
from  pantm>  a  puppet);  un  mastic 
(thieves':  properly  cement  or 
putty)  ;  tine  mazette  (military); 
une  mecque  (thieves');  un  mar- 
quant  (thieves' :  especially  applied 
to  bullies  or  Sunday-men) ;  un 
marpaut  or  marp'au  (old  cant); 
un  lander  (thieves')  ;  un  lascar 
(thieves')  ;  un  messier  or 
messiere  (thieves':  from  meziere, 
a  fool) ;  un  orgtte  (thieves') ;  un 
gas  (thieves' )  ;  un  gosselin  (popu- 
lar =  Eng.  covey  ;  une  fignole 
gosseline  =  a  'natty  piece');  un 
gniasse  (thieves')  ;  un  loncegtie 

(perhaps  one  of  the  most  compre- 
hensive terms  in  the  Gauner- 
sprache,  and  signifying  not  only  a 
'cove'  [i.e. ,  an  individual],  but 
also  a  master,  husband,  possessor, 
artist,  expert,  artisan — in  fact, 
one  owning  or  capable  of  any- 
thing. Combinations  are  Balbajis, 
Balbos  [fern.  Balboste,  Balboeste\ 
=  master  of  the  house  ;  Baldower 
=  a  principal  or  leader  of  a  gang, 
an  adviser,  the  creater  of  oppor- 
tunities, the  spy ;  Baleze,  Baleize 
=  an  adviser,  also  a  chief  of 
police  ;  Balhoche  [from  Baal  and 

hocho  (there)],  prostitutes'  =  '  one 
in  possession '  but  removeable  ; 
Balhoche  (thieved)  =  one  with  an 
opportunity  of  theft ;  Balhei  is 
merely  the  abbreviation  of  Baal- 
he  or  hei  ;  Balmassematten  [masso 
uinattan\  the  business  man,  the 
leader  of  a  gang ;  Balmelocho, 
the  artisan  ;  Balmelochestift,  ihe 
artisan's  apprentice  ;  Balplete, 
Balpleite,  the  runaway  ;  Balscho- 
chad,  any  orhcial  who  takes  bribes; 
Batspiess  =  a  common  lodging- 
house  ;  Balm,  Balmach,  Bal- 
machan,  Palm,  Palmer,  Pal  mac  kt 
Pallmack,  Pallmagen  =  2i  soldier  ; 
the  Hanov.  has  Palemachome 
[Palemachen,  Pallemacher\ ;  Bal- 
versckmai  =  an  inquisitor  or 
judge) ;  Brooker  (Hanoverian  = 
one  in  trousers,  from  the  .North 
German  Broek  or  Bracca,  trou- 
sers) ;  Gatscho  (from  the  Gypsy 
gaxo}  ;  Isch  (from  the  Hebrew 

1567.  HARM  AN,  Caveat.  COFE  :  a 

1609.  DEKKER,  Lanthome  and 
Candlelight,  in  wks.  (Grosart)  III.,  196. 
The  word  COVE,  or  COFE,  or  CUFFIN, 
signifies  a  Man,  a  Fellow,  etc. 

1654.  WITTS,  Recreations.  As  priest 
of  the  game,  And  prelate  of  the  same, 
There's  a  gentry  COVE  here. 

1714.    Memoirs  of  John  Hall  (4  ed.), 

P.   12,  S.V. 

1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  ch.  x. 
'  Do  you  see  that  old  COVE  at  the  book- 
stall ? ' 

^1849.  C.  KINGSLEY,  Alton  Locke, 
ch.  ii.  :  [a  misquotation  of  a  far  older  song.] 
'  The  ministers  talk  a  great  deal  about 
port,  And  they  makes  Cape  wine  very 
dear,  But  blow  their  hi's  if  ever  they  tries, 
To  deprive  a  poor  COVE  of  his  beer.' 

1871.  Figaro,  15  April.  We  need 
hardly  say  that  the  COVE  in  question  is  not 
a  man. 

[For   examples   of  the   use   of 
COVEY  and  COVESS,  see  same.] 

Coven  t-  Ga  rden . 



2.  (Up-country  Australian). — 
The  master,  '  boss,'  or  'gaffer  ' 
of  a  sheep  station. 

phr.  (thieves'). — The  landlord  of 
a  common  lodging-house.  FrtJ 
marchand  de  sonuneil. 

COVENT-GARDEN,  subs,  (rhyming 
slang). — A  '  farden  '  or  farthing. 

(old). — A  procuress.  [Covent 
Garden  at  one  time  teemec  with 
brothels :  as  Fielding's  Covent 
Garden  Tragedy  (1751-2)  sug- 
gests. Cf.,  BANK  SIDE  j. A  DIES 
and  BARNWELL  AGUE.] — See  Coj 


For  synonyms,  see  Mo  i  HER. 

COVENT-GARDEN  AGUE,  subs.  phr. 
(old). — A  venereal  disease.  [  \n 
allusion  to  brothels  in  ihe  neigh- 
bourhood m question.]  CV., BANK- 
SIDE  LADIES.  For  synonyms,  see 


COVENT-GARDEN  NUN,  subs.  phr. 
(old).— A  prostitute.—  \See  CO- 

COVENTRY.    To  SEND  ONE  TO,  or 

TO  BE  IN  COVENTRY,  verbal  phr. 
(colloquial). — To  exclude  from 
social  intercourse,  or  notice  ;  to 
be  in  disgrace.  [Variously  but 
indecisively  ex  plained: — (i)  From 
Coventry  Gaol,  as  a  place  of  im- 
prisonment for  Royalists  during 
the  Parliamentary  war.  (2)  From 
the  fact  that  ia  Coventry,  as 
elsewhere,  the  privilege  of  trading 
was  anciently  confined  to  cer- 
tain privileged  persons.  (3)  As 
a  corruption  of  PUT  or  SENT 
INTO  QUARANTINE,  the  transi- 
tion from  '  Coventry '  formerly 
pronounced  and  written  Cointrie 

— ('his  breech  of  Cointrie  blewe.' 

DRAYTON'S     Dowsabdl  \     1593) 

— being    easy    and     natural,    in 

whi  h  connection,  see  quot.,  1821. 

The  expression   appears   first   in 

Grose,    but    '  Quarantine  '   used 

analogically  is  found  in  Swift. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

1821.     CROKER,    in    Croker   Papers, 

vol.  I.,  p.  203.     I  found   MacMahon  IN  A 

KIND  OF  COVENTRY,  and  was  warned  not 

to  continue  my  acquaintance  with  him. 

1838.  LYTTOV,  Alice,  bk.  IV.,  ch. 
iii.  '  If  any  one  dares  to  buy  it,  we'll  SEND 

1869.  SPENCER,  Study  of  Sociology, 
ch.  x.,  p.  244(9  ed.).  The  skilful  artizan, 
who  in  a  given  period  can  do  more  than 
his  fellows,  but  who  dares  not  do  it  because 
he  would  be  SENT  TO  COVENTRY  by  them. 

1872.  Post,  21  June.  Another  re- 
presentation on  behalf  of  Lieutenant 
Tribe,  of  the  gth  Lancers,  now  for  some 
months  past  IN  COVENTRY,  will  be  made 
in  the  coarse  of  a  few  days  to  the  Minister 
for  War  and  to  his  Royal  Highness 

COVER,  subs,  (thieves'): — A  pick- 
pocket's confederate :  one  who 
'fronts,'  i.e.,  distracts  the  atten- 
tion of,  the  victim ;  a  STALL 

Verb  (thieves'). — i.  To  act  as 
a  pickpocket's  confederate. 

1858.  Glasgow  Gazette,  13  Nov.  'A 
Sensitive  Thief.'  I  saw  Merritt  lift  up  the 
tail  of  a  gentleman's  coat  and  thrust  his 
hand  into  the  pocket.  .  .  .  Jordan  and 
O'Brien  were  COVERING  Merritt  while  so 
acting.  I  knew  them  all  to  be  regular 

2.  (American). — To      drink. 
For  synonyms,  see  LUSH. 

3.  (venery). — To    'have'    or 
'possess'   a   woman.      [Properly 
used  of  a  stallion  and  a  mare.] 

1653.  URQUHART,  Translation  of 
Rabelais.  Madam,  it  would  be  a  very  great 
benefit  to  the  commonwealth,  delightful  to 
you,  honourable  to  your  progeny,  and 
necessary  for  me,  that  I  COVER  you  for  the 
propagating  of  my  race. 


Cover-arse  Goi 



Coward's-  Castle. 

COVER-ARSE     GOWN,    subs.    phr. 
(Univ.,  obsolete).  —  A  gown  with- 
out sleeves. 
1803.     Gradus  ad  Cantabrigiam,  s.v. 

COVER-  DOWN,  subs,  (thieves').  —  An 
obsolete  term  lor  a  false  tossing 
coin.  —  See  CAP. 

COVER-ME-DECENTLY,  verbal  phr. 
(old).  —  A  coat.  For  synonyms, 

1821.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and  Jerry, 
p.  5.  (Dicks'  ed.,  1889.)  Tom.  This, 
what  do  you  call  it?—  this  COVER-ME- 
DECENTLY,  was  all  very  well  at  Hawthorn 
Hall,  I  daresay. 

Co  v  ESS,  subs.  (old).  —  A  woman.  — 
See  COVE. 

1789.  GEO.  PARKER,  Life's  Painter', 
p.  144.  He  was  well  acquainted  with  the 

1827.  SIR  E.  B.  LYTTON,  Pelkam, 
p.  310  (ed.  1864).  Ah,  Bess  my  COVESS,. 
strike  me  blind  if  my  sees  don't  tout  your 
bingo  muns  in  spite  of  the  darkmans. 

,  subs,  (common).  —  A  man  j 
a  dirriinutive  of  COVE  (q.v.). 

1821.  W.  T.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  iii.,  Sc.  3.  Tom.  Well 
there's  a  flimsy  for  you  ;  serve  the  change 
out  in  max  to  the  COVIES. 

.  1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  ch. 
viii.  Upon  this,  the  boy  crossed  over  ; 
and,  walking  close  up  to  Oliver,  said, 
'  Hullo,  my  COVEY  !  what's  the  row  ?  ' 

1854.  AYTOUN  AND  MAR-TIN,  The 
Bon  Gaultier  Ballads.  '  The  Laureate's 
Tourney.'  '  Undo  the  helmet  !  cut  the 
lace  !  pour  water  on  his  head  !  '  'It  ain'£ 
no  use  at  all,  my  lord;  'cos  vy?  the  COVEY'S 

1876.  C.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Ad-ven- 
tures of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  19.  Ah  !  Ah  ! 
you  half-starved,  hungry,  ugly-looking 
COVEY,  why,  if  they  had  you  in  the 
country  where  I  came  from  they'd  boil  you 
down  for  the  pigs. 

Cow,  subs.  (old).  —  i.  A  woman. 
The  term  is  now  opprobrious  ; 
but  in  its  primary  and  natural 

sense  the  usage  is  ancient. 
Ho  well  [1659]  says:  'There  are 
some  proverbs  that  carry  a  kind 
of  authority  with  them,  as  that 
which  began  in  Henne  the 
Fourth's  time.  "  He  that  bulls 
the  cow  must  keep  the  calf.'" 
For  synonyms,  see  PETTICOAT. 

2.  (general).  —  A    prostitute. 
[By  analogy  from  sense  I.]     Fr., 
une  vache.      For    synonyms,  see 

3.  (sporting). — A      thousand 
pounds.      Other  slang  terms  for 
sums  of  rrioney  are  :— 

PONY  =  £25. 

CENTURY    =  £100. 
MONKEY     =  £500. 
PLUM          =  £100,000. 
MARIGOLD  =  ;£  1,000,000; 

but  for  complete  list,  see  MON- 

1870.  Athenaum,  10  Sept.  '  Liver- 
pool.' All  over  Lancashire  a  horse  is 
called  a  cow,  which  everywhere  else 
where  slang  prevails  is  a  cant  termi  for 
a  thousand  pounds. 


A  cow  or  DUG. — See  TALK. 

TTJNE  THE  cow  DIED  OF. — 
See  TUNE. 

COWAN,  subs:  (common). — A  sneak 
or  prying  individual.  Among 
masons  the  uninitiate  in  general. 

COW-AND-CALF,  verb  (rhyming 
slang).—  To  laugh. 


subs,  phr:  (popular). — A  pulpit. 
[Because  a  clergyman  may  deliver 
himself  therefrom  without  fear  of 
contradiction  or  argument.]  For 
synonyms,  see  HUM- BOX. 

1883.  Notes  and  Queries,  6  S.,  viii., 
p.  147.  COWARD'S  CASTLE  ....  An 
epithet  ....  in  use  not  inaptly  for  a 


J95     Cow  with  the  Iron  Tail. 

pulpit.  Ibid,  p.  238.  I  have  often  heard 
the  pulpit  called  the  COWARD'S  CASTLE, 
it  being  said  to  be  '  six  feet  above  argu- 

Co  we  UMBER,    subs,     (vulgar). — A 
corruption  of  '  cucumber.' 

1821.  W.  T.  MONCRIEFF,  Tom  and 
Jerry,  Act  iii.,  Sc.  3.  Bob.  Very  veil, 
two  pound,  vith  a  pickled  COWCUMBER, 
and  a  pcn'orth  o'  ketchup. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  xxv.  In  ca-e  there  should  be  such  a 
thing  as  a  COWCUMBER  in  the  house  will 
you  be  so  kind  as  bring  it,  for  I'm  rayther 
partial  to  'em  m>  self,  and  they  does  a 
world  of  good  in  a  sick  room. 

Cow-  (also  BUSHEL-  and  SLUICE-)* 
CUNTED,  adj.  phr.  (vencry);  — 
A  term  of  opprobium  applied  to 
women  deformed  by  parturition 
or  debauchery. 

COW-GREASE  or  COW-OIL,  subs\ 
(common). — Butter.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  CART-GREASE. 

Cow-JuiCE,  subs,  (popular). — Milk. 
Cf.,  BUNG-JUJCE  and  COW- 
GREASE.  For  synonyms,  see 

Cow- LICK,  subs,  (common). — A 
peculiar  lock  of  hair,  greased, 
curled,  brought  forward  from 
the  ear,  and  plastered  on  the 
cheek.  Once  common  amongst 
costermongers  and  tramps.  For 
synonyms,  see  AGGERAWATORS. 

Cow- OIL. — See  COW-GREASE. 

COW-PUNCHER,  subs.  (American); 
— A  cowboy  or  herdsman. 

1888.    Detroit  Free  Press,    21  July. 
He  was  a  cowboy,  or,  in  Western  parlance, 


COW-QUAKE,  subs.  (Irish). — The 
roar  of  a  bull. 

Cows- AND- KISSES,  subs,  (rhyming 
slang). — The  '  missus,'  or  mis- 
tress ;  also  women  generally. 

1887.  HORSLEY,  Jottings  from  Jail. 
Come,  COWS-AND-KISSES,  put  the  battle  of 
the  Nile  on  your  Barnet  fair,  and  a  rogue 
and  villain  in  your  sky-rocket. 

COW'S-BABY  or  BABE,  subs,  (com- 
mon).—A  calf.  In  Old  Cant 

BLEATING-CHEAT      (q.V.).         For 

synonyms,  see  MOOER  ;  Cf.,  Cow- 
JUICK  and  COW'S-SPOUSE.  Also 
a  poltroon  ;  Fr.,  tin  fouinard,  uti 
fouetteux  dt  chats,  un  fouailleur, 
tmfoie,  vnfleniard  or  Jlaquadin, 
or  unfrileux. 

1785.    GRC)SE,  Diet.   Vulg.    Tongue, 

Cow- SHOOTER,  subs.  (Winchester 
College). — A  'deerstalker'  hat: 
only  worn  by  proefects  and 

COW'S-SPOUSE,  subs,  (old).— A 
bull.— Grose  [1785], 

Cow  WITH  THE  IRON  TAIL,  subs-,, 
phr.  (general). — A  pump;  the 
source  of  the  '  cooling  medium  ' 
for  '  regulating '  milk.  Thus,  Dr. 
Wendell  Holmes,  in  The  Profes- 
sor at  the  Breakfast  Table  (1860)  : 
— It  is  a  common  saying  of  a 
jockey  that  he  is  all  horse,  and  1 
have  often  fancied  that  milkmen 
get  a  stiff  upright  carriage,  and 
an  angular  movement  that  re- 
minds one  of  a  pump  and  the 
working  of  a  handle.  Also 


and  SIMPSON'S  cow  (q.v.). 

18^57.  Punch.  The  Rinderpest  does 
not  affect  the  cow  WITH  THE  IRON  TAIL. 

1872.  Standard,  25  Dec.  Simpson 
...  is,  however,  universally  accepted  as 
the  title  for  that  combined  product  of  the 
Cow  natural,  and  the  cow  WITH  THE  IRON 




1876,  Once  a  Week,  23  August. 
Every  drop  of  milk  brought  into  Paris  is 
tested  at  the  barriers  by  the  lactometer,  to 
see  if  the  IRON  TAILED  cow  has  been 
guilty  of  diluting  it  ;  if  so,  the  whole  of  it 
is  remorselessly  thrown  into  the  gutter — 
the  Paris  milk  is  very  pure  in  consequence. 

COXY,  adj.  (public  schools').  — 
Stuck  up  ;  conceited  ;  impudent. 

1856.  HUGHES,  Tom  Browns  School- 
days, p.  202.  He's  the  COXIEST  young 
blackguard  in  the  house— I  always  told  you 
so.  Ibid,  p.  214.  '  Confoundly  COXY  those 
young  rascals  will  get  if  we  don't  mind,' 
was  the  general  feeling. 

1882.  f .  ANSTEY,  Vice  Versa,  ch.  iv. 
'  Now  then  young  Bultitude,  you  used  to 
be  a  decent  fellow  enough  last  term, 
though  you  were  COXY.  So,  before  we  go 
any  further — what  do  you  meani  by  this 
sort  of  thing  ? ' 

COYDUCK,  verb  (old).— To  decoy. 
[An  ingenious  blend  of  conduct 
and  decoy.'} 

1829.  A  Laconic  Narrative  of  the 
Life  and  Death  of  James  Wilson.  That 
awful  monster,  William  Burke.  Like  Reynard 
sneaking  on  the.lurk,  CoYDycKED  his  prey 
into  his  den  And  then  the  woeful  work 

COYOTE,  subs,  (old).— The  female 
pudendtim.  For  synonyms,  see 

COZZA,  subs,   (cheap  Jacks').—  See 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adven- 
tures of  a  Cheap  j 'ack,  p.  28.  Mo  .  .  . 
declared  he  would  never  eat  another  bit  of 
COZZA,  i.e.,  pork,  as  long  as  he  lived. 

CRAB,  subs,    (auction). — The  same 
as  BONNET  (q,v.),  subs.,  sense  i. 

Verb  (thieves'). — To  expose  ; 
to  inform  ;  to  offend  or  insult ; 
and  especially  to  interrupt,  to 
get  in  the  way  of,  to  spoil. 
[Properly  to  render  harsh,  sour,  or 
peevish  ;  to  make  crabbed.  ]  Also 

used  adjectively.  For  synonyms, 
see  PEACH  and  RILE,  respec- 

1825.  The  English  Spy,  vol.  I.,  p. 
coming  CRABB  over  us,  old  fellow  ?  Very 
well,  I  shall  bolt  and  try  Randall,  and 
that's  all  about  it. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  232.  If  a 
patterer  has  been  CRABBED,  that  is  offended 
at  any  of  the  '  cribs  '  (houses),  he  mostly 
chalks  a  signal  on  or  near  the  door.  Ibid, 
vol.  II.,  p.  568.  'We  don't  CRAB  one 
another  when  we  are  sweeping  ;  if  we  was 
to  CRAB  one  another,  we'd  get  to  fighting 
and  giving  slaps  of  the  jaw  to  one  another.' 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adven- 
tures of  a  Cheap  Jack,  pp.  5-6.  Others. 
however,  would  be  what  we  termed 


1880.  MU-LIKIN,  Punch's  Almanack. 
CRAB  your  enemies,  —  I've  got  a  many, 
You  can  pot  'em  proper  for  a  penny. 

TO  CATCH  A  CRAB  ;  also  TO 
CUT  A  CRAB  ;  TO  CATCH  or 
verbal  phr.  (common).  —  There 
are  various  ways  of  CATCHING  A 
CRAB,  as,  for  example,  (i)  to  turn 
the  blade  of  the  oar  or  '  feather  ' 
under  water  at  the.  end  of  the 
stroke,  and  thus  be  unable  to  re- 
cover ;  (2)  to  lose  control  of  the 
oar  at  the  middle  of  the  stroke  by 
'  digging  '  too  deeply  ;  or  (3)  to 
miss  the  water  altogether. 

CRAB  LOUSE,  subs.  (old).  —  The 
pulex  pubis,  the  male  whereof  is 
called  a  cock,  the  female  a  hen.  — 

CRABS,  subs,  (thieves').  —  I.  The 
feet.  [A  punning  comparison  of 
the  feet  and  ten  toes  to  the  ten- 
footed,  short-tailed  crustaceans 
popularly  known  as  '  crabs.']  For 
synonyms,  see  CREEPERS.  In 
Haggart  (.to?  Glossary,  i82i)cRABS 
=  shoes. 




2.  (old). — Lice.      For    syno- 
nyms, see  CHATES,  sense  2. 

3.  (gaming). — A  pair  of  aces, 
or   deuce-ace — the   lowest  throw 
at  hazard. 

1768.  LORD  CARLISLE,  in  Jesse's 
Sehvyn,  II.,  238  (-1882).  1  hope  you  have 
left  off  hazard.  If  you  are  still  so  foolish, 
and  will  play,  the  best  thing  1  can  wish 
you  is,  that  you  may  win  and  never  throw 

1837.  BARHAM,  Ingoldsby  Legends 
(Hard  Times),  p.  4,  ed.  1851.  Well,  we 
know  in  these  cases  Your  CRABS  and 
'Deuce  Aces'  Are  wont  to  promote 
frequent  changes  of  places. 

1874.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Hagarene, 
ch.  Hi.  '  My  annuity  drops  with  me  ;  and 
if  this  throw  comes  off  CRABS,  there  won't 
be  enough  to  bury  me,  unless  I  die  a 


OF  CRABS,  verbal  phr.  (common). 
— A  matter  TURNS  OUT  CRABS 
when  it  is  brought  to  a  disagree- 
able conclusion.  [Cf.,  CRAB, 
verb,  in  the  sense  of  to  interrupt  ; 
to  get  in  the  way  of ;  to  spoil.] 

CRABSHELLS,  subs,  (popular), — 
Shoes.  [From  CRABS,  subs.,  sense 
I  (q.v. ),  +  SHELLS,  an  outer  cover- 
ing.] For  synonyms,  see  TROTTER- 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,\o\.  IIJ.,  p.  210,  'Now 
these  'ere  shoes,'  he  said  .  .'  .  'even 
now,  with  a  little  mending,  they'll  make  a 
tidy  pair  of  CRAB-SHELLS  again.' 

1889.  Answers,  July  20,  p.  121, col.  2. 
The  state  of  my  CRABSHELLS,  or  boots, 
pointed  to  the  fact  that  I  had  come  down 
in  the  world. 

CRACK,  subs.  (old). — A  crazy  per- 
son, or  soft-head.  [From  CRACK 
=  to  impair,  or  to  be  impaired.] 
For  synonyms,  see  BUFFLE  and 

1609.  DEKKER,  Lanthorne  and  Can- 
dlelight, in  wks.  (Grosart)  III.,  212.  A 
Foyst  nor  a  Nip  shall  not  walke  into  a 
Fayre  or  a  Play-house,  but  euerie  CRACKE 
will  cry  looke  to  your  purses. 

b.  1672,  d.  1719.  ADDISON  (quoted  in 
Annandale).  I  cannot  get  the  Parliament 
to  listen  to  me,  who  look  upon  me  as  a 


2.  (old).  —  A  prostitute,  see 
sense  4.  For  synonyms,  see  BAR- 

1698.  FARQUHAR,  Love  and a  Bottle, 
Act  v.,  Sc.  3.  You  imagine  I  have  got 
your  whore,  cousin,  your  CRACK. 

1705-7.  WARD,  Hudibras  Redivi-vus, 
vol.  II.,  pt.  II.,  p.  27.  Old  Leachers, 
Harridans,  and  CRACKS. 

1715.  VANBRUGH,  Country  House, 
II.,  v.  For  you  must  know  my  sister  was 
with  me,  and  it  seems  he  took  her  for  -a 
CRACK,  and  I  being  a  forward  boy  he 
fancied  I  was  going  to  make  love  to  her 
under  a  hedge,  ha,  ha. 

1748.  T.  DYCE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.), 

1785.    GROSE,  Diet.  Vul.  Tongue,  s.v. 
181 1.    Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 

3.  (old). — A  lie.  Cf..  CRACKER 
(the  modern  form),  and  for  syno- 
nyms, see  WHOPPER'. 

1773.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stoops  to 
Conquer,  Act  ii.  Miss  N.  There's  some- 
thing generous  in  my  cousin's  manner. 
He  falls  out  before  faces  to  be  forgiven  in 
private.  Tony.  That's  a  damned  con- 
founded CRACK. 

4.  (venery).  —  The     female 
pudendum.      For  synonyms,   see 

5.  (thieves').— A  burglary.  Cf.y 
CRACK  A  CRIB,  and  for  synonyms, 
see  PANNV.  [The  term  originated 
about  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century.  Fr. ,  une  fraction.] 

1834.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood 
p.  120  (ed.  1864).  We'll  overhaul  the  swag 
here,  when  the  speak  is  spoken,  oven 
This  CRACK  may  make  us  all  for  life. 




1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  p.  124. 
The  CRACK  failed,  said  Toby,  faintly. 

1841.  G.  W.  REYNOLDS,  Pick-wick 
Abroad,  ch.  xxvi.  But  should  the  traps 
be  on  the  sly,  For  a  change  we'll  have  a 


1841.  LEMAN  REDE,  Sixteen-String 
Jack,  Act  i..  Sc.  5.  Come  on,  then  !  A 
sweet  ride  of  a  dozen  miles,  just  to  cool 
one's  head,  then  for  the  CRACK  ;  and  then 
back  to  London. 

1889.  Answers,  13  April,  p.  313. 
Such  inscriptions  as  '  Poor  Joe  from  the 
Dials  in  for  a  CRACK,'  meaning  'Poor  Joe 
from  Seven  Dials  in  for  a  burglary,'  are 

6.  (thieves').  —  A     burglar. 
[See  sense   5,  and  cf.,   C  RACKS- 

1749.  Life  of  Bamffylde  -  Moore 
Carew.  Sufler  none,  from  far  or  near, 
With  their  rights  to  interfere  ;  No  strange 
Abram,  ruffler  CRACK. 

1857.  Punch,  31  Jan.  (from  slang 
song).  That  long  over  Newgit  their  Wor- 
ships may  rule,  As  the  Hi^h-toby,  mob, 
CRACK,  and  screeve  model  school. 

7.  (colloquial). — An   approach 
to  perfection.     Cf.,  sense  8. 

1825.  English  Spy,  p.  255.  Most 
noble  CRACKS  and  worthy  cousin  trumps, 
permit  me  to  introduce  a  brother  of  the 

1864.  Glasgow  Herald,  5  April.  '  Re- 
port of  R.  N.  Y.  Club.'  This  vessel  (one 
of  Fyfe's  CRACKS)  being  almost  new,  and 
coppered,  will  be  free  from  the  objection- 
able fouling  which  is  so  great  a  drawback 
to  the  use  of  iron  yachts. 

1H71.  London  Figaro,  17  Oct.  Does 
it  mean  that  the  CRACK  is  a  thing  of  the 
past,  and  that  the  learned  author  is  no 
longer  to  be  considered  as  a  CRACK? 

1889.  Answers,  March  23,  p.  265, 
col.  3.  Warders  are  not,  thank  goodness, 
first-rate  shots,  but  even  a  CRACK  would 
find  it  difficult  to  hit  a  man's  head  appear- 
ing for  only  a  moment  or  two  in  probably  a 
heavy  fog. 

8.  (turf).— A    racehorse    emi- 
nent  for    speed.       Hunting :     a 
famous  *  mount.'     [An  extension 
of  the  usage   in   sense  7.] 

1853.  Diogenes  II.,  271.  '  The  Bet- 
ting Boy's  Lament.'  Cesarewitch,  Cam- 
bridgeshire now  No  longer  for  me  have  a 
charm  ;  the  CRACKS  may  be  ranged  in  a 
row,  But  for  me  they've  no  fear  nor  alarm. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  38.     Sir  Bridges 
Sinclair  would  not  scratch  a  horse— no,  not 
if  it  was  ever  so,  let  alone  a  Derby  CRACK. 

1871.  Standard,  6  Nov.  Unlimited 
gossip  as  to  the  welfare  and  chances  of 
forthcoming  CRACKS. 

1883.  The  Echo,  Feb.  7,  p.  3,  col.  6. 
I  give  below  a  few  of  the  probable  starters 
for   the   Waterloo  Cup,   including  all  the 

1884.  HAWLEY  SMART,  From  Post 
to  Finish,  p.   155.     Of  course  he  was  au 
courant  with   all  the  rumours  concerning 
the  Panton  Lodge  CRACK. 

9.   (vagrants'). — Dry  firewood. 

185] -61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and L on.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  358.  The  next 
process  is  to  look  for  some  CRACK  (some 
dry  wood  to  light  a  fire). 

Adj.  (colloquial). — Approach- 
ing perfection  ;  used  in  a  multi- 
tude or  combinations.  A  CRACK 
hand  is  an  adept  or  '  dabster  '  ;  a 
CRACK  corps,  a  brilliant  regi- 
ment ;  a  CRACK  whip,  a  good 
coachman  ;  etc.  As  a  connect- 
ing link  between  the  adjective 
and  the  earlier  use  of  CRACK, 
cf.,  THE  CRACK. 

1836.  W.  H.  SMITH,  The  Individual, 
13  Nov.  'The  Thieves'  Chaunt.'  Her 
duds  are  bob — she's  a  kinchin  CRACK,  and 
I  hopes  as  how  she'll  never  back. 

1839.  THACKERAY,  Fatal  Boots 
(July).  And  such  a  CRACK-shot  myself, 
that  fellows  were  shy  of  insulting  me. 

1859.  WHITTY,  Political  Portraits, 
p.  106.  But  he  [the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury] 
has  insisted  on  a  recognition  of  the  facts 
of  our  appalling  civilisation,  and  that  was 
a  good  deal  to  do,  which  none  other  than 
a  Peer  and  CRACK  Christian  could  hope  to 
do.  Ibid,  p.  288.  The  whippers-in  will 
never  receive  instructions  t>  find  the  ad- 
dresses of  the  brilliances  of  Union  debating 
clubs,  bar  messes,  and  CRACK  newspapers. 

1865.  M.     E.     BRADDON,      Henry 
Dunbar,   ch.  xx.      Who  was   moreover  a 
CRACK  shot,  a  reckless  cross-country-going 
rider,  and  a  very  tolerable  amateur  artist. 




Verb  (old).— i.  To  talk  to; 
to  boast.  [The  verb  was  once 
good  English,  and  in  the  sense 
of  to  talk  or  gossip  is  still  good 
Scots.  The  modern  lorm  xq 
CRACK-UP,  is  well  within  the 
borderland  between  literary  and 
colloquial  English.  The  follow- 
ing quots.,  together  .with  those 
under  CRACK-UP,  form  an  un- 
broken series]. 

1597.  G.  HARVEY,  Trimming  of 
Nashe,  in  wks.  (Grosart)  III.,  31.  So  you 
may  CRACKE  yourselfe  abroad,  and  get  to 
be  reported  the  man  you  are  not. 

1621.  BURTON,  Aitat  of  Mel.,  I., 
II.,  III.,  xiv.,  199,  (1876).  Your  very 
tradesmen,  if  they  be  excellent,  will  CRACK 
and  brag,  and  show  their  folly  in  excess. 

1654.  WITTS,  Recreations.  And  let 
them  that  CRACK  In  the  praises  of  sack, 
Know  malt  is  of  mickle  might. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue, 

2.  (thieves'). — To  force  open  ; 
to     commit     a     burglary.       [A 
shorter  form   of  CRACK  A  CRIB 

1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  ch. 
xix.  The  crib's  barred  up  at  night  like  a 
jail ;  but  there's  one  part  we  can  CRACK, 
safe  and  softly. 

3.  (American     thieves'). — To 
forge   or    utter   worthless   paper. 
[An  extension  by  analogy  of  '  to 
crack,'     i.e.,      'to     force,'     and 
4  cracksman,' a  burglar.] 

4.  (colloquial).— To     fall     to 
ruin  ;     to    be    impaired.         Cf., 
subs.,  sense  I. 

b.  1631.  d.  1701.  DRYDEN  [quoted  in 
Annandale].     The  credit  of  the  exchequer 
CRACKS  when  little  comes  in  and  much  goes 

5.  (thieves').  —  To     inform  ; 
to  PEACH  (q.v.  for  synonyms). 

c.  1850,  but  date  uncertain.    Broadside 
Ballad,  '  Bates'  Farm.'     I  mean  to  CRACK 
a  crib  to-night,  but  pals  don't  CRACK  on 

QUART,  verbal  phr.  (colloquial). 
— To  drink.  Analogous  and 
equally  old  is  '  to  crush  a  cup.' 
Fr.,  ewuffer  une  negresse  or  un 
eivfant  de  chceur.  For  synonyms, 
see  Uusii. 

1598.  SH^KSPEARE,  //.  Henry  IV., 
v.,  3,  66.  '  Shal.  By  the  mass,  you'll 
CRACK  A  O.UART  together. 

1711.  Spectator  No.  234.  He  hems 
after  him  in  the  public  street,  and  they 
must  CRACK  A  HOT  FLE  at  the  next  tavern. 

1750.  FIELDING,  Tom  Jones,  bk. 
VIII.,  ch.  vii.  'What,'  says  the  wife, 
'  you  have  been  tippling  with  the  gentle- 
man !  I  see.'  'Yes/  answered  the  hus- 
band, 'we  have  CRACKED  A  BOTTLE 

1817.  SCOTT,  Rob  Roy,  ch.viii.  'You 
COCOA-NUT  OF  SACK,  and  tell  me  that  you 
cannot  sing ! ' 

1853.  THACKERAY,  Barty  Lyndon, 
ch.  xvii.,  p.  221.  I  chose  to  invite  the 
landlords  of  the  '  Bell '  and  the  '  Lion '  to 
CRACK  A  BOTTLE  with  me.' 

KEN,  verbal  phr.  (thieves'^.— To 
commit  a  burglary  ;  to  break 
into  a  house.  [From  CRACK,  to 
force  open,  +  CRIB,  a  house.] 

stamp  a  ken  or  crib;  to  work  a 
panny  ;  to  jump  a  Chouse  (also 
applied  to  simple  robbery  with- 
out burglary) ;  to  do  a  crack  ;  to 
practice  the  black  art  ;  to  screw  ; 
to  bust  a  crib  ;  to  flimp  ;  to  buz  ; 
to  tool ;  to  wire  ;  to  do  a  ken- 

up  cassement  de  forte  (thieves')  ; 
faire  une  condition  (thieves')  ; 
faire  copeaux  (ihieves' :  in  allu- 
sion to  the  splinters  from  a 
forced  door) ;  ecornerune  boutanche 
or  un  boucard  (thieves')  =  to 
enter  shops 
un  vol  a 

,U-r  u,       yiiiitwo   j       "—      \.\J 

burglariously) ;  faire 
Vesquinte    (thieves') ; 




maquiller  une  cambriole  (thieves'  : 
maquiller  =  to  do,  to  'fake  ' — an 
almost  universal  verb  of  action)  ; 
faire  fiic-frac  ;  net  foyer  tin 
bocart  (thieves'). 

nollen  (to  *  bnrgle  '  with  skeleton 
keys)  ;  aufplatzen  (literally  '  to 
wrench  '  or  '  break  open ')  ;  auf- 
schrdnken  ( schrdnken-  [  from 
Schranke,  O.  H.  G.  screnckan, 
M.  H.  G.  schranne,  sckrange, 
schrand~\  =  a  burglary  with 
violence.  Schrdnker  =  burglar. 
Up  to  the  middle  of  the  present 
century  burglars  used  to  be  called 
Schrdnker  a  zierlicher ;  Schrdnk- 
massematten  =  a  burglary  with 
violence  ;  Schrankzeug,  Schrdnk- 
schaure,  Schrdnkschurrich  = 
burglars'  tools  )  ;  blaupfeifen 
(  Viennese  thieves' )  ;  Cassne 
handeln  or  melochenen  (to  commit 
burglary  with  open  violence)  ; 
einen  Massematten  handeln 
(Massematten  is  a  word  whose 
Hebraic  components  very  nearly 
correspond  to  the  English 
'  debit  and  credit '  ;  it  signifies 
commerce  and  activity—of  the 
kind  that  pertains  to  cracksman- 
ship  ;  e.g.)  einen  Massematten 
baldowern,  to  makean opportunity 
for  theft  ;  einen  Massematten 
stehen  haben,  to  have  '  dead- 
lurked  '  a  crib,  or  prepared  a 
burglary ;  Massema'ten  bekoach 
a  burglary  with  violence.) 

1830.  BULWER  \smQK, Paul  Clifford, 
p.  297,  ed.  1854.  And  you  'members  as 
how  I  met  Harry  aod  you — there,  and  I 
vas  all  afeard  at  you— cause  vy?  I  had 
never  seen  you  afore  and  ve  vas  a  going  to 
CRACK  a  swell's  CRIB. 

1841.  LEMAN  REDE,  Sixteen-String 
Jack,  Act  i.,  Sc.  5.  Jer.  Now  comes  the 
grand  .spec ;  we  go  to  CRACK  A  KEN  ;  Kit's 
in.  so's  the  captain.  Steady's  the  word  ; 
I  go  first,  you  all  follow. 

1871.  Standard,  26  Dec.  If  their 
pals  outside,  the  gentry  who  hocus  Jack 

ashore  in  the  east,  pick  the  pockets  of 
Lord  Dundreary  in  the  west,  and  CRACK 
CRIBS  in  the  lonely  outskirts  could  only 
realise  how  miserable  the  Christmas-day 
was  for  them,  we  might  look  out  for  a 
needful  retrenchment  in  the  estimates  of 
penal  expenditure. 

1871.  Morning  Advertiser,  TI  May. 
'Leader.'  He  took  to  burglary,  employ- 
ing professional  burglars  to  assist  him, 
whenever  it  became  necessary  to  CRACK  A 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon's 
Straight  Tip.  Dead-lurk  a  crib,  or  do  a 


TEA  cnp),  verb.  phr.  (common). 
— To  deflower  a  maid. 

TO      CRACK      A      CRUST,    phr. 

(common). — To  rub  along  in  the 
world.  A  superlative  for  doing  very 
well  is,  TO  CRACK  A  TIDY  CRUST. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYKEW,  Lon.  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poo*-,  vol.  111.,  p.  445.  I  am 
now  just  managing  to  CRACK  AN  HONEST 
CRUST  ;  and  while  I  can  do  that  I  will 
never  thieve  mote. 

To  CRACK  A  KEN,  verb.  phr. 
(thieves').  —To  commit  aburgla»y; 
to  CRACK  A  CRJB  (q.V.).  — [See 

CRACK,  verb,  sense  2  and  KEN.] 

To  CRACK  A  WHTD,  verb.  phr. 
(thieves').  — To  talk.  [WniD 
\q.v.}  =a  word  i  Old  Cant.]  Cf., 
CUT,  verb,  sense  I.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  PATTER. 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Act-ventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p;  22.  The  WHIDS  as 
the  words  or  set  phrases  used  by  Cheap 
Johns  in  disposing  of  their  articles  are 
called  are  very  much  alike  .  .  .  many 
little  circumstances  occur  when  they  (the 
WHIUS)  are  being  CRACKED  which  are  lost 
to  a  reader. 

To  CRACK  ON,  verb.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— To  'put  on  speed';  in- 
crease one's  pace. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockniaker, 
i  S.,  ch.  xi.  '  I  sh  >t  a  wild  goose  at  R  ver 
Philip  last  year,  with  ihe  rice  of  Varginny 
fresh  in  his  crop  ;  he  must  have  CRACKED 
ON  near  about  as  fast  as  them  other  geese, 
the  British  travellers,' 




1876.  Broadside  Ballad  [quoted  in 
C.  G.  Leland's  Captain  Jonas].  We 
carried  away  the  royal  yards,  and  the 
stuns'le  boom  was  gone.  Says  the  skipper, 
'  they  may  go  or  stand,  I'm  darned  if  I 
don't  CRACK  ON. 

To  CRACK  UP,  verbal  phr.  (col- 
loquial).— To  praise  ;  eulogize. 
A  superlative  is  TO  CRACK  UP  TO 
THE  NINES.  Fr.,  faire  r  article^ 
(commercial  travellers')  and 
faire  son  boniment  or  son  petit 
boniment  (cheap  jacks'  and  show- 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzle-wit. 
Ch.  .  .  .  We  must  be  CRACKED  UP, 
said  Mr.  Chollop,  darkly. 

1856.  HUGHES,  Tom  Brown's  School- 
days, p.  139.  Then  don't  object  to  my 
CRACKING  UP  the  old  school  house,  kugby. 

1878.  JAS.  PAYN,  By  Proxy,  ch.  i. 
'  We  find  them  CRACKING  UP  the  country 
they  belong  to,  no  matter  how  absurd  may 
be  the  boast.' 

CRACK,  .phr.  (general). — The  GO 
(q  v. )  ;  '  the  thing  ' ;  the  '  kick  '  ; 
the  general  craze  of  the 

IN  A  CRACK,  phr.  (colloquial). 
— Instantaneously  ",  in  the  twink- 
ling of  an  eye.  For  synonyms, 
see  BEDPQVT. 

1725.  RAMSAY,  Gentle  Shepherd, 
Act  i.  I  trow,  when  that  she  saw,  WITHIN 
A  CRACK,  She  came  with  a  right  thieveless 
errand  back. 

1763.  FOOTE,  Mayor  of  Garret  t, 
Act  i.  Nic  Goose,  the  taylor,  from 
Putney,  they  say,  will  be  here  IN  A  CRACK. 

1819.  BYROV,  Don  Juan,  ch.  i.,  st. 
135.  '  They're  on  the  stair  just  now,  and 
IN  A  CRACK  will  all  be  here.' 

1842.  Punch,  vol.  III.,  p.  136.  IN  A 
CRACK  the  youth  and  maiden  To  a  flowery 
bank  did  come. 

CRACKED  or  CRACKED-UP,///.  adj. 
phr.  (colloquial). — i.  Ruined  ; 
'bust  up ' ;  f  gone  to  smash  '  or  to 

'pot.'     For  synonyms,  see  DEAD 


1851.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  2  [also  pp,  24,  47]. 
If  a  Catholic  coster,— there's  only  a  very 
few  of  them — is  CRACKED  up  (penniless) 
he's  often  started  again,  and  the  others 
have  a  notion  that  it'*  through  some  chapel 
fund.  Ibid,  p.  22.  '  If  we're  CRACKED 
UP,  that  is,  if  we're  forced  to  go  into  the 

1870.  Britannia,  June.  '  Speculation 
in  1870.'  Of  these  there  only  remain  now 
122  companies,  with  a  capital  of  a  hundred 
and  eighty  millions,  the  rest  having  one 
and  all  CRACKED  UP,  as  the  Americans 
would  say. 

2.  (common).  —  Crazy.      For 
synonyms,  see  APARTMENTS  and 

1872.  Daily  Telegraph,  3  Sept. 
'  Police  Court  Report.'  Mr.  Bushby  :  Is 
her  head  affe;ted  ?  The  Prisoner  :  Am  I 
CRACKED?  Of  course — in  the  nut.  You'll 
be  to-morrow. 

3.  (common).  —  Deflowered. 

CRACKER,  subs,  (common). — Any- 
thing approaching  perfection. 
Used  in  both  a  good  and  bad 
sense ;  e.g.,  a  rattling  pace,  a 
large  sum  of  money,  a  bad  fall, 
an  enormous  lie,  a  dandy  (male 
or  female)  of  the  first  magnitude, 
and  so  forth.  [C/.,  CRACK,  stibs.  ; 
senses  3  and  7,  adj.,  and  verb, 
sense  i.] 

1861.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  Good  for 
Nothing,  ch.  vi.  'I  remember  .  .  . 
Belphegor's  year.  What  a  CRACKER  I 
stood  to  win  on  him  and  the  Rejected  ! ' 

1863.  C.  READE,  Hard  Cask,  I.,  28. 
You  know  the  University  was  in  a  manner 
beaten,  and  he  took  the  blame.  He  never 
cried  ;  that  was  a  CRACKER  of  those 

1869.  Daily  News,  Nov.  8.  'Leader.' 
Now  he's  gone  a  CRACKER  over  head  and 

1871.  Daily  News,  Nov.  i.  'Prince 
of  Wales'  Visit  to  Scarborough.'  The 
shooting  party,  mounting  their  forest 
ponies,  came  up  the  straight  a  CRACKER. 
Lord  Carrington  finishing  a  good  first. 




1883.  Graphic,  March  24,  p,  303, 
col.  i.  He  [the  Oxford  stroke]  could  also 
depend  on  his  own  men  for  not  falling  to 
pieces  through  being  taken  off  at  a 



subs.  (old). — A  vagabond  ;  an  old 
equivalent  of  JAIL-BIRD.  C/., 

1566.  GASCOIGNE,  Supposes,  i.,  4. 
You  CRACKHALTER,  if  I  catch  you  by  the 
ears,  I'll  make  you  answer  directly. 

1607.  DEKKER,  Northward  Hoe,  IV., 
i.  Featherstone's  boy,  like  an  honest 
CRACK-HALTER,  laid  open  all  to  one  of  my 

1639.  MASSINGER,  Unnatural  Com- 
bat, II.,  ii.  Peace,  you  CRACK-ROPE  ! 

1818.  SCOTT,  Heart  of  Midlothian, 
ch.  xxx.  '  Hark  ye,  ye  CRACK  -  ROPE 
padder,  born -beggar,  and  hedge  -  thief,' 
replied  the  hag. 

(venery). — The  penis.  C/.,  CRACK, 
subs. ,  sense  4.  For  synonyms,  see 

CRACKING,  verbal  subs,  (thieves'). — 
House-breaking.  [From  CRACK, 
verb,  sense  2.] 

1862.  Cornhill  Mag.,  vol.  VI.,  651. 
We  are  going  a-flimping,  buzzing,  CRACK- 
ING, tooling,  etc. 

CRACKISH,    adj.  (old). — Wanton, 

said   only     of  women.      [From 

CRACK,  subs.,  sense  4.]  C/., 

subs,  (colloquial). — Long  words 
difficult  to  pronounce.  [From 
CRACK,  to  break,  +JAW,  speech.] 
Variants  are  HALF  -  CROWN 


1876.  M.  E.  BRADDON,  Joshua 
Haggard's  Daughter,  ch.  vii.  '  He  brings 
her  plants  with  CRACKJAW  NAMES.', 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  June  25, 
p.  3,  col .  i.  '  Some  of  the  ways  with  the 
CRACK-JAW  NAMES  of  cooking  it  would 
give  it  a  foreign  flavour  to  me.' 

(University). — The  velvet  bars 
on  the  gowns  of  the  Johnian 
'  HOGS  '  (y.v.).  [From  their  re- 
semblance to  the  scored  rind 
on  roast  pork.]  The  covered 
bridge  between  one  of  the  courts 
and  the  grounds  of  John's  is 
called  the  Isthmus  of  Suez  (Latin 
sus,  a  swine). 

1885.  CUTHBERT  BEDE,  in  Notes  and 
Queries.  6  S.,  xi.,  414.  The  word 
CRACKLE  refers  to  the  velvet  bars  on  the 
students'  gowns. 

(old).— A  hedge. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  57  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874),  s.v. 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874),  s.v. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
The  cull  thought  to  have  loped,  by  break- 
ing through  the  CRACKMANS,  but  we 
fetched  him  back  by  a  nope. 

CRACK  or  BREAK  ONE'S  EGG,  or 
DUCK,  verbal  phr.  (cricket). — To 
begin  to  score.  [To  make  no  run 
is  to  'lay,  or  make,  a  duck's  egg' ; 
to  make  none  in  either  innings 
is  '  to  get  a  double-duck,'  or  to 
come  off  with  a  pair  of  spectacles.] 

1890.  Polytechnic  Magazine,  5  June, 
p.  367,  col.  2.  Watson  bowled  splendidly, 
taking  8  wickets  at  a  very  small  cost,  two 
of  his  foemen  being  unable  to  CRACK  THEIR 


CRACK-POT,  subs,  (popular).  —  A 
pretentious,  worthless  person. 
For  synonyms,  see  SwASH-BucK- 

1883.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  I'm  Living 
with  Mother  now.'  My  aunty  knew  lots, 
and  called  them  CRACK-POTS. 





CRACKSMAN,  subs,  (popular). — I.  A 
housebreaker.  [From  CRACK, 
•verb,  sense  2,  +  MAN  ;  literally 
one  who  CRACKS  or  forces  his 
way  into  a  house.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  THIEVES. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  The 
kiddy  is  a  clever  CRACKSMAN. 

1830.  LYTTON,  Paul  Clifford,  p.  298, 
ed.  1854.  I  have  no  idea  of  a  gentleman 
turning  CRACKSMAN. 

1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  p.  123. 
You'll  be  a  fine  young  CRACKSMAN  afore 
the  old  file  now. 

1837.  BARHAM,  /.  L.  (Lay  of  St. 
Aloys).  Your  CRACKSMAN,  for  instance, 
thinks  night-time  the  best  To  break  open  a 
door  or  the  lid  of  a  chest. 

1839.  AINSWORTH,  Jack  Sheppard 
(1889),  p.  70.  I'll  turn  CRACKSMAN,  like 
my  father. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  21  Nov.,  p.  6, 
col  i.  The  latest  dodge  among  CRACKS- 
MEN is  to  personate  an  ejectric- light  man. 

2.     (common).  —  The    penis. 
— See  CRACK,  sw&s.,  sense  4. 

COLUMN,  subs,  phr,  (American). 
—  The  births,  marriages,  and 
deaths  column  in  newspaper.  An 
English  equivalent  is  HATCH, 


CRAG.—  See  SCRAG. 

CRAM,  subs,  (popular). — I.  A  lie; 
oftentimes  CRAMMER.  [The  idea 
is  that  of  stuffing  with  nonsense.] 
For  synonyms,  see  WHOPPER. 

1842.  Punch,  vol.  II.,  p.  21,  col.  2. 
It  soundeth  somewhat  like  a  CRAM  :  but 
our  honour  is  at  stake,  apd  we  repeat  the 

1864.  LE  FANU,  Uncle  Silas,  ch. 
xxxviii.  '  It  is  awful,  an  old  un  like  that 
elling  such  CRAMS  as  she  do  ! ' 

1864.  Quiver,  4  June.  By  some  de- 
licate distinction  the  falsehood  presented 
itself  under  the  guise  of  a  CRAM,  and  not  of 
a  naked  lie. 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon  s  Good 
Night.  You  magsmen  bold  that  work  the 


2.  (colloquial). — Hard,  forced 
study.     Resulting  rather  in  a  test 
of  memory  than  of  capacity. 

1872.  Morning  Post,  Oct.  15.  Poor 
Toots,  the  head  boy  of  Dr.  Blimber's 
academy  .  .  .  bloomed  early  and  had  by 
CRAM  been  enabled  to  answer  any  given 
set  of  questions,  and  to  work  any  papers  at 
an  '  exam.' 

1872.  Daily  Telegraph,  July  25. 
1  Speech  Day  at  King's  College  School.' 
Dr.  Madear  also  said  a  few  words  on  the 
advantage  of  boys  going  up  straight  from 
school  to  college  without  any  interval  of 

1878.  JAS.  PAYN,  By  Proxy,  ch.  xii. 
They  have  gained  their  position  by  CRAM 
of  jhe  philosophic  kind. 

3.  (colloquial). — One  who  pre- 
pares another  for  an  examination  ; 
a  coach  ;  a  'grindstone.' 

1861.  DUTTON  COOK,  Paul  Fosters 
Daughter,  ch.  ix.  'I  shall  go  to  a  coach, 
a  CRAM,  a  grindstone.' 

4.  (University). — An    adven- 
titious aid  to  study ;  a  translation  ; 
a    '  crib.'      For     synonyms,    see 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY  ['  C.  Bede '), 
Verdant  Green,  pt.  II.,  p.  68.  The  in- 
fatuated Mr.  Bouncer  madly  persisted 
....  in  going  into  the  school  clad  in  his 
examination  coat,  and  padded  over  with  a 
host  of  CRAMS. 

Verb  (colloquial).  —  I .  To  study 
at  high  pressure  for  an  examina- 
tion. Also  to  prepare  one  for 
examination.  Cf.,  DIG  and  COACH. 

1803.     Gradus  ad  Cantabrigiam,  s.v. 

1825-27.  HONE,  Every-day  Book,  Feb. 
22.  Shutting  my  room  door,  as  if  I  was 
'sported  in'  and  CRAMMING  Euc 

1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick,  chap,  li., 
p.  446.  '  He  CRAMMED  for  it,  to  use  a 
technical  but  expressive  term  ;  he  read 
up  for  the  subject,  at  my  desire,  in  the 
Rncyclopcfdia  Britannica.^ 



Cramp- Rings. 

1844.  Puck,  p.  13.  Though  for  Great 
Go  and  for  Small,  i  teach  Paley,  CRAM 
and  all. 

1872.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  My  Little 
Girl.  The  writer  of  one  crushing  article 
CRAMMED  for  it,  like  Mr.  Pott's  young 

2.  (general). — To  lie  ;  to  de- 
ceive. [Literally  to  stuff  with 
nonsense.]  For  synonyms,  see 

1794.  Gent.  Mag.,  p.  1085.  Luckily, 
1  CRAMMED  him  so  well,  that  at  last  honest 
Jollux  tipped  me  the  cole  [money]. 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xviii.  A  thousand  ridiculous  tales.  .  , 
with  some  specimens  of  which  our  friend 
Richie  Moniplies  had  been  CRAMMED  .  .  . 
by  the  malicious  apprentice. 

CRAMMER,  subs,  (general),  i.  A 
liar  ;  one  who  tells  CRAMS  (q.v.). 
[From  CRAM  (M  a  lie,  +  ER.] 

2.  (common). — A  lie ;  the  same 
as  CRAM,  sense  I. 

1861.  H.  C.  PENNELL,  Puck  on 
Pegasus,  p.  17.  I  sucked  in  the  obvious 
CRAMMER  kindly  as  my  mother's  milk. 

1880.  A.  TROLLOPE,  The  Duke's  Child- 
ren, ch.  xxxviii.  '  What  on  earth  made 
you  tell  him  CRAMMERS  like  that?'  asked 

c.  1884.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  On  Mon- 
day I  Met  Mary  Ann.'  I  thought  t'would 
last  for  ever  and  I  never  should  be  sold, 
Because  I  was  so  clever  in  the  CRAMMERS 
that  I  told. 

3.  (general). — One  who   pre- 
pares  men    for   examination  ;    a 
coach, or  GRINDER  (^.z>.,for  syno- 

1812.  Miss  EDGEWORTH,  Patronage, 
ch.  Hi.  Put  him  into  the  hands  of  a  clever 
grinder  or  CRAMMER,  and  they  would  soon 
cram  the  necessary  portion  of  Latin  and 
Greek  into  him. 

1872.  Evening  Standard,  16  Aug. 
'  The  Competition  Wallah.'  The  CRAMMER 
follows  in  the  wake  of  competitive  exam- 
inations as  surely  as  does  the  shadow  the 

CRAMMING,  verbal  subs,  (common). 
— The  act  of  studying  hard  for  an 
examination.  [From  CRAM  (q.v.^ 
sense  2)  +  ING.]  American, 


1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  201,  col.  i. 
Aspirants  to  honours  in  law,  physic,  or 
divinity,  each  know  the  value  of  private 


1863.  CHARLES  READE,  Hard  Cash, 
I.,  p.  16.  'All  this  term  1  have  been 
('  training  '  scratched  out  and  another 
word  put  in  :  c — roh,  I  know)  CRAMMING.' 
'  CRAMMING,  love  ? '  '  Yes,  that  is  Oxford  - 
ish  for  studying.' 

1869.  SPENCER,  Study  of  Sociology, 
ch.  xv.,  p.  574  (9  ed.).  And  here,  by 
higher  culture,  I  do  not  mean  mere  lan- 
guage-learning, and  an  extension  of  the  de- 
testable CRAMMING  system  at  present  in 

1872.  Daily  News,  Dec.  20.  Com- 
petitive examinations  for  the  public  service 
defeated  in  a  great  measure,  the  object  of 
their  promoters,  which  was  to  place  rich  and 
poor  on  an  equality,  because  success  was 
made  to  depend  very  largely  on  successful 
CRAMMING,  which  meant  a  high-priced 

CRAMPED  or  CRAPPED,  ppl.  adj. 
(old). — Hanged  ;  also  killed.  For 
synonyms,  see  LADDER. 

CRAM  PING-CULL,  subs.  (old). — The 
hangman.  [From  the  CRAMPING 
of  the  rope,  +CULI,,  a  man.]  Cf., 
CRAMP  RINGS  (q.V.). 

CRAMP  IN  THE  HAND,  subs.  phr. 
(common).  —  Meanness  ;  stingi- 

CRAMP-RINGS,  subs.  (old). — Bolts; 
shackles  ;  fetters.  [  Properly  a 
ring  of  gold  or  silver,  which  after 
being  blessed  by  the  sovereign, 
was  held  a  specific  for  cramp  and 
falling-sickness.]  For  synonyms, 
see  DARBIES. 

1609.  DEKKER,  Lanthome  and 
Candlelight  fed.  Grosart,  III.,  203]. 
Straight  we're  to  the  Cuffin  Queer  forced 
to  bing  ;  And  'cause  we  are  poor  made  to 
scour  the  CRAMP-RING. 

Cramp-  Words.  205 

1671.  HEAD  AND  KIRKMAN,  The 
English  Rogue,  'Canting  Song.'  Till 
CRAMPRINGS  quire,  tip  Cove  his  Hire,  And 
Quire-ken  do  them  catch. 

1706.     E.  COLES,  Eng.  Diet.,  s.v. 
1785.     GROSE,  Diet.   Vulg.    Tongue, 


CRAMP- WORDS,  subs.  (old). — i. 
Hard,  unpronounceable  vocables; 


1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CRAMP  WORDS  (s.)  :  hard,  difficult,  un- 
usual or  uncommon  words. 

1779.  MRS.  COWLEY,  Who's  the 
Dupe  ?  II.,  ii.  I've  been  in  the  Diction- 
ary this  half-hour,  and  have  picked  up 
CRAMP  WORDS  enough  to  puzzle  and  de- 
light the  old  gentleman  the  remainder  of 
his  life. 

1812.  COOMBE,  Tour  in  S.  of  Pictur- 
esque, C.  xxv.  Who  get  CRAMP  WORDS, 
and  cant  the  Muse  In  Magazines  and  in 

2  (thieves').  : —  Sentence  of 
death.  [A  figurative  usage  of 
sense  I.] 

1748.  DYCHE,  Diet.,  5  ed.  CRAMP- 
WORDS  (s),,  .  .  also  in  the  canting  dia- 
lect the  sentence  of  death  pass'd  by  the 
judge  upon  a  criminal. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
He  has  just  undergone  the  CRAMP-WORD. 

CRAN BERRY-EYE,  subs.  (American). 
A  blood-shot  eye  resulting  from 

CRANK,  subs.  (old). — i.  Some- 
times CRANKE. — See  quots;  and 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  33. 
These  that  do  counterfet  the  CRANKE  be 
yong  knaues  and  yonge  harlots,  that 
deeply  dissemble  the  falling  sicknes. .  For 
the  CRANK  in  their  language  is  the  fallinge 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  38  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  CRANCKE, 
the  falling  sickenesse  :  and  thereupon  your 
Rogues  that  counterfeit  the  falling 
sickenes,  are  called  counterfeit  CRANCKS. 

2.  (old).  —  Gin  and  water;  — 

3.  (American).  —  An  eccentric, 
a  crotcheteer.  [From  the  col- 
loquial CRANKY  (q.V.)  =  {\A\  Of 

crotchets  ;  crazy.]  Cf.  ,  COUNTER- 

1886.     Florida  Times  Union,  22  May. 


I  know  perfectly  well  that  I  shall  probably 
be  called  an  old  fogy,  if  not  a  CRANK,  for 
presuming  to  think  that  anything  in  the 
past  can  be  better  than  in  the  present. 

1887.  New  York  Tribune,  4  Nov.     A 
good    deal     of     ridicule,     mostly    good- 
natured,  is  showered   upon   the    base-ball 
CRANK,    as  everybody  persists  in   calling 
the  man  or  woman  who  manifests  any  deep 
interest  in  the  great  American  game. 

1888.  Daily    Inter  -Ocean,    2    Feb. 
The  man  was  evidently  a  CRANK,  and  said 
that  4,000  dollars  were  due  him  by  the 

Adj.  (nautical).  —  Easily  upset: 
e.g.,  'the  skiff  is  very  CRANK.' 

CRANK-CUFFIN,  subs.  (old).  —  One 
of  the  canting-crew  whose  speci- 
alty was  to  feign  sickness.  [From 
CRANK  (q.v.,  sense  i),  the  'fall- 
ing -  sickness,'  +  CUFFIN  (see 
COVE),  a  man.] 

Oath  of  the  Canting  Crew.  I,  CRANK- 
CUFFIN,  swear  to  be  True  to  this 

CRANKY,  adj.  (colloquial).—  Crotch- 
etty  ;  whimsical  ;  ricketty  ;  not 
to  be  depended  upon  ;  crazy. 
[C/.,  quot.,  1787.] 

maggotty  ;  dead-alive  ;  yappy  ; 
touched  ;  chumpish  ;  comical  ; 
dotty  ;  rocketty  ;  queer  ;  faddy  ; 
fadmongeririg  ;  twisted  ;  funny. 

(popular  :  applied  to  a  bad  or 
irritable  temper);  etre  comme  un 
ctin  (popular)  ;  avoir  sa  chique 
(familiar  :  said  of  the  temper). 

1787.  GROSE,  Prov.  Glossary. 
CRANKY,  ailing,  sickly  ;  from  the  Dutch 
crank,  sick. 


206  Crashing-Ckeats. 

1840.  DICKENS,  Old  Curiosity  Shop, 
ch.  vii.,  p.  33.  Adding  to  this  retort  an 
observation  to  the  effect  that  his  friend 
appeared  to  be  rather  CRANKY  in  point  of 

1863.  C.  READE,  Hard  Cash,  II., 
113.  He  had  repeatedly  been  called  into 
cases  of  mania  described  as  sudden,  and 
almost  invariably  found  the  patient  had 
been  CRANKY  for  years. 

1873.  MRS.  EDWARDS,  A    Vagabond 
Heroine,    in     Temple    Bar,    June.     '  On 
goes  the   CRANKY  carriage,   on   goes   the 
swearing    driver    and     the     high     souled 

1874.  MRS.  H.  WOOD,  Johnny  Lud- 
l<nv,  i  S.,  No.  III.,  p.  42.     'What's  the 
matter  now?"    asked   Mrs.    Hall,    in   her 
CRANKY  way. 

CRANNY,  subs,  (venery).  —  The 
female  pudendum.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

i  (venery),  — 
The  penis.  For  synonyms;  see 

CRAP,  subs,  (old);  —  1.  Money  ; 
sometimes  CROP1.  For  synonyms, 
see  ACTUAL  and  GILT. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.); 

1787.  GROSE,  Prov.  Glossary  and 
Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue  [1785].  CRAP  ...  In 
the  north  it  is  sometimes  used  for  money. 

2.  (old).  —  The    gallows.      For 
synonyms,  see  NUBBING  CHEAT. 

1830.    BULWERLYTTONi/^/C/Z^W, 

p.  255  (ed.  1854).  '  Ah  !  '  said  Long  Ned, 
with  a  sigh,  'that  is  all  very  well,  Mr. 
Nabbem  ;  but  I'll  go  to  the  CRAP  like  a 

ivootf.  And  what  if,  at  length,  boys,  he 
comes  to  the  CRAP  Even  rack  punch  has 
some  bitter  in  it. 

3.  (printers').  —  Type  that   has 
got  mixed  ;  technically  known  as 
'  pi.'     [Here  compared  to  excre- 

)  trs.  and  intrs.  (old).  —  I. 
To  hang  ;  to  be  CRAPPED  =  to  be 

2.  (common).  —To  ease  one- 
self by  evacuation.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BURY  A  QUAKER  and 

CRAPPED,///.^',  (old). — Ranged. 
[From  CRAP  (q.v.,  subs.,  sense  2), 
+  ED.] — See  CROPPED. 

1785.     GROSE,  Diet.   Vulg.   Tongue. 

KEN,  subs,  (common). — A  water- 
closet.  [From  CRAP,  verb,  sense 
2  (q.v.),  to  ease  oneself,  +  ING  + 
CASA  or  KEN,  a  house.]  For 
synonyms,  see  BURY  A  QUAKER 
and  MRS.  JONES. 

CRAPPING-CASTLE,  subs,  (hospital). 
— A  night-stool. 

CRASH,  subs.  (old). — I.  Entertain- 
ment. Probably  a  cant  word. — 

2.  (theatrical). — The  machine 
used  to  suggest  the  roar  of 
thunder ;  a  noise  of  desperate 
(and  unseen)  conflict  ;  an  effect 
of  *  alarums,  excursions '  generally. 

Verb  (old).— To  kill.  For 
synonyms,  see  COOK  ONE'S 


subs.  (old). — i.  The  teeth.  [From 
CRASH,  to  break  to  pieces. 
+  ING  +  CHEAT,  a  thing,  from 
A.S.  ceat.~\  For  synonyms,  see 

1567.    HARMAN,  Caveat  (\Zi^),  p.  64, 

1671.     R.  HEAD,  English  Rogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874),  s.v. 

1706.    E.  COLES,  Eng.  Diet.,  s  v. 

1785.     GROSE,   Diet.   Vulg.    Tongue, 

1811.     Lexicon  Balatronicum,  s.v. 




2.  (old).  —  See  quots. 

1567.  HARMAN,  Caveat  (1814),  p.  66. 
CRASHING  CHETES  :  appels,  peares,  or  any 
other  fruit. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark-all, 
p.  37  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874),  CRASHING 
CHEATES  :  apples. 


subs,  (old).— Formerly,  any  kind 
of  liquor,  but  now,  Irish  whiskey. 
[Fuller  speaks  of  water  as  '  a 
CREATURE  so  common  and  need- 
ful,' and  Bacon  describes  light  as 
'  God's  first  CREATURE.'  Transi- 
tion is  easy.]  THE  SKIN  OF  THE 
CREATURE  =  the  bottle.  For 
synonyms,  see  DRINKS. 

1598.  SHAKSPEARE,  77.  King:  Henry 
IV.,  it.  2.  My  appetite  was  not  princely 
got ;  for,  by  my  troth,  I  do  now  remember 
the  poor  CREATURE,  small  beer: 

1663.  HOWARD,.  The  Committee,  Act 
iv.  Mrs.  Day.  Oh  fie  updn't  !  who 
would  have  believ'd  that  we  should  have 
liv'd  to  have  seen  Obadiah  overcome  with 


1683.  S.B.  Anacreon  done  into  Eng- 
lish out  of  the  original  Greek.  Oxford. 
There  goes  a  very  pleasant  Story  of  him, 
that  once  having  took  a  Cup  too  much  of 
CREATURE,  he  came  staggering  homewards 
through  the  Market  Place,  etc; 

1772.  GRAVES,  Spiritual  Quixote, \>\i. 
VII.,  ch.  ii.  You  will  never  be  able  to 
hold  out  as  Mr.  Whitfield  does.  He  seerris 
to  like  a  bit  of  the  good  CRETUR  as  well 
as  other  folks. 

1816.  SCOTT,  Old  Mortality,  I.,  p. 
...  I  do  most  humbly  request.  .  .  that 
.  .  .  thou  wilt  take  off  this  measure,  called 
by  the  profane  a  gill,  of  the  comfortable 
CREATURE,  which  the  carrial  do  denominate 

1836.  M.  SCOTT,  Tom  Cringle's  Log, 
ch.  xiv.  He  produced  two  bottles  of 
brandy  ...  so  we  passed  the  CREATURE; 
round,  and  tried  all  we  could  to  while  away 
the  tedious  night. 

1812.  Punch,  vol.  II.,  p.^.  And 
reaching  home  refresh  myself  with  a  '  ker- 
vartern  of  the  CRATUR  !' 

1864.  Good  Words,  p.  952.  Well  as 
an  Irishman — who  had  already  paid  for  one 
pot  of  porter  and  a  drop  of  the  CRATER  be- 
sides— I  was  not  going  toi  Hear  anything 
against  ould  Ireland. 

CRAWL,  subs,  (tailors'). — A  work- 
man who  curries  favour  with  a 
foreman  or  employer;  a  'lick- 
spittle' or  'bum-sucker.' 

CRAWLER,  subs-,  (common).  —  i.  A 
cab  that  leaves  the  rank  and 
'crawls'  the  street  in  search  of 

I860.  Daily  News.  It  is  said  the 
question  of  making  increased  provisions  for 
cab-stands,  with  a  view  to  the  restriction  of 
the  wandering  cabs  called  CRAWLERS,  is 
now  under  the  consideration  of  the  Chief 
Commissioner  of  Police. 

1885.  Daily  News,  August  7,  p.  5, 
col.  i.  How  often  does  the  driver  of  the 
CRAWLER  increase  his  pace  just  as  he  sees 
some  one  venturing  to  attempt  a  crossing. 

2.  (common).  —  A  contemp- 
tible person,  especially  a  '  bum- 
sucker  '  or  'lickspittle.'  For 
synonyms,  see  SNIDE; 

1885.  Evening  News,  21  Sept.,  p.  4, 
col.  i.  The  complainant  called  her  father 
a  liar,  a  bester,  arid  a  CRAWLER. 

CRAWTHUMPERS,  subs.  (old).  —  \. 
Roman  Catholics,  '  the  Pope's 
cockrels'  (1629).  Also  called 
BRISKET-BEATERS  and,  collec- 
tively, the  BREAST-FL&ET.  in 
America  a  CRAWTHUMPER  = 
ari  Irishman  or  DICK,  i.e.,  aii 
Irish  Catholic. 

1782.  WOLCOT,  Lyric  Odes,  No.  7; 
in  wks;  (1809)  I.,  69.  We  are  no  CRAW- 
THUMPERS,  no  devotees. 

1811.  Lexicon  Balatronicum.  CRAW 
THUMPERS  :  Romdn  Catholics,  so  called 
from  their  beating  their  breasts  in  the  con- 
fession of  their  siris. 

1889.  Philadelphia  Public  Ledger 
[qvioted  in  6".  /.  <Sr»  C. ,  p.  279].  Wanted 
a  servant-maid.  No  puhngs  or  CRAW- 
THUMPERS  need  apply. 

CREAM,  subs,  (venery). — The  semi- 
rial  fluid  ;  Marlowe's  '  thrice  < 
decocted  blood  '  ;  the  '  white - 
blow '  and  the  '  father-stuff  '  of 
Whitman.  A  single  drop  is 
Called  A  SNOWBALL  (q.V.}. 

Cream  Cheese. 


Cream- Stick. 

buttermilk  ;  fuck  ;  white  honey  ; 
jelly  ;  baby-juice  ;  homebrewed  ; 
jam  ;  '  delicious  jam  '  (Whitman); 
lather  ;  '  lewd  infusion  '  ;  love- 
liquor  ;  milk  ;  rrilt  ;  ointment ; 
the  oyster  ;  roe  ;  seed  ;  soap  ; 
spendings  ;  sperm ;  spermatic  juice 
(Rochester)  ;  *>pume  ;  spunk  ; 
starch;  stuff;  the  tread. — See 

(  =  milk);  esporra  ;  langouha  (  = 
a  kind  of  thick  gum). 



verbal phr.  (popular).— To  hum- 
bug ;  to  deceive  ;  to  impose  upon. 
For  synonyms,  see  BAMBOOZLE 
and  JOCKEY. 

CREAM  FANCY. — See  BILLY,  subs.. 

CREAM  JUGS,  subs.  (Stock  Ex- 
change).— i.  Charkof-Krements- 
chug  Railway  Bonds. 

1887.  ATKIN,  House  Scraps.  Oh ! 
supposing  our  CREAM-JUGS  were  broken, 
Or  'Beetles'  were  souring  the  '  Babies.' 

2.  (common). — The  paps. 

CREAM,  subs.  phr.  (common). — 
Gin.  C/.,  MOUNTAIN  DEW  = 
whiskey.  For  synonyms,  see 

1858.  A.  MAYHEW,  Paved  -with  Gold, 
ch.  i.,  p.  i.  'What's  up,  Jim?  ...  is  it 
CREAM  o'  THE  WAH.EY  or  fits  as  has  over- 
come the  lady  ? ' 

1864.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  63.  COLD 
excellent  remedy  for  '  hot  coppers.' 

CREAM-STICK,  subs,  (common). — 
The  penis.  [Literally  a  STICK 
supplying  CREAM  (q.v. ). 

Rod  ;  Adam's  Arsenal  (the  penis 
and  testes) ;  the  Old  Adam  ;  arbor 
vitce  ;  arse-opener  ;  arse-wedge  ; 
athenaeum  ;  bayonet  ;  bean-tos- 
ser ;  beak  ;  beef  (the  penis  and 
testes)  ;  bag  of  tricks  (idem)  ; 
belly -ruffian  ;  Billy  -  my  -  Nag  ; 
bludgeon  ;  Blueskin  ;  bracmard 
(Urquhart)  ;  my  body's  captain 
(Whitman) ;  broom-handle  ;  bum- 
tickler  ;  bu>h-beater ;  bush- 
whacker ;  butter-knife ;  catso 
or  gadso;  child-getter;  chink- 
stopper  ;  clothes-prop  ;  tlub  ; 
cock  ;  concern  ;  copper-stick  ; 
crack-hunter ;  cracksman  ;  cranny- 
haunter  ;  cuckoo  ;  cunny- catcher  ; 
'crimson  chitterling'  (Urquhart); 
dagger  ;  dearest  member  (Burns); 
dicky;  dibble  (Scots);  dirk  (Scots); 
Don  Cypriano( Urquhart);  do«.dle; 
dropping  member ;  drumstick  ; 
eye  -  opener  ;  father  -  confessor  ; 
'cunny-burrow  ferret'  (Urquhart); 
fiddle-bow  ;  o-for-shame  ;  flute  ; 
fornicator ;  garden -engine  and 
gardener  (garden  =  the  female 
pudendum) ;  gaying  instrument  ; 
generation  tool  (C.  Johnson  and 
Urquhart)  ;  goose's  neck  ;  cutty 
gun  (Scots)  ;  gut-stirk  ;  hair-(or 
beard-)splitter;  hair-divider  ;Hang- 
ing  Johnny  ;  bald-headed  hermit; 
Irish  root  ;  Jack-in-the-b-  x  ;  Jack 
Robinson  ;  jargonelle  ;  Jezabel  ; 
jiijgling-bone  (Irish)  ;  jock  (j.v. ); 
Dr.  Johnson ;  *  Master  John 
Goodfellow  '  (Urquhart)  ;  Juhn- 
Thomas  ;  Master  John  Thursday  ' 
(Urquhart)  ;  man  Thomas;  jolly- 
member  (  Urquhart  )  ;  Julius 
Caesar;  'knock-Andrew'  (Urqu- 
hart) ;  lance  of  love  ;  Langolee 
(Irish) ;  leather  -  stretcher  ;  life- 
preserver  ;  live  sausage  (Urqu- 
hart) ;  Little  Davy  (Scots) ; 
lollipop ;  lullaby  ;  machine ; 
'man-root'  (Whitman)  ;  marrow- 
bone ;  marrow-bone-and-cleaver  ; 

Cream- Stick. 



Member  for  Cockshire ;  merry- 
maker; middle-leg;  mouse;  mole  ; 
mowdiwort  (Scots)  ;  Nebuchad- 
nezzar (cf.,  GREENS)  ;  nilnisis- 
tando  (Urquhart)  ;  Nimrod  ;  nud- 
innudo  (Urquhart);  '  nine  -  inch 
knocker  '  (Urquhart) ;  old  man  ; 
peace-maker ;  pecker  ;  pecnoster; 
pego  ;  pestle  ;  pike  (Shakspeare) ; 
pike-staff;  pile  -  driver  ;  pintle  ; 
pizzle  ;  ploughshare  ;  plug-tail  ; 
pointer  ;  '  poperine  pear  '  (Shaks- 
peare) ;  Polyphemus  ;  *  pond- 
snipe'  (Whitman) ;  prick  (Shaks- 
peare and  Fletcher)  ;  '  prickle '  ; 
privates,  and  private  property 
(the  penis  and  testes) ;  '  privy 
member '  (Biblical) ;  quim-stake  ; 
ramrod  ;  'Rector  of  the  females  ' 
(Rochester);  Roger  ;  rolling-pin  ; 
root ;  rudder  ;  rump-splitter  ; 
Saint  Peter  (who  *  keeps  the 
keys  of  Paradise  ')  ;  '  sausage  ' 
(Sterne) ;  sceptre  ;  shove-straight; 
sky  -  scraper  ;  solicitor  -  general ; 
spigot ;  '  split-rump'  (Urquhart)  ; 
spindle;  sponge  (cf.,  RAMROD); 
staff  of  life  ;  stern-post ;  sugar- 
stick  ;  tarse  ;  tent-peg  ;  thing  ; 
'thumb  of  love'  (Whitman); 
'  tickle  -  gizzard '  (Urquhart)  ; 
tickle-toby  ;  tool ;  toy ;  trifle 
(tailors')  ;  trouble-giblets  ;  tug- 
mutton  ;  unruly-member  ;  vestry- 
man ;  watch-and-seals  (the  penis 
and  testes)  ;  wedge  ;  whore-pipe 
(Rochester) ;  wimble  ;  yard  ; 
Zadkiel  (almanack)  =  the  female 

sonnet  (popular  :  literally  a  star- 
ling) ;  h  gluant  (thieves'  =  Old 
Slimy.  In  Argot  also  '  a  baby ')  ; 
f  asticot  (properly  =  a  flesh- 
worm)  ;  le  jambot  (Villon). 

(from  Bletz  =  z.  wedge  ;  bletzen  = 
to  beget) ;  Breslauer  (Viennese 

thieves'  =  magnum  membrum 
virile  ;  also,  a  head -piece,  and  a 
large  glass,  or  indeed  any  quan- 
tity of  brandy)  ;  Bruder  (also  an 
expression  belonging  to  the 
Fiesellange ;  literally  a  brother. 
Cf.,  Schwesterlein,  little  sister  = 
the  female  pudendTim) ;  Butzel- 
mann  (in  Luther's  Liber  Va°a 
torum  [1529] ;  Buze  =  little  man)  ; 
Fiesel  (supposed  to  be  from 
Faser  a  birch-rod  or  fibre  ;  the 
Eng.  feaze  is  also  connected 
with  it.  Thus,  Madchenfiesel, 
a  *  hot  member ' ;  Pechfiesel, 
a  shoemaker,  etc.  Fiesellange 
signifies  the  language  of  the 
strong,  i.e.,  those  of  the  'fellow- 
ship '  of  thieves,  burglars,  and 
rowdies  [Fr.,  coupeur],  etc.  In 
Vienna  Fiesel  =  the  lowest  and 
most  dangerous  type  of  bawdy- 
house  bully).  Dickmann  (also, 
an  egg»  or  testicle)  ;  Pinke  or 
Finke  (Low German) ;  Schmeichaz 
or  Schmeiqaz  (O.H.G.  smeichen 
=  to  flatter,  to  laugh)  ;  Schwanz 
(also,  a  fool  or  boaster). 

de  todos  (  =  father  of  all) ;  porra 
(  =  a  strong  stick)  ;  virgolleiro  (  = 
that  which  deprives  of  virginity) ; 
pica  ( =  lance  ;  also,  a  measure 
equal  in  length  to  the  handle  of 
a  long  spear  ;  cf.,  Eng.  YARD)  ; 
bacamarte  (  =  a  milk -giving  gun); 
a  montholia  de  Pastor  (  =  an  oil- 

CREAMY,  adj.  (general). — Excellent; 
first-rate.  For  synonyms,  see  A I 
and  FIZZING. 

TION, verbal  phr.  (American). 
— To  overpower  ;  excel ;  surpass  ; 
to  be  incomparable.  English 
variants  are  '  to  beat  hollow,  to 
sticks,  or  to  fits,'  etc.  Cf.,  BIG 






1848.  BARTLETT,  Diet,  of  Amer. 
'  Proverbs'  When  a  man  runs  his  head 
against  a  post,  he  curses  the  post  first, 
ALL  CREATION  next,  and  something  else 
last,  and  never  thinks  of  cursing  himself. 

1862.  Among  the  Mermaids.  'An 
Old  Sailor's  Yarn,'  p.  86.  The  notion  of 
finding  the  capting's  cask  pleased  me 
mightily  cos  I  knowed  it  would  TICKLE 
the  old  man  LIKE  ALL  CREATION. 

1888.  Detroit  Free  Press,  14  Aug. 
I'm  willin'  to  take  advice.  BEATS  ALL 
CREATION  how  I  mistook,  but  I  shan't  go 
agin  yer  words. 

CREEME,  verb  (old).  —  To  slip  or 
slide  anything  into  the  hands  of 
another.—  Grose  [1785]. 

CREEPER,  subs,  (general). — One 
who  cringes  and  '  curries  favour  ' ; 
a  'skunk,'  or  SNIDE  (q.v.y  for 

CREEPERS,  subs,  (common).  —  I. 
The  feet. 

beaters  ;  beetle-crushers  ;  under- 
standings ;  trotters  ;  tootsies : 
stumps  (also  the  legs)  ;  ever- 
lasting shoes  ;  hocks ;  boot-trees  ; 
pasterns  ;  ards  (Old  Cant :  now 
used  as  an  adjective,  =  '  hot ') ; 
double-breasters  ;  daisy-beaters ; 
kickers;  crabs;  trampers;  hockles; 
hoofs ;  pudseys. 

trottins  (popular  :  trottiner,  to  go 
a  jog-trot  ;  aller  chercher  les 
pardmts  de  Saint-  Trottin,  to  take 
a  walk  instead  of  going  to 
church)  ;  les  reposoirs  (common  : 
properly  [in  sing.'}  a  resting  place 
or  pause ;  also  an  altar  set  up  in 
the  streets  for  a  procession)  ;  les 
ripatons  (popular) ;  les  palerons 
(thieves'  :  properly,  in  sing.,  a 
shoulder  -  blade)  ;  les  paturons 
(thieves':  properly  pasterns);  les 
harpions  (thieves' :  also  hands. 
Cotgrave  has  harpe  d'un  chien  =  a 

dog's  claw  or  paw  ;  also,  11  mania 
tits  bien  ses  harpes,  He  stirred  his 
fingers  very  nimbly.  \_Cf.,  'pick- 
ers and  stealers  '  =  ringers]  ;  les 
mains  courantes  (popular :  liter- 
ally running  hands). 

(Cf.,  English  'trotter');  Tritt- 
ling,  or  Trittchen  ( Hanoverian  = 
shoe,  boot,  foot,  or  staircase)  ; 
J^rittlingspflanzer  or  Trittling- 
smelochner  (the  shoemaker). 

pisante  ;  bottiero  ;  mazzo. 

2.  (general).  —  Lice.  For 
synonyms,  see  CHATES. 

CREEPS,  subs,  (common).  —  The 
peculiar  thrill  resulting  from  an 
undefinable  sense  of  dread. 
[Literally  a  *  crawling'  of  the 
flesh  as  with  fear.]  Also  known 


1836.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers. 
I  wants  to  make  yer  flesh  CREEP. 

1864.  E.  YATES,  Broken  to  Harness, 
ch.  xiii.  [Late  Autumn.]  Dreary  down 
in  the  old  country  mansions  .  .  .  where  the 
servants,  town-bred,  commence  to  be 
colded,  sniffy,  to  have  shivers  and  CREEPS. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  27  June.  '  A 
River  Romance.'  Talking  about  bodies, 
I  could  give  you  the  CREEPS  with  what  I've 

1883.  The  Lute,  15  Jan.,  p.  18,  col.  2. 
We  see  the  great  tragedian  holding  on  to 
a  chair,  and  giving  his  audience  CREEPS 
with  the  '  Dream  of  Eugene  Aram.' 

1890.  Globe,  22  May,  p.  i,  col.  4. 
Miss  Gertrude  is  the  sister  of  Mrs. 
Chanler-Rives  (better  known  as  Amelie, 
or  still  better  as  the  writer  of  The  Quick 
or  the  Dead,  by  which  many  ladylike 
persons  have  been  given  '  the  CREEPS  '). 





CREVICE,  subs,  (vencry). — The 
female  pudendtim.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

Cm,  subs,  (popular). — The  Cri- 
terion, theatre  and  restaurant, 
at  Piccadilly  Circus. 

c.  1886.  Broadside  Ballad,  c  Another 
Fellah's.'  Round  into  the  CRI  ev'ry 
evening  I  slip,  And  deep  in  the  pale 
sparkling  bitter  I  dip. 

CRIB,  subs.  (old). — I.  The  stomach. 
Cf.,  CRIBBING,  sense  i.  [A 
transferred  sense  of  CRIB  =  a 
manger,  rack,  or  feeding  place. 
Cf.,  Isaiah  i.,  3,  '  The  ox  know- 
eih  his  owner,  and  the  ass  his 
master's  CRIB.']  For  synonyms, 

1656.  BROME,  Jovial  Crew,  Act.  ii. 
Here's  pannum  and  lap,  and  good  poplars 
of  Yarrum,  To  fill  up  the  CRIB,  and  to 
comfort  the  quarron. 

2.  (colloquial).  —  A  house  ; 
place  of  abode  ;  apartments  ; 
lodgings  ;  shop  ;  warehouse  ; 
'den,'  '  diggings,'  or  'snuggery.' 
For  synonyms,  see  DIGGINGS. 
[From  A.S.,  crib,  or  cribb  a  small 

1598.  SHAKSPEARE,  King  Henry  IV. 
Why,  rather,  sleep,  liest  thou  in  smoky 
CRIBS,  Than  in  the  perfumed  chambers  of 
the  great  ? 

1830.  BuLWERLYTTON,/^«/C/Z^r^, 

p.  80  (ed.  1854).  Now,  now  in  the  CRIB, 
where  a  ruffler  may  lie,  Without  fear  that 
the  traps  should  distress  him. 

1837.  DICKENS,  Oliver  Twist,  ch. 
xix.  The  CRIB'S  barred  up  at  night  like  a 

1847.  Illus.  London  News,  22  May. 
The  burglar  has  his  CRIB  in  Clerkenwell. 

1860.  Chambers"  Journal,  vol.  XIII., 
p.  212.  He  said  he  was  awful  flattered 
like  by  the  honour  of  seeing  two  such 
gents  at  his  CRIB. 

1882.  Daily  News,  5  Oct.,  p.  5,  col.  2. 
To  manage  escapes  from  prison  success- 
fully is  only  an  application  of  the  prin- 
ciples which  enable  the  burglar  to  crack 
the  rural  CRIB  and  appropriate  the  swag 
of  her  Majesty's  peaceful  subjects. 

3.  (popular). — A    situation, 
'  place,'  or  '  berth.'     [The  transi- 
tion from  subs.%  sense  2,  is  easy 
and  natural.] 

4.  (school  and  University). — 
A    literal     translation     surrepti- 
tiously used  by  students  ;  also  a 
theft   of  any  kind ;    specifically, 
anything  copied  without  acknow- 
ledgment.— [See  verb.,  sense  2.] 
For  synonyms,  see  PONY. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  185.  He  has 
with  a  prudent  forethought  stuffed  his 
CRIBS  inside  his  double-breasted  waist- 

1853.  C.  BEDE,  Verdant  Green,  pt. 
I.,  p.  64. 

1855.  THACKERAY,    Newcomes,  ch. 
xxii.      I  wish  I  had  read    Greek  a  little 
more  at  school    .    .    .   when  we  return  I 
think  I  shall  try  and  read  it  with  CRIBS. 

1856.  T.    HUGHES,    Tom    Brown's 
School-days,    pt.   II.,    ch.    vi.       Tom,   I 
want  you  to  give   up  using  vulgus  books 
and  CRIBS. 

1889.  Globe,  12  Oct.,  p.  i,  col.  4. 
Always,  it  seems  likely,  there  will  be  men 
'  going  up  '  for  examinations ;  and  every 
new  and  again,  no  doubt,  there  will  be 
among  them  a  wily  '  Heathen  Pass-ee'  like 
him  of  whom  Mr.  Hilton  speaks— who 
had  CRIBS  up  his  sleeve,  and  notes  on  his 

5.  (thieves').— A     bed.—  [See 
subs.,  senses  2  and  3.] 

1827.  MAGINN,  from  Vidocq.  Lend 
me  a  lift  in  the  fanvly  way.  You  may 
have  a  CRIB  to  stow  in. 

Verb  (colloquial).— I  To  steal 
or  pilfer ;  used  specifically  of 
petty  thefts.  For  synonyms,  see 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CRIB  (v.) :  to  with-hold,  keep  back,  pinch, 




or  thieve  a  part  out  of  money  given  to  lay 
out  for  necessaries. 

1772.  FOOTE  Nabob,  Act  i.  There 
are  a  brace  of  birds  and  a  hare,  that  I 
CRIBBED  this  morning  out  of  a  basket  of 

1846.  T.  HOOD,  Ode  to  Rae  Wilson, 
Esqr.,  wks.,  vol.  IV.,  p.  224.  Yet  sure  of 
Heaven  themselves,  as  if  they'd  CKIBB'D 
Th'  impression  of  St.  Peter's  keys  in  wax. 

1855.  ROBERT  BROWNING,  Men  and 
Women.      Fra    Lippo  Lippi,    ed.    18^3, 
p.   351.      Black  and  white  I  drew    From 
good  old  gossips  waiting  to  confess  Their 
CRIBS  of  barrel-droppings,  candle-ends. 

1889.  Answers,  27  July,  page  141, 
col.  i.  He  knew  that  if  the  manuscript 
got  about  the  Yankees  would  think  it  a 
smart  thing  to  CRIB  it. 

2.  (school  and  University). — 
To  use  a  translation  ;  to  cheat  at 
an  examination  ;  to  plagiarise. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  177.  CRIBBING 
his  answers  from  a  tiny  manual  of  know- 
ledge, two  inches  by  one-and-a-half  in 
size,  which  he  hides  under  his  blotting- 

1856.  T.    HUGHES,    Tom    Browns 
School-days,  pt.  II.,  ch.  iii.     Finishing  up 
with  two  highly  moral  lines  extra,  making 
ten  in  all,  which  he  CRIBBED  entire  from 
one  of  his  books. 

To  CRACK  A  CRIB. — See  under 

FACED,  subs,  and  adj.  phr.  (com- 
mon).— Pock-marked  and  like 
a  cribbage  -  board.  Otherwise 
MOCKERED  (q.V.). 

un  grenier  a  lentilles  (popular  :  a 
cock-loft,  granary,  or  garret,  for 
the  storage  of  lentils) ;  ne  pas 
s'etre  assure  contre  la  grele  (popu- 
lar :  £•?<?/,?=  hail);  un  morceau  de 
gruyere  (popular  :  cheese 
being  honeycombed  with  holes)  ; 
avoir  un  moule  ft  gaufres  (popular: 
nioule  =  mould  ;  gaufre  -~  a 

cake)  ;  une  ecumoire  (familiar  : 
properly  a  skimmer)  ;  poele  a 
chataignes  (potle  =  frying  pan  and 
ch&taignes  =  chestnuts ;  the  colan- 
der-like shovel  for  roasting  chest- 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CRIBBAGE-FACED  :  marked  with  the  small- 
pox, the  pits  bearing  a  kind  of  resem- 
blance to  the  holes  in  a  cribbage-board. 

CRIBBER,  subs,  (military).  — A 
grumbler.  [A  horse  that  gnaws 
his  crib  or  manger.]  Cf.,  CRIB- 
BI  i  ER,  and  for  synonyms,  see 


(old). — Blind  alleys,  courts,  and 
bye-ways ;  Fr.,  culs-de-sac. 

CRIBBING,  verbal  subs.  (old). — i. 
Food  and  Drink.  Cf.,  CRIB, 
sense  i. 

1656.  R.  BROME,  A  Jovial  Crew. 
For  all  this  ben  CRIBBING  and  Peck  let  us 
then,  Bowse  a  health  to  the  gentry  cofe  of 
the  ken. 

2.  (schools'  and  University  and 
general). — Stealing  ;  purloining  ; 
using  a  translation.  Cf.,  CRIB, 
subs. ,  sense  4. 

1862.  FARRAR,  St.  Winifred's,  ch. 
xxxv.  They  would  not  call  it  stealing  but 
bagging  a  thing,  or,  at  the  worst,  CRIBBING 
it — concealing  the  villainy  under  a  new 

CRIB-BITER,  subs,  (common). — An 
inveterate  grumbler.  [Properly 
a  horse  that  worries  his  crib, 
rack,  manger,  or  groom,  and  at 
the  same  time  draws  in  his  breath 
so  as  to  make  the  peculiar  noise 
called  wind -sucking.]  French 
equivalents  are  un  gourgousseur  ; 
un  reme  ;  un  rtnficleur ;  and  un 
renaudeur. — See  CRIBBER. 

CRIB-CRACKER, subs,  (general). — A 




1880.  G.  R.  SIMS,  How  the  Poor 
Live,  p.  ii.  The  little  boys  look  up  half 
with  awe  and  half  with  admiration  at  the 
burly  Sikes  with  his  flash  style,  and 
delight  in  gossip  concerning  his  talents  as 
a  CRIB-CRACKER,  and  his  adventures  as  a 

CRIB-CRACKING,  verbal  subs. 
(thieves'). — Housebreaking. 

1852.  Punch,  vol.  XXIII.,  p.  161. 
With  higher  ambition  Bill  Sykes  he 
burned,  And  becoming  experteras  he  grew 
older,  From  cly-faking  to  CRIB-CRACKING 


CRIKEY!  CRACKY!  CRY!  infj. 
(common). — Formerly,  *  a  pro- 

•  fane  oath  ' ;  now  a  mere  expres- 
sion of  astonishment.  [A  corrup- 
tion of  'Christ.'] 

1837.  R.  H.  BARHAM,  The  Ingoldsby 
Legends  (ed.  1862),  p.  276.  It  would 
make  you  exclaim,  'twould  so  forcibly 
strike  ye,  If  a  Frenchman  Superbe! — if 
an  Englishman  CRIKEY  ! 

1841.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  275.  Oh  ! 
CRIKEY,  Bill  ;  vot  a  conch  that  lady's 

1853.  Diogenes,  II.,  54.  O,  CRIKEY! 
the  switching  I  got,  At  the  hand  of  the 
cruel  old  miser. 

1888.  W.  E.  HENLEY.  'Culture  in 
the  Slums.'  '  O  CRIKEY,  Bill  ! '  she  says 
to  me,  she  ses.  '  Look  sharp,'  ses  she, 
'  with  them  there  sossiges.' 


See  CRIKEY.  [Possibly  the  latter 
usage  has  been  influenced  by 
crimen  meum,  my  fault.] 

1700.  FARQUHAR,  Constant  Couple, 
Act  iv.,  Sc.  i.  Murder 'd  my  brother  !  O 

1816.  SCOTT,  Antiquary,  ch.  xvi. 
"A  monument  of  a  knight  -  templar  on 
each  side  of  a  Grecian  porch,  and  a  Ma- 
donna on  the  top  of  it ! — O  CRIMINI  ! 

1841.  The  Comic  Almanack,  p.  280. 
'  A  Lament  for  Bartlemy  Fair.'  Oh  !  lawk  ; 
oh  !  dear  ;  oh  !  CKIMENY  me  ;  what  a 
downright  sin  and  a  shame. 

CRIMSON,  verbal phr.  (American). 
— To  indulge  in  a  drunken  frolic  J 

to  PAINT  THE  TOWN  RED  (q.V.). 

(old).  —  The  penis.  Used  by 
Urquhart.  For  synonyms,  see 

CRINCLE-POUCH,  subs.  (old). — A 
sixpence.  For  synonyms,  see 

1593.  '  Bacchus'  Bountie,'  Harl.  Misc., 
II.,  p.  270  [ed.  1808-11].  See  then  the 
goodnes  of  this  so  gracious  a  god,  al  yee, 
which  in  the  driest  drought  of  summer, 
had  rather  shroude  your  throates  with  a 
handfull  of  hemp,  than  with  the  expence 
of  an  odde  CRINCLEPOUCH,  wash  your- 
selues  within  and  without,  and  make 
yourselues  as  mery  as  dawes. 

CRINKUM-CRANKUM,  subs.  (old). 
— The  female  pudendum.  [Pro- 
perly a  winding  way.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

CRINKUMS,  subs,  (old).— A  vene- 
real disease.  Cf.,  CRINKUM- 
CRANKUM.  For  synonyms,  see 

CRINOLINE,  subs,  (common). — A 
woman.  For  synonyms,  see 

CRIPPLE,  subs.  (old). — i.  A'snid' 
(Scots)  or  sixpence. — [See  quots., 
1785  and  1885.]  For  synonyms, 
set  BENDER. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CRIPPLE  :  six  pence,  that  piece  being 
commonly  much  bent  and  distorted. 

1789.  GEO.  PARKER,  Life's  Painter, 
p.  178,  s.v. 

1819.  T.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's  Memo- 
rial, p.  25,  n.  A  bandy  or  CRIPPLE,  a 

1885.  Household  Words,  20  June,  p- 
155.  The  sixpence  is  a  coin  more  liable  to 
bend  than  most  others,  so  it  is  not  surpris. 




ing  to  find  that  several  of  its  popular  names 
have  reference  to  this  weakness.  It  is 
called  a  bandy,  a  '  bender,'  a  CRIPFLE. 

2.  (common).  —  An   awkward 
oaf  ;  also  a    dullard.  Fr.,  mala- 
patte      (popular  :     properly    mal 
&  la  patte).     [Figurative  for  one 
that    creeps,    iimps,    or    halts  — 
whether  physically  or  mentally.] 
Cf.,  sense   3,   arid  Go    IT,    YOU 


3.  (Wellington    College).—  A 
dolt  ;  literally  one  without  a  leg 
to   stand   on.    Cf.,  sense  2,    and 


GO    IT,    YOU    CRIPPLES  !  phr. 

(general).  —  A  sarcastic  comment 
on  strenuous  effort  ;  frequently 
used  without  much  sense  of  fit- 
ness ;  e.g.,  when  the  person 
addressed  is  a  capable  athlete. 
sometimes  added  as  an  intensi- 

1840.  THACKERAY,  Cox's  Diary. 
1  Striking  a  balance,'  p.  229.  '  O  !  come 
along.'  said  Lord  Lollypop,  'come  along 
this  way,  ma'am  !  Go  IT,  YE  CRIPPLES. 

CRISP,   s^^bs.    (popular).  —  A  bank- 
note.    For  synonyms,  see  SOFT. 

CRISPIN,  subs,  (common).  —  A  shoe- 

maker.     [From    Saints    Crispin 

and  Crispianus,  the  patrons  of  the 

*  gentle  craft,'  z>.,  shoemaking.] 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue,  s.v. 

1861.  Punch,  vol.  XLL,  p.  246. 
CRISPIN,  everybody  knows  to  be  a  name  for 
a  shoemaker. 

ST.  CRISPIN'S  LANCE,  subs. 
phr.  (old).  —  An  awl.  [From 
CRISPIN  (q.v.)  +  LANCE,  a  weap- 
on.] Fr.,  une  lance. 

—  Every  Monday  throughout  the 
year,    but    most   particularly   the 

25th  of  October,  being  the  anni- 
versary of  Crispinus  and   Crispi- 

CROAK,  subs,  (thieves'). — A  dying 
speech,  especially  the  confession 
of  a  murderer.  Also  the  same 
as  printed  for  sale  in  the  streets 

by       a       '  FLYING       STATIONER. 

[From  the  verbal  sense  (q.v.).] 

1887.  A.  BARRERE,  Argot  and  Slang, 
p.  272.  The  criminal  .  .  .  would  per- 
haps, utter  for  the  edification  of  the  crowd 
his  '  tops,  or  CROAKS,'  that  is,  his  last 
dying  speech. 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY,  Villon's 
Straight  Tip.  Go  crying  CROAKS,  or 
flash  the  drag. 

Verb. — To  die.  For  synonyms, 
see  ALOFT. 

CROAKER,  subs.  (old). — I.  A  six- 
pence. For  synonyms,  see  BEN- 

2.  (old). — A  beggar, 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant,  3 
ed.,  p.  444,  s.v. 

3.  (common). — A  dying  per- 
son.— See  CROAK,  verbal  sense. 

4.  (common).  —  A     corpse, 
[From  CROAK,  verb,  sense,  through 
CROAKER,  senses  2  and  3.]     For 
synonyms,  see  DEAD-MEAT, 

5.  (provincial). — See  quot, 

1886.  Ulster  Echo,  31  July,  p.  4.  The 
inspector  of  nuisances  said  the  meat  was 
known  as  CROAKER,  or  the  flesh  of  an 
animal  which  had  died  a  natural  death. 

6.  (prison). — A    doctor  [con- 
nected with  CROCUS,  but  influenced 
by  CROAKER,  subs.,  senses  2,  3, 
and  4.] 

1889.  Evening  News  [quoted  in 
Slang,  f argon,  and  Cant],  One  man  who 
had  put  his  name  for  the  '  butcher '  or 
CROAKER,  would  suddenly  find  that  he  had 
three  ounces  of  bread  less  to  receive,  and 
then  a  scene  would  ensue. 




7.  (common). — A  person,  male 
or  female,  who  sees  everything  CM 
noir,  and  whose  conversation  is 
likened  to  that  of  the  raven, 
which  is  a  bird  of  ill  -omen.—  See 
Goldsmith's  Good  Natured  Man. 
Fr. ,  un  glas  —  also  a  passing  bell. 

C  ROAKU  M  SH I R  E,subs.  (old).— North- 
umberland. [Grose  :  '  from  the 
particular  croaking  in  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  people  of  that 
county,  especially  about  New- 
castle and  Morpeth,  where  they 
are  said  to  be  born  with  a  burr 
in  their  throats,  which  prevents 
their  pronouncing  the  letter  'r.'] 

CROCK,  subs,  (common). — A  worth- 
less animal ;  a  fool ;  said  of  a 
horse  il  signifies  a  good-for-nothing 
brute  ;  of  a  man  or  woman,  a 
duffer,  a  'rotter.'  [Most  likely 
from  the  Scots  CROCK  =  an  old 

1887.  Sporting  Times,  12  March, 
p.  2,  col.  5.  The  wretched  CROCKS  that 
now  go  to  the  post  will  be  relegated  to 
more  appropriate  work. 

1889.  Birdo'  Freedom,  7  Aug.,  p.  3, 
For  five  minutes  that  CROCK  went  about 
twice  as  fast  as  it  had  ever  done. 

1889.  Illustrated  Bits,  13  July,  '  I 
say,'  said  the  Lumberer  to  the  Old  Hermit, 
as  they  stood  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cave 
listening  to  the  song  birds,  '  you  are  getting 
a  bit  of  a  CROCK — failing  fast,  I  should 

CROCKETTS,  subs.  (Winchester  Col- 
lege).— A  kind  of  bastard  cricket, 
sometimes  called  '  small  CRO- 
CHETTS.'  Five  stumps  are  used 
and  a  fives  ball,  with  a  bat  of 
plain  deal  about  two  inches  broad, 
or  a  broomstick. 

1870.  MANSFIELD,  School  -  Life  at 
Winchester  College,  p.  122.  The  more 
noisily  disposed  would  indulge  in  ... 
playing  Hicockolorum,  or  CROCKETTS. 

TO  GET  CROCKETTS,  verbal 
pht. — To  fail  to  score  at  cricket  ; 
to  make  a  duck's  egg. 

CROCODILE,  subs.  (University). — 
A  girl's  school  walking  two  and 

or  CROAKUS,  subs,  (common). — 
A  doctor ;  specifically,  a  quack. 
[Conjecturally,  a  derivative  of 
CROAK  =  to  die.  Cf.t  quot.  1781, 

squirt ;  butcher  ;  croaker  ;  corpse- 
provider  ;  bolus  ;  clyster ;  galli- 
pot. [Several  of  these  terms  also 
=  an  apothecary.] 

dragtieur  (popular :  literally  a 
dredging  machine)  ;  un  cliabeau 
(a  doctor  at  St.  Lazare)  ;  un 
bentvole  (popular  :  a  young  doc- 
tor, especially  one  walking  the 
hospitals) ;  un  marchandde  marts 
subites  (common  :  literally  'a 
dealer  in  sudden  death.'  Cf., 

Raufe  (from  the  Hebrew). 

(signifying  God,  king,  lord,  and 
pope)  ;  posteggiatore  (literally  '  he 
that  places  ' ;  used  of  any  char- 
latan, but  particularly  of  a  quack 
doctor) ;  dragon  difarda. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CROCUS  or  CROCUS  METALLORUM  :  a  nick- 
name for  the  surgeons  of  the  army  and 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Land.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  231  (quoted  in 
list  of  patterer's  words). 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant, 
3  fid.  p.,  444,  s.v. 




CROCUS-CHOVEY  (vagrants'  and 
thieves'). — A  doctor's  shop.  From 
[CROCUS  =  doctor  +  CHOVEY, 
a  shop.] 

CROCUS-PITCHER,  suds,  (vagrants' 
and  thieves').  —  A  quack  am- 
bulant. [From  CROCUS  (q.v.},  a 
doctor,  +  PITCHER,  one  that 
stands  in  the  street  to  hold  forth 
concerning  his  business.] 

CROCUSSING-RIG,  subs,  (old), — 
Travelling  from  place  to  place  as 
a  quack  doctor.  [From  CROCUS 
(q.v.),  a  doctor,  +  ING  +  RIG, 
a  performance  or  trick.] 

1781.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.,  171.  CROCUSSING  RIG  is  performed 
"by  men  and  women,  who  travel  as  Doctors 
or  Doctoresses. 

CRONE,  subs,  (showmen's). — A 
clown  or  buffoon. 

CROOK,  subs.  (old). — i.  A  sixpence. 
[An  abbreviation  of  CROOKBACK 

1789.  GEO.  PARKER,  Life's  Painter, 
p.  178,  s.v. 

2.  (general).— A  thief; 
swindler ;  one  who  gets  things  ON 
THE  CROOK  (q.V.}. 

1887.  Orange  Journal,  16  April. 
Strange  as  the  statement  may  seem,  the 
public  know  nothing  of  the  work  of  a 
really  clever  CROOK,  and  the  police  them- 
selves know  very  little  more.  The  ex- 
planation of  this  ignorance  is  a  very 
simple  one.  A  CROOK  whose  methods  are 
exposed  is  a  second-rate  CROOK. 

ON  THE  CROOK,  adv.  phr. 
(thieves'). — The  antithesis  of  ON 

THE   STRAIGHT   (q.V.'].       Cf.y    ON 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  in  Macm. 
Mao-.,  XL.,  503.  Which  he  had  bought 
ON  THE  CROOK  (dishonestly). 

TO      CROOK     (or      COCK)     THE 


verbal  phr.  (popular).  —To  drink. 
[A  French  colloquialism,  identical 
in  meaning,  is  lever  le  coude  ;  a 
hard  drinker  is  un  adroit  du 
coude.~\  For  synonyms,  see  LUSH. 

1871.  DE  VERE,  Americanisms. 
To  CROOK  THE  ELBOW,  is  one  of  the 
many  slang  terms  for  drinking. 

1877.  BESANT  AND  RICE,  With  Harp 
and  Cro-ivn,  ch.  xix.  The  secretary 
.  .  .  might  have  done  great  things  in 
literature  but  for  his  unfortunate  CROOK 
OF  THE  ELBOW.  As  he  only  CROOKS  it  at 
night,  it  does  not  matter  to  the  hospital. 

1888.  Detroit  Free  Press,  3  May, 
P.  4,  col.  i.  I'll  ....  ask  him  to  take 
a  drink,  chat  with  him  while  he  CROOKS 
His  ELBOW. 

CROOK-BACK,  subs,  (old).— A  six- 
penny piece,  many  of  the  slang 
names  of  which  suggest  a  bashed 
and  battered  appearance;  e.g., 
1  bender,'  '  cripple,'  '  crook,' 
CROOKBACK,  etc.  Quoted  by 
Grose  [1785].  For  synonyms,  see 

CROOKED,  ppl.  adj.  (colloquial). — 
Disappointing ;  the  reverse  of 
STRAIGHT  (qtVt};  pertaining  to 
the  habits,  ways,  and  customs  of 
thieves.—  See  ON  THE  CROOK. 
So  also,  mutatis  mutandis,  CROOK- 
EDNESS =  rascality  of  every  kind. 

1837.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  94. 
Things  have  gone  very  CROOKED. 

,1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  ii.,  p.  126.  The  prisoner's  friend  was 
also  a  '  fly'  man,  and  he  immediately  saw 
how  he  could  thoroughly  pay  off  the 
CROOKED  officer. 

1884.  Daily  Telegraph,  22  Jan.,  p.  3, 
col.  i.  My  time  was  up  the  same  day  as 
that  of  two  lads  of  the  CROOKED  school ; 
it  was  through  them  that  I  took  to 

1884.  Echo,  28  Jan.,  p.  4,  col.  i. 
Last  season  will  be  long  remembered  in 
the  racing  world  for  the  CROOKEDNESS  of 
some  owners. 

1888.  Detroit  Free  Press,  3  Nov. 
'  What  are  you  trying  to  get  out  of  me  ? ' 
'  I  am  going  to  see  that  to-night  you  are 




better  lodged  to  begin  with.  I  may 
decide  to  do  more,  but  that  will  depend 
pretty  much  on  yourself.'  '  Nothing 
CROOKED,  is  it?'  asked  the  other,  sus- 
piciously ! 

SNAKE)  FENCE,  phr*  (American). 
— Uneven  ;  zig-zag  ;  said  of  mat- 
ters or  persons  difficult  to  keep 
'  straight.'  To  MAKE  A  VIRGINIA 
FENCE  is  to  walk  unsteadily,  as  a 
drunkard.  The  Virginia  fences 
zigzag  with  the  soil. 

CROOKY,  verb  (common). — To 
hang  on  to ;  to  lead  ;  to  walk 
arm-in-arm  ;  to  court  or  pay  ad- 
dresses to  a  girl.  For  synonyms, 
see  TROT  OUT. 

CROP. — See  CRAP,  sense  i. 

CROPPED,///.^',  (old).— Hanged. 
For  synonyms,  see  LADDER  and 

1J81.  G.  PARKER,  View  of  Society, 
II.,  30.  Sentencing  some  more  to  be 
CRAPPED  (sic)  [hanged]. 

CROPPER,  subs,  (common).  —  A 
heavy  fall  or  failure  of  any  kind  ; 
generally  '  to  come  a  CROPPER.' 
[Originally  hunting.}  Analagous 
French  phrases  are  avoir  une  dis- 
cussion avec  le  pave  (literally  '  to 
argue  with  the  pavement ') ; 
prendre  un  billet  de  parterre  (a 
punning  play  upon  words  :  the 
pit  of  a  theatre  is  parterre  \par 
terre  =  on  the  ground  :  hence 
to  take  a  ticket  for  the  pit) ;  se 
lithographier  (popular).  For 
synonyms  in  a  metaphorical  sense, 
see  Go  TO  POT. 

1868.  Echoes  ft  om  the  Clubs,  23  Dec. 
'Pleasures  of   th».   Hunting    Field.'      In 
short,  it  is  fox-hunting  which    ...    in- 
duces the  belief    that   life  is  a  mistake 
without  occasional  CROPPERS. 

1869.  H.  ].  BYRON,  Not  such  a  Fool 
as  He  Looks  [French's  Acting  ed.],  p.  8. 

Mr.  Topham  Sawyer  missed  his  own  tip 
as  well  as  his  wictim's,  and  CAME  DOWN  A 
CROPPER  on  a  convenient  doorstep. 

1880.  A.  TROLLOPE,  The  Dukes 
Children,  ch.  Ixvii.  Talking  to  his  father 
he  could  not  quite  venture  to  ask  what 
might  happen  if  he  were  TO  COME  A 


1883.  Daily  News,  24  Jan.,  p.  5,  col. 
3.  Ouida  treads  '  alone,  aloft,  sublime  ' 
where  Astraea  might  fear  to  pass,  and 
though  she  COMES  what  men  call  CROPPERS 
over  a  thousand  details,  she  is  sublimely 
unconscious  of  her  blunders. 

CROPPIE  or  CROPPY,  subs.  (old). 
— Originally  applied  to  criminals 
CROPPED  as  to  their  ears  and 
their  noses  by  the  public  exe- 
cutioner ;  subsequently,  to  con- 
victs, in  allusion  to  their  close 
CROPPED  hair;  hence  to  any 
person  whose  hair  was  cut  close 
to  the  head  ;  e.g.,  the  Puritans 
and  the  Irish  Rebels  of  1789. 

1870.  SIR  G.  C.  LEWIS,  Letters,  p. 
410.  Wearing  the.  hair  short  and  without 
powder  was,  at  this  time,  considered  a 
mark  of  French  principles.  Hair  so  worn 
was  called  a  '  crop.'  Hence  Lord  Mel- 
bourne's phrase,  'crop-imitating  wig' 
[Poetry  of  Anti-Jacobin,  p.  41].  This  is 
the  origin  of  CROPPIES,  as  applied  to  the 
Irish  rebels  of  1789. 

1877-79.  GREEN,  Short  Hist.  Eng. 
People,  ch.  x.,  The  CROPPIES,  as  the  Irish 
insurgents  were  called  in  derision  from 
their  short-cut  hair. 

verbal  phr.  (Winchester  College). 
— To  fail  in  an  examination ;  to 
be  sent  down  at  a  lesson. 


CROPS,   verbal  phr* — To  GO  AND 

LOOK   AT   THE    CROPS  =  tO    leave 

the    room    for    the     purpose    of 
consulting  MRS.  JONES  (q.v.). 

CROSS,  subs,  (thieves'). — I.  A 
pre-arranged  swindle.  In  its 
special  sporting  signification  a 




CROSS  is  an  arrangement  to  lose 
on  the  part  of  one  ot  the  prin- 
cipals in  a  fight,  or  any  kind  of 
match.  When  both  principals 
conspire  that  one  shall  win,  it  is 
called  a  DOUBLE  CROSS  (g.v.). 
[Obviously  a  shortened  form  of 
CROSS-BITE  (g.v.)  verbal  sense).] 

1834.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood. 
Two  milling  coves,  each  vide  avake,  Vere 
backed  to  fight  for  heavy  stake  ;  But  in  the 
mean  time,  so  it  vos,  Both  kids  agreed  to 
play  a  CROSS. 

1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  39.  '  As  sure  as 
the  sun  shines,  Askpart  '11  lick  'em  ;  if  so 
be,' he  added  significantly,  'as  there  ain't 
no  CROSS.' 

1867.  A.  TROLLOPE,  Claverings,  ch. 
-xxx.  I  always  suppose  every  horse  will 
run  to  win  ;  and  though  there  may  be  a 
CROSS  now  and  again,  that's  the  surest  line 
to  go  upon. 

2.     (thieves').— A  thief;    also 

OF  THE  CROSS,  etc.  [Literally 
-  a  man  ON  THE  CROSS  (q.v.}.~\  For 
synonyms,  see  THIEVES. 

1830.  BULWER  LYTTON,  Paul  Clif- 
ford^ p.  72,  ed.  1854.  There  is  an  excellent 
fellow  near  here,  who  keeps  a  public-house, 
and  is  a  firm  ally  and  generous  patron  of 
the  LADS  OF  THE  CROSS.  Ibid,  p.  140. 
Gentlemen  of  the  Road,  the  Street,  the 
Theatre  and  the  Shop  !  Prigs,  Toby-men, 

1834.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood,  bk. 
IV.,  ch.  ii.  Never  a  CROSS  COVE  of  us 
all  can  throw  off  so  prime  a  chant  as  your- 

1864.  Cornhill  Magazine,  II.,  336, 
In  the  following  verse,  taken  from  a  pet 
flash  song,  you  have  a  comic  specimen  of 
this  sort  of  guilty  chivalry  :— '  A  CROSS 
COVE  is  in  the  street  for  me,  And  I  a  poor 
girl  of  low  degree ;  If  I  was  as  rich  as  I 
am  poor,  Ye  never  should  go  on  the  cross 
no  more." 

Verb.— I.     To  play  false  in  a 
match  of  any  kind. 

1887.  W.  E.  HENLEY  AND  R.  L. 
STEVENSON,  Deacon  Brodie,  Activ.,  So.  3. 
What  made  you  CROSS  the  fight  and  play 
booty  with  your  owa  man  ? 

2.  (venery). — To  possess    or 
'  cover '  a  woman. 

CROSS  IN  THE  AIR,  subs.  phr. 
(volunteers').  —  A  rifle  carried 
butt-end  upwards. 

3.  (colloquial). — To  thwart  ; 
to  baffle  ;  to  spoil. 

1709.  MATTHEW  PRIOR,  The"  Thief, 
etc.  There  the  squires  of  the  pad  and  the 
knights  of  the  post,  Find  their  fears  no 
more  balked  and  their  hopes  no  more 


To  PLAY  A  CROSS,  verbal  phr. 
— See  CROSS,  suds.,  sense  I  ;  and 
verb,  sense  I. 

1834.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood, 
p.  257  (ed.  1864),  Zoroaster  was  just  the 
man  to  lose  a  fight ;  or,  in  the  language  of 
the  Fancy,  to  PLAY  A  CROSS. 

TO  SHAKE  THE  CROSS,  verbal 
phr.  (American  thieves'). — To 
quit  the  CROSS  and  go  ON  THE 

SQUARE  (g.V.). 

1877.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('Mark 
Twain'),  Life  on  the  Mississippi,  ch.  Hi., 
p.  459.  The  day  my  time  was  up,  you  told 
me  if  i  would  SHAKE  THE  CROSS  and  live  on 
the  square  for  three  months,  it  would  be  the 
best  job  i  ever  done  in  my  life. 

To  BE  CROSSED,  verbal  phr. 
(University). — Thus  explained  in 
a  University  Guide  : — For  not 
paying  term  bills  to  the  bursar 
(treasurer),  or  for  cutting  chapels, 
or  lectures,  or  other  offences,  an 
undergrad  can  be  CROSSED  at  the 
buttery,  or  kitchen,  or  both,  i.e., 
a  CROSS  is  put  against  his  name 
by  the  Don,  who  wishes  to  see 
him,  or  to  punish  him. 

1853.  REV.  E.  BRADLEY,  ('Cuthbert 
Bede'),  Verdant  Green,  pt.  II.,  ch.  x. 
Sir  ! — You  will  translate  all  your  lectures  ; 
have  your  name  CROSSED  on  the  buttery  and 
kitchen  books ;  and  be  confined  to  chapel, 
hall,  and  college. 




See  also  CROSS,  verb,  sense  I. 
ON     THE    CROSS,    phr. — The 

opposite  of  ON  THE  SQUARE  (q.V.). 

Cf.,  ON  THE  CROOK. 

1861.  H.  KINGSLEY,  Ravenshoe,  ch. 
xxxv.  [Chas.  Ravenshoe  to  Shoeblack} 
'  Have  you  any  brothers?'  '  Five  altogether. 
Jim  was  gone  for  a  sojer,  it  appeared  ;  and 
Nipper  was  sent  over  the  water,  Harry  was 
gone  ON  THE  CROSS.'  'ON  THE  CROSS?' 
said  Charles.  '  Ah,'  the  boy  said,  '  he  goes 
out  cly-faking  and  such.  He's  a.prig,  and 
a  smart  one,  too.  He's/?jc,  is  Harry.' 

1868.  OUIDA,  Under  Two  Flags,  ch. 
v.  Rake  had  seen  a  good  deal  of  men  and 
manners,  and,  in  his  own  opinion  at  least, 
was  '  up  to  every  dodge  ON  THE  CROSS  '  that 
this  iniquitous  world  could  unfold. 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  244.  We  went  down  to  a  bloke 
I  knew  up  in  one  of  the  streets  leading  off 
the  Euston  road  who  did  a  little  ON  THE 
CROSS  now  and  again,  to  see  what  he'd  stand 
for  the  ^300. 

1884.  Echo,  i  March,  p.  3,  col.  6. 
Prisoner  knew  they  were  stolen,  and  said  he 
could  get  rid  of  any  quantity  of  similar 
articles  that  were  got  ON  THE  CROSS,  a 
slang  expression  for  stolen  goods. 

1889.  Answers,  8  June,  p.  25.  One 
of  them  then  came  a  little  nearer,  and  pro- 
duced a  good  gold  scarf  pin,  worth,  perhaps, 
£,2  or  £•$,  and  asked  if  I  would  buy  it,  add- 
ing it  was  ON  THE  CROSS  (stolen),  and  I 
could  have  it  for  23.,  as  they  wanted  a  shil- 
ling to  get  a  bed. 

CROSS- BELTS,  subs,  (military). — 
The  Eighth  Hussars.  [The  re- 
giment wears  the  sword  belt 
over  the  right  shoulder  in  memory 
of  the  Battle  of  Saragossa,  where 
it  took  the  belts  of  the  Spanish 
cavalry.  This  privilege  was  con- 
firmed by  the  King's  Regulations 
of  1768. 

CROSS- BITE,     subs. 

(old).— See 

Verb  (old).— To  cheat;  to 
scold  ;  to  hoax.  [Nares  thinks 
it  a  compound  of  CROSS  and  BITE. 
It  has  suffered  a  double  abbrevia- 

tion, both  its  components  being 
used  substantively  and  verbally  in 
the  same  sense.]  For  synonyms, 
see  STIFF. 

1581.  RICHE,  Farewell  to  Militarie 
Profession.  She  was  such  a  devill  of  her 
tongue,  and  would  so  CROSSEBiTEhym  with 
suche  tauntes  and  spightful  quippes. 

1593.  G.  HARVEY,  New  Letter,  in 
wks.  I.,  274  (Grosart).  If  he  playeth  at 
fast  and  loose  .  .  .  whom  shall  he  conny 
catch,  or  CROSBITE,  but  his  cast-away 

1717.  PRIOR,  Alma,  canto  iii.  As 
Nature  slily  had  thought  fit  For  some  by 
ends  to  CROSS-BIT  wit. 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch. 
xxiii.  I  know— I  know— ugh— but  I'll 

CROSS-BITER,  su6s.  (old). — A 
cheat ;  swindler ;  or  hoaxer. 
[From  CROSS-BITE,  verb  (q.v.},+ 
ER.]  Fr. ,  un  goureur. 

1592.  ROBERT  GREENE,  Blacke  Bookes 
Messenger  [part  of  title].  Laying  open 
the  Life  and  Death  of  Ned  Browne,  one  of 
the  most  notable  Cutpurses,  CROS-BITERS, 
and  Coneycatchers. 

1669.  Nicker  Nicked,  in  Harl.  Misc. 
(ed.  Park),  II.,  108,  s.v. 

1681.  A  Dialogue,  etc.,  in  Harl.  Misc. 
(ed.  Park),  II.,  126.  I  think  nobody  knows 
what  he  is ;  but  I  take  him  to  be  a  CROSS- 

CROSS-BITING,  verbal  subs,  (old).— 
A  deception ;  cheat ;  or  hoax. 
Cf.,  CROSS-BITE,  verb. 

1576.  WHETSTONE,  Rocke  of  Regard, 
p,  50.  CROSBITING,  a  kind  of  cousoning, 
under  the  couler  of  friendship  ;  and  in  his 
epistle  to  the  readers,  The  cheter  will  fume 
to  see  his  CROSBITING  and  cunning  shiftes 

1586.  MARLOWE,  Jew  of  Malta,  IV^, 
v.  Like  one  that  is  employed  in  catzerie 
[knavery]  and  CROSSBITING. 

1610.  ROWLANDS,  Martin  Mark=ali, 
p.  53  (H.  Club's  Repr.,  1874).  He  [Law- 
rence Crosbiter]  first  vsed  that  art  which 
now  is  named  CROSBITING,  and  from  whose 
name  this  damned  art  (CROSBITING)  tooke 
her  first  call,  as  if  Laurence  Crosbiter 
first  inuented  the  same. 

Cross- Buttock.  22°       Cross  the  Damp- Pot. 

1839.  W.  H.AINSWORTH,/.^//<I«/,  1834.     AINSWORTH,  Rookwood.     The 

p.  126,  ed.   1840.     'The  devil,'  ejaculated        mill   is    o'er,    the     GROSSER     crost,    The 
Jonathan.     '  Here's  a  CROSS-BITE.'  loser's  won,  the  vinner's  lost ! 

CROSS-BUTTOCK,  subs,  (athletics'). 
—  A  peculiar  throw  in  wrestling. 
Also  used  as  a  verb  and  verbal 

1690.  D'URFBY,  Collins  Walk,  c. 
ii.  ,  p.  74.  When  th'  hardy  Major,  skilled 
in  Wars,  To  make  quick  end  of  fight  pre- 
pares, By  Strength  or'e  BUTTOCK  CROSS  to 
nawl  him,  And  with  a  trip  i'  th'  Inturn 
maul  him. 

1742.  '  Handbill,'  in  P.  Egan's  Boxf 
ana,  vol.  I.,  p.  45.  I  doubt  not  but  I  shall 
prove  the  truth  of  what  I  have  asserted,  by 
pegs,  darts,  hard  blows,  falls,  and  CROSS- 

1760.  SMOLLETT,  L.  Greaves,  vol.  II., 
ch.  viii.  lie  was  on  his  legs  again  .  .  . 
but,  instead  of  accomplishing  his  purpose, 
he  received  a  CROSS-BUTTOCK. 

1836.  M.  SCOTT,  Cringles  Log,  ch. 
xii.  While  the  old  woman  keelhauled  me 
with  a  poker  on  one  side,  he  jerked  at  me 
on  the  other,  until  at  length  he  gave  me  a 
regular  CROSS-BUTTOCK. 

1860.  Chambers  Journal,  vol.  XIII., 
p.  347.  He  is  initiated  into  all  the  mys- 
teries of  '  hitting  '  and  '  counterhitting,' 
'  stopping,'  and  '  infighting,'  '  the  suit  in 
chancery,'  and  the  CROSS-BUTTOCK.' 

CROSS-CHAP.  —  See  CROSS,  subs., 
sense  2. 

CROSS-COVE.  —  See  CROSS,  subs., 
sense  2. 

CROSS-CRIB,  subs,  (thieves'  and 
vagrants').  —  A  thieves'  hotel. 
[From  CROSS  (q.v.,  suds.,  sense 
2),  a  thief,  +  CRIB  (q.v.,  subs., 
sense  2),  a  place  of  abode.] 

CROSS-  DRUM,  subs,  (thieves').—  A 
thieves'  tavern.  [From  CROSS 
(q.v.,  subs.,  sense  2),  a  thief,  + 
DRUM,  a  house  or  lodging.] 

GROSSER,  subs,  (sporting).  —  One 
who  arranges  or  takes  part  in 
a  CROSS  (q.v.,  subs.,  sense  i). 

CROSS-FAN  or  CROSS-FAM,  subs. 
(thieves').  —  Robbery  from  the 
person  done  CROSS-FAMMED,  that 
is,  with  one  hand  (FAM)  across, 
and  dissembling  the  action  of,  the 

c.  1869.  Broadside  Ballad,  '  The  Chick  - 
aleary  Cove.'  Off  to  Paris  I  shall  go,  to 
show  a  thing  or  two,  To  the  'dipping 
blokes '  what  hangs  about  the  caffies,  How 
to  do  a  CROSS-FAN  for  a  'super'  or  a 
'  slang.' 

Verb  (thieves'). — To  rob  from 
the  person. — See  subs. 

(thieves'). — To  question  ;  cross- 
examine.  [KlD  =  to  quiz;  hoax, 
or  jest.]  Fr. ,  faire  la  jactance  ; 
also  faire  saigner  du  nez. 

1879.  J.  W.  HORSLEY,  \nMacmillaris 
Mag.,  XL.,  502.  A  reeler  [policeman] 
came  to  the  cell  and  CROSS-KIDDED  (ex- 
amined) me. 

CROSS-MAN.  —  See  CROSS,  subs., 
sense  2. 

CROSS -PATCH,  subs,  (colloquial).— 
An  ill  -  natured,  ill  -  tempered 
person.  As  in  the  old  nursery 
rhyme  : 

CROSS-PATCH,  Draw  the  latch,  Sit  by 
the  fire  and  spin.— Lit. 

Not  mentioned  in  Ash. 

1785.    GROSE,    Diet.    Vulg.  Tongue. 
CROSS-PATCH  :  a  peevish  boy  or  girl. 

1841.     Comic  Almanack,  p.  258.  Miss 
Pigeon's  trying  to  look  shy,  He's  calling  her 


CROSS  THE  DAMP-POT,  verbal  phr. 
(tailors'). — To  cross  the  Atlantic. 




CROW,  subs.  (thieves').  —  i.  A 
confederate  on  watch  whilst 
another  steals.  Generally  a  man, 
but  occasionally  a  woman  acts  as 
a  CROW  ;  the  latter  is  also  called 
a  CANARY  (q.v.t  subs.,  sense  4). 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  Lon.  Lab.  and 
Lon.  Poor,  IV.,  286.  One  keeps  a  look- 
out to  see  there  is  no  person  near  to  detect 
them.  This  person  is  termed  a  'CROW.' 
If  anyone  should  be  near,  the  'CROW'  gives 
a  signal,  and  then  decamps. 

1862.  Comhill  Mag.,  VI.,  648.  Oc- 
casionally they  |  women]  assist  at  a  burg- 
lary  .  .  .  remaining  outside  and  keeping 
watch  ;  they  are  then  called  CROWS. 

1889.  Answers,  18  May,  p.  390,  col. 
2.  A  CROW  (confederate)  is  next  planted 
outside,  or  in  an  upper  window,  if  there 
be  one,  to  give  notice,  by  means  of  signals 
or  a  cord  reaching  to  the  workers,  of  the 
approach  of  a  peeler  or  chance  passer-by. 

2.  (common). — A  piece  of  un- 
expected luck;  a  'fluke' ;  generally 
*  a  REGULAR  CROW.'  [Originally 
billiards'  in  which  it  =  a  hazard 
not  played  for,  i.e.,  a  'fluke':  no 
doubt  a  corruption  of  the  Fr. 
raccroc.'}  A  French  equivalent  is 
mettre  dans  le  mille. 



Or  TO  PICK  WITH  ONE,  phr. 
(colloquial).  Something  demand- 
ing explanation :  a  misunderstand- 
ing to  clear  ;  a  disagreeable  matter 
to  settle.  Sometimes,  A  BONE  TO 
PICK,  etc. 

1593.  SHAKSPEARE,  Comedy  of 
Errors,  iii.,  i.  If  a  crow  help  us  in,  sir- 
rah, We'll  PLUCK  A  CROW  TOGETHER. 

1599.  NASHE,  Lenten  Stuffe,  in  wks. 
V.,  302.  So  I  coulde  PLUCKE  A  CROWE 
WYTH  Poet  Martiall  for  calling  it  putre 

1659.     HOWELL,  Proverbs.    I  have  a 


1664.  BUTLER,  Hudibras,  pt,  II.,  2. 
If  not,  resolve  before  we  go,  That  YOU  AND 


1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
To  PLUCK  A  CROW  :  To  reprove  anyone 
for  a  fault  committed  ;  to  settle  a  dispute. 

1819.  SCOTT,  Bride  of  Lammer- 
moor,  ch.  xv.  If  these  Ravenswood  cases 
be  called  over  the  coals  in  the  House  of 
Peers,  you  will  find  that  the  Marquis  will 

CROWD,  subs,  (old).— A  fiddle. 

CROWDER,  subs,  (theatrical).— I.  A 
large  audience. 

1883.  Rejeree,  18  March,  p.  3,  col.  2. 
If  the  proprietors  want,  in  the  way  of 
audiences,  to  be  able  to  boast  of 
CROWDERS,  they  should  take  care  to  avoid 
giving  pain. 

2.     (old).— A  fiddler. 

CROW- EATER,  subs,  (colonial).— A 
lazybones  who  prefers  subsist- 
ing upon  what  he  can  pick  up, 
as  the  crows  do,  to  putting 
himself  to  the  trouble  of  working 
for  it.  For  synonyms,  see  LOAFER. 

CROW-FAIR,  su&s.,(o]d). — A  gather- 
ing of  clergymen. 

CROWN,  verb  (thieves').— To  in- 
spect a  window  with  a  view  to 

CROWN  AND  FEATHERS,  subs.  phr. 
(venery). — The  female  pudendum. 
For  synonyms,  see  MONOSYL- 

CROWNER,  subs,  (old  colloquial). — 
A  coroner.  [A  corruption  of 
'  coroner.'] 

1596.  SHAKSPEARE,  Hamlet,  Act  v., 
Sc.  i.  Sec.  Cl.  The  CROWNER  hath  sat 
on  her,  and  finds  it  Christian  burial. 

1599.  NASHE,  Lenten  Stuffe,  in  wks. 
V.,  220.  And  if  any  drowne  themselues 
in  them,  their  CROWNERS  sir  vpon  them. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker, 
3  S.,  ch.  ii.  You'll  be  to  Connecticut 
afore  they  can  wake  up  the  CROWNER  and 
summon  a  juiy. 




CROWN-OFFICE,  subs.  (old). — The 
head.  For  synonyms,  see  CRUM- 
PET. Quoted  by  Grose  [1785]. 

CROW'S-FOOT,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
The  Government  broad  arrow : 
also  (in  //.)  wrinkles  at  the  out- 
side corners  of  the  eyes. 

CRUEL  or  CRUELLY,  adj.  and  adv. 
(colloquial). — Extremely  ;  very  ; 
great.  A  fashionable  intensitive  ; 
an  Americanism  by  survival. 
Cf.,  AWFUL  and  BEASTLY. 

1662.  PEPVS,  Diary i  31  July.  Met 
Captain  Brown,  of  the  '  Rosebush,'  at 
which  he  was  CRUEL  angry.  Ibid,  1666-7, 
21  Feb.  W.  Batten  denies  all,  but  is 
CRUEL  mad. 

1848.  BARTLETT,  Diet,  of  Ameri- 
canisms, p.  170.  Oh,  doctor,  I  am 
powerful  weak,  but  CRUEL  easy. 


subs,  (common). — A  four-wheeled 

CRUG,  subs.  (Christ's  Hospital). — 
I.  At  Hertford,  a  crust ;  in  the 
London  school,  crust  and  crumb 

1820.  LAMB,  Elia  (Ch risfs  Hospital), 
p.  322,  wks.  [ed.  18^2].  He  had  his  tea 
and  hot  rolls  in  a  morning,  while  we  were 
battening  upon  our  quarter  of  a  penny 
loaf— our  CRUG. 

2.      (Christ's     Hospital).  —  A 
BLUE  ;  especially  an  '  old  boy.' 

1877.  BLANCH,  Blue  Coat  Boys,  p. 
.  80.  All  CRUGS  will  well  remember,  etc. 

CRUGANALER,  subs.  (Christ's  Hos- 
pital). A  biscuit  given  on  St. 
Matthew's  Day.  [Orthography 
dubious.  Blanch  inclines  to  the 
following  derivation  :  *  The  bis- 
cuit had  once  something  to  do 
with  those  nights  when  bread  and 
beer,  with  cheese,  were  substi- 
tuted for  bread-and-butter  and 
milk.  Thence  the  term  "crug 

and  aler."  The  only  argument 
against  this  is  the  fact  that  the 
liquid  was  never  dignified  with 
the  name  of  ale,  but  was  in- 
variably called  "  the  swipes." 
By  another  derivation  =  "  hard 
as  nails. "  It  is  then  spelt  CRUGGY- 


CRUGGY,  adj.  (Christ's  Hospital). — 
Hungry.  [From  CRUG  (^.z/.).] 

CRUISERS,  subs.  (old). — i.  Beggars, 
or  highway  spies  :  '  those  who 
traversed  the  road,'  says  Grose, 
*  to  give  intelligence  of  a  booty ' ; 
also,  rogues  '  ready  to  snap  up 
any  booty  that  may  offer.' 

2.  in.  sing,  (common). — Astreet- 
,     walker. 

CRUMB,  subs,  (military). — A  pretty 
woman.  Cf.,  CRUMMY,  adj., 
senses  I  and  2. 

CRUMB  AND  CRUST  MkH,subs.phr. 
(common).— A  baker.  Cf.,  BURN- 
ROLLS.  Fr.,  un  marc  hand  de 


CRUMMY,  adj.  (popular). — i.  Fat ; 
plump ;  well-developed.  Espe- 
cially said  of  high-bosomed  and 
full-figured  women  :  e.g.,  a 
CRUMMY  piece  of  goods.  [From 
a  provincialism,  crum  or  crom  = 
to  stuff,  whence  CRUMMY  =  fat  or 
well  stuffed.]  Fr.,  fort  en  mie 
(an  almost  literal  translation) ; 
elle  a  de  (a;  Sp. ,  carrilludo  = 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed  ). 
CRUMMY  (A.)  :  .  .  .  also  fat,  rich,  plump, 
or  fleshy. 

Cnimmy-Doss.  223 


1819.  T.  MOORE,  Tom  Crib's  Memo- 
rial to  Congress^  p.  14.  For  they  saw, 
notwithstanding  Crib's  honest  endeavour, 
To  train  down  the  CRUMMY,  'twas 
monstrous  as  ever ! 

1828.  JON.  BEE,  Pict.  of  London^ 
p.  60.  A  nice,  CRUMMY,  young  woman, 
who  seemed  surprised  and  interested  at 
his  situ?tion. 

1843.    DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzleiuit, 
ch.  xxix.,  p.  289.     '  There's  the  remains  of 
a  fine  woman  about  Sairah.    Poll,    , 
Top  much  CRUMB,   you  know,'  said   Mr. 
Bailey ;  '  too  fat,  Poll.' 

1865.  HENRY  KINGSLEY,  TheHillyais 
and  the  Burtons.  You're  CRUMMY  and  I 
ain't  a  going  to  deny  it.  But  you  ain't 
what  I'd  call  fat. 

2.  (American).  —   Comely. 
Cf.,  sense  i. 

3.  (thieves'   and    soldiers'). — 

4.  (thieves'). — Plump   in   the 
pockets.     [Probably  an  extended 
use  of  sense  I.] 

CRUMMY-DOSS,  subs,  (thieves'). — 
A  lousy  bed.  [From  CRUMMY 
(q.v.,  sense  3),  lousy,  +  DOSS 
(y.v.),  a  bed.] 

CRUMP, subs.  (Winchester  College). 
— A  hard  hit ;  a  fall.  Used  also 
as  a  verb  in  very  much  the  same 
sense  as  to  COB  (q.v.).  Cf., 

CRUMPET,  subs,  (common).— The 

pan; nut;  chump;  jazey;  steeple; 
tib  or  tibby  ;  weather  -  cock  ; 
turnip ;  upper  extremity ;  top 
end  ;  twopenny  ;  upper  storey  ; 
canister  ;  attic  ;  garret ;  costard  ; 
sconce  ;  bonce  ;  nob  ;  lolly;  lobb  ; 
knowledge-box  ;  block  ;  cocoa- 
nut  ;  Crown-Office  ;  calabash  ; 
top-knot  ;  crust  ;  chimney-pot ; 
onion  ;  chevy ;  cockloft ;  top-flat ; 

gable  ;  pumpkin  ;  hat-peg  ;  bil- 
liard ball ;  upper-crust ;  mazzard ; 
cabaza ;  dome. 

chaud  (thieves')  ;  un  caillou  (pop- 
ular ;  properly  a  pebble  or  flint) ; 
une  baigneuse  (thieves')  ;  un  bap- 
teme  (popular)  ;  une  cafetiere 
(thieves'  and  vagrants')  ;  une 
facade  (popular)  ;  une  armoire  ct 
glace  (popular) ;  une  bille  (popu- 
lar :  properly  a  billiard  ball) ;  un 
beguin  (popular) ;  une  citrouille 
or  un  citrouillard  (thieves' :  liter- 
ally a  pumpkin  or  gourd) ;  un 
citron  (thieves') ;  une  ardoise  (pop- 
ular) ;  un  coco  (popular  :  literally 
a  cocoa-nut) ;  une  calebasse  (pop- 
ular =  a  calabash)  ;  une  cocarcte 
(popular  :  properly  a  cocade) ;  un 
caisson  (common :  literally  a  chest 
or  locker);  u necoloquinte( thieves'); 
zm  chapiteau  (popular  :  literally  a 
capital) ;  une  balle  (popular) ;  un 
moulede  bonnet  (popular  :  literally 
a  cap-mould) ;  le  grenier  a  sd 
(popular :  properly  the  [Attic] 
salt-loft) ;  le  baldaquin  (a  canopy) ; 
la  boule  (popular  :  the  bowl,  ball, 
or  sconce) ;  une  ciboule  (popular  : 
properly  a  scallion,  green  onion, 
or  eschalot) ;  la  boussole  (familiar  : 
in  nautical  phraseology,  the  com- 
pass) ;  la  pomme  (popular  and 
thieves') ;  le  tesson  (roughs')  ;  la 
bobine  (popular  :  literally  a  bobbin 
or  spool) ;  la  poire  (popular) ;  la 
boite  au  sel  (familiar  :  the  [Attic] 
salt-box) ;  la  boite  a  sai  dines 
(popular  ==  sardine  box);  la  boite 
a  surprises  (general  :  box  of -sur- 
prises) ;  la  tirelire  (popular  : 
literally  money-box) ;  la  hure 
(properly  the  head  of  a  wild 
boar)  ;  la  gouache  (popular)  j  la 
noisette  (popular  :t  literally  nut)  ; 
le  char  (popular)  ;  le  reservoir 
(popular  :  reservoir  or  cistern)  ; 
le  bourrichon (popular);  la goupine 




(thieves') ;  la  tourte  (popular : 
properly  tart  or  fruit  pie) ;  la 
tranche  (thieves'  =  chunk  (or 
'chump'  of  wood)  j  le  irognon 
(popular)  ;  la  guitare  (common) ; 
la  guimbarde  (popular  :  properly 
a  Jew's  harp) ;  le  soliveau  (popu- 
lar ;  properly  a  small  joist) ;  le 
bobechon  (popular)  j  la  bobinasse 
(popular)  ;  le  kiosque  (familiar) ; 
le  vol-au-vent  (general) ;  f  omnibus 
(common)  ;  la  sorbonne  (see  re- 
marks under  BALMY,  sense  2)  ; 
la  caboche  (possibly  a  language 
word)  ;  le  scufflet  (popular  :  liter- 
ally bellows  ;  also  the  head  of  a 
carriage)  ;  le  jambonneau  (popu- 
lar :  properly  a  small  ham)  ;  le 
schako  (popular). 

GERMAN  SYNONYM.    Kiefel. 

or  ciiirla  (a  popular  term)  ;  elmo 
(literally  a  helmet)  ;  borella  (pro- 
perly a  ball)  ;  grinta  (in  orthodox 
Italian,  ringworm  of  the  scalp). 

nea  (fern.  ;  literally  a  chimney. 
Se  le  subid  el  humo  d  la  chimenea, 
—  the  smoke  has  got  into  his 
head  ;  said  of  one  who  is  affected 
with  drink)  ;  cholla  ( fern. )  ;  cabe- 
zorro  (mas.  ;  a  big  head,  an  aug- 
mentative oicabeza) ;  caletre(mas. ; 
an  abusive  term,  properly  un- 
derstanding, judgment,  discern- 
ment) ;  campanario  (mas.  ;  pro- 
perly a  belfry). 

—  See  BALMY,  sense  2,  and 
the  foregoing. 

CRU M PET- FACE,  subs,  (common). — 
A  pock-pitted  face.—  See  CRIB- 


CRUMPET-SCRAMBLE,  subs,  (popu- 
lar).— A  tea  party  ;  TEA-FIGHT, 


1864.  Derby  Day,  p.  16.  There  are 
men  who  do  not  disdain  muffin-worries 


CRUMPLER,  subs,  (common). — i. 
A  cravat. 

2.     (acrobats').  —  See  quot. 

1874.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Hagarene, 
ch.  xxxviii.  Pete  knew  how  to  fall  as  well 
as  any  acrobat,  and  thought  no  more  of 
a  common  '  CRUMPLER,'  than  ordinary 
hunting  folks  do  of  a  '  peck '  or  stumble. 

CRUSH,  subs,  (colloquial).  —  A 
fashionable  name  for  any  large 
social  gathering. 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  xiii.  We  fear  he  had  rather 
go  to  a  CRUSH  at  Lady  Dinadam's  than  sup 
with  Boz. 

1872.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  23  June.  It 
would  possibly  be  found  that  one  week  of 
political  reunions,  concerts,  balls,  and 
CRUSHES  would  be  as  disastrous  in  its 
effects  as  two  months  of  absinthe  drinking. 

1890.  H.  D.  TRAILL,  Tea  Without 
Toast.  '  Saturday  Songs,'  p.  100.  It  ap- 
peared to  us  a  feast  wouldn't  help  the  cause 
the  least,  And  we  settled  that  to  give  a 
CRUSH  at  nine  Would  be  greatly  more  effec- 
tual, and  far  more  intellectual,  Than  at  six 
o'clock  to,  greatly  daring,  dine. 

Verb  (general). — To  run  away; 
to  decamp.  For  synonyms,  see 

To  CRUSH  DOWN  SIDES,  verbal 
phr.  (Northern).— To  keep  tryst  ; 
also  to  run  to  la  place  of  safety. 

CUP,  or  BOTTLE, /Ar.  (old).— To 
drink  (generally  in  company). 
See  CRACK  A  BOTTLE.  [From  the 
Italian  crosciare  —  to  decant.] 
Shakspeare,  in  The  Taming  of  the 
Shrew,  induction,  Sc.  I,  uses 
BURST  in  a  similar  sense  to 




1592.  Defence  of  Conny-catching,  in 
Greene's  wks.,  xi.,  43.  If  euer  I  brought 
my  Conny  but  to  CRUSH  A  POTTE  OF  ALE 
with  mee. 

1595.  SHAKSPEARE,  Romeo  and 
Juliet,  Act  I.,  Sc.  2.  And  if  you  be  not  of 
the  house  of  Montagues,  I  pray,  come  and 
CRUSH  A  CUP  of  wine. 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel, 
ch.  vii.  I  CRUSHED  A  QUART  with  that 
jolly  boy  Jenkin. 

CRUSHER,  subs,  (popular). — i.  A 
policeman.  [Possibly  from  the 
slang  verb  to  CRUSH  =  to  run. 
CRUSH  !  was  once  a  favourite 
signal  of  the  '  pea  and  thimble  ' 
and  other  race-course  sharpers, 
the  meaning  being  :  '  Run  !  the 
police  ! '  The  word  came  into 
general  use,  and  was  ultimately 
converted  into  CRUSHER  =  a 
policeman.]  For  synonyms,  see 
BEAK,  sense  i,  and  COPPER. 

c.  1840.  THACKERAY,  The  Organ-Boy's 
Appeal.  Though  you  set  in  Vestminster 
surrounded  by  your  CRUSHERS,  Harrogant 
and  habsolute  like  the  Hortocrat  of  hall  the 

1842.  Punch,  vol.  II.,  p.  137.  '  Pro- 
verbial Philosophy.'  There  is  not  one 
CRUSHER  who  is  proof  against  the  waistcoat 

1853.  Diogenes,  II.,  46.  Here  in 
came  [to  the  Court]  a  CRUSHER  (Beg  par- 
don— mean  usher),  Dragging  in  a  Pot-boy, 
With  great  show  of  joy. 

1859.  SALA,  Tw.  Round  the  Clock, 
5  p.m.,  par.  19.  A  CRUSHER,  or  policeman, 
there  is  indeed. 

1877.  Five  Years'  Penal  Servitude, 
ch.  iii.,  p.  223.  Oh,  that's  one  of  the 
cleverest  gentlemen  cracksmen  out.  .  .  . 
The  blooming  CRUSHERS  were  precious 
glad  when  they  'pinched'  'im. 

2.  (popular).  —  Anything 
large,  fine,  or  extraordinary. 
[From  CRUSH,  to  overwhelm  or 
subdue.]  Akin  to  WHOPPER, 

etc.  (q.v.). 

1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch.  iv. 
She  is  a  CRUSHER,  ain't  she  now  ? 

1870.  New  York  Herald,  Jan.  The 
Fenians  in  England  received  rather  a 
CRUSHER,  if  I  may  use  so  slang  a  word, 
two  days  ago. 

CRUSHING,^/,  adj.  (colloquial). — 
Excellent  ;  first-rate.  For  syn- 
onyms, see  Ai  and  FIZZING. 

CRUST  or  UPPER  CRUST,  subs. 
(common). — I.  The  head.  For 
synonyms,  see  CRUMPET. 

UPPER-CRUST  (q.v.)t  also  = 
Society  with  a  capital  S. 

CRUSTY-BEAU,  subs.  (old). — One 
that  uses  paint  and  cosmetics 
to  obtain  a  fine  complexion. — 

CRUTCH,  subs,  (colloquial). — The 
'fork,'  or  inner  angle  of  the 

CRUTCHES     ARE    CHEAP.  —  See 


CRY,  subs,  (common).  —  A  large 
number ;  a  quantity.  [From 
CRY,  a  pack  of  dogs.]  As  in 
Shakspeare's  Coriolanus,  Act  iii., 
Scene  3.  '  You  common  CRY  of 

phr.  (general). — Much  ado  about 
nothing.  The  original  text  of  the 
proverb  was,  '  GREAT  CRY  AND 
LITTLE  WOOL,  as  the  devil  said 
when  he  sheared  the  hogs.' 
Hudibras  alters  it  into  *  All  cry 
and  no  wool.' 

TURNIPS,  verbal  phr.  (old). — 
Ste  quot. 

1747.  CHARLES  JOHNSON,  Highway- 
men and  Pyrates,  p.  254.  He  came  oft 

with    CRYING    CARROTS    AND     TURNIPS,    a 

term  which  rogues  use  for  whvoping  at  the 
cart's  arse. 




To  CRY  [or  CALL]  A  GO,  verbal 
phr.  (common). — To  give  in,  as 
one  unable  to  proceed.  An  ex- 
pression borrowed  from  cribbage 
signifying  that  the  player  who 
makes  use  of  it  has  nothing 
playable  in  his  hand,  and  is 
compelled  to  '  CRY  A  GO.']  Cf., 

1880.  Punch's  Almanack.  Got  three 
quid  ;  have  CRIED  A  GO  with  Fan,  Game  to 
spend  my  money  like  a  man. 

To  CRY  CUPBOARD,  verbal  phr. 
(common). — To  be  fasting,  hun- 
gry, BANDED  (g.v.).  Fr.,  n' avoir 
rien  dans  le  cornet ;  avoir  le  buffet 
vide  ;  and  danser  devant  le  btiffet. 

1738.  SWIFT,  Polite  Conversation 
(conv.  iii.),  Footman.  Madam,  dinner's 
upon  the  table.  Col.  Faith,  I'm  glad  of 
it  ;  my  belly  began  to  CRY  CUPBOARD. 

CRY  MATCHES  !  intj.  phr. 
(American). — An  exclamation  of 
surprise.  [Variously  derived  :  ( I ) 
a  corruption  of  '  Crime  hatches ' ; 
(a)  CRY  =  XPI  or  Christ,  no 
suggestion  being  offered  to  ac- 
count for  '  MAI  CHES  ' ;  and  (3) 
a  conversion  of  the  Fr.  ere  mat  in, 
presumably  Canadian.  Cf., 
CRIMINI.]  Quoted  in  TV.  and  (?., 
5  S.,  viii.,  491,  andix.,  55,318. 

CRY  OFF,  verb  (general).— To 
retreat ;  to  back  out  from  an 
engagement . 

1866.  London  Miscellany,  5  May,  p. 
201.  '  London  Revelations.'  '  Why  this 
gent  told  me  to  bid,'  said  the  dealer,  pat- 
ting his  tingling  fingers  sharply,  '  and  now 
he  wants  to  CRY  OFF.' 



C.T.A.,  phr.  (circus  and  showmen's) 
— The  police. 

CUB  or  UNLICKED-CUB, subs,  (col- 
loquial). —  An  awkward,  sulky 
girl  ;  a  mannerless,  uncouth  lout 

of  a  boy.  [In  allusion  to  the 
clumsiness  of  bear  cubs  till  their 
dam  has  'licked  them  into  shape.'] 

1602.  SHAKSPEARE  Twelfth  Night, 
Act  v.,  I.,  167.  Duke.  O  thou  dissemb- 
ling CUB  !  what  wilt  thou  be  When  time 
hath  sow'd  a  grizzle  on  thy  case  ? 

1693.  CONGREVE,  Old  Batchelor,  Act 
iv.,  Sc.  8.  A  country  squire,  with  the 
equipage  of  a  wife  and  two  daughters, 
came  to  Mrs.  Snipwell's  shop  while  I  was 
there  -  but,  oh  Gad  !  two  such  UNLICKED 
CUBS  ! 

1762.  FOOTE,  Liar,  II.,  ii.  I  don't 
reckon  much  upon  him  :  for  you  know,  my 
dear,  what  can  I  do  with  an  awkward,  raw, 
college  CUB? 

1773.  O.  GOLDSMITH,  She  Stoops  to 
Conquer,  Act  iv.,  Sc  i.  'A  poor  contemp- 
tible booby  that  would  but  disgrace  cor- 
rection.' .  .  .  '  An  insensible  CUB.' 

1880.  A.  TROLLOPE,  The  Dukes  Child- 
ren,^ ch.  ix.  And  Tommy,  you  are  an 
uncivil  young, — young, — young, — I  should 
say  CUB  if  I  dared,  to  tell  me  that  you  don't 
like  dining  with  me  any  day  of  the  week. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Neiucomes,  ch. 
xxix.  I  don't  see  why  that  infernal 
young  CUB  of  a  CHve  is  always  meddling 
in  our  affairs. 

CUBITOPOLIS,  subs,  (obsolete). — 
The  Warwick  and  Eccleston 
Square  districts.  [From  the 
name  of  the  builders,  see  quot., 
1864.]  £/!,ALBERTOPOLIS,  MESO- 
etc.  (q.v.). 

1864.  The  Press,  12  Nov.  CUBIT- 
OPOLIS received  its  felicitous  cognomen 
from  Lady  M  or  ley. 

1866.  E.  YATES,  Land  at  Last,  ch. 
iii.  There  are  men  yet  living  among  us 
whose  mothers  had  been  robbed  on  their 
way  from  Ranelagh  in  crossing  the  spct, 
then  a  dreary  swampy  marsh,  on  which 
now  stands  the  city  of  palaces  known  as 


CUCKOO,  subs,  (popular). — i.  A 
fool.  For  synonyms,  see  BUFFLE 




1598.  SHAKSPEARE,  Henry  IV., 
Part  I,  Act  i,  Scene  4.  O'horseback,  ye 
CUCKOO  ;  but  afoot  he  will  not  budge  a 

2.  (old). — A  cuckold. 

1594.  SHAKSPEARE,  Love's  Labour 
Lost,  Act  v,  Scene  2.  CUCKOO,  CUCKOO, 
O  word  of  fear  Unpleasing  to  a  married 

3.  (schoolboys'). — The  penis. 
For  synonyms,  see  CREAMSTICK. 

CUCKOOS,  suds.  (old). — Money, 
For  synonyms,  see  ACTUAL  and 

1612.  The  Passenger  of  Bewvenuto. 
These  companions,  who  .  .  .  carry  the 
impression  and  marke  of  the  pillerie 
galley,  and  of  the  halter,  they  call  the 
purse  a  leafe,  and  a  fleece ;  money, 
CUCKOES,  and  aste,  and  crowns. 

CUCKOO'S  NEST,  subs,  (venery). — 
The  icais^A pudendum.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  MONOSYLLABLE. 

CUCUMBER-TIME,  subs,  (tailors'). 
— The  dull  season.  [A  corres- 
pondent of  Notes  and  Queries  (i 
S.,  viii.,  439)  says  it  is  of 
German  origin,  and  remarks 
that  many  hundreds  of  London 
tailors  are  of  German  nationality. 
The  German  phrase  is  die  saure 
Gurken  Zeit  (pickled  gherkin- 
time).  Hence,  it  is  said,  the 
expression  '  Tailors  are  vege- 
tarians,' because  they  live  now  on 
'cucumber'  and  now  on  'cabbage.' 
Quoted  by  Grose  (1785).]  Cf., 
quot,  1821. 

1821.  P.  EGAN,  Tom  and  Jerry  [ed. 
1890],  p.  60.  The  chap  in  the  corner  .  .  . 
has  been  chaffing  Spendall  .  .  .  about 
his  being  so  CUCUMBERISH  as  to  be  com- 
pelled to  'gammon  the  draper'  [which 
means  when  a  man  is  without  a  shirt,  and 
is  buttoned  up  close  to  his  neck,  with 
merely  a  handkerchief  round  it  to  make  an 
appearance  of  cleanliness,  it  is  termed, 
'gammoning  the  draper.'] 

CUD,  sttbs.  (popular). — A  chew  of 
tobacco ;  a  quid.  [An  allusion 
to  '  chewing  the  cud.'] 

Adj.  (Winchester  College). — 
I.  Pretty;  handsome.  [Thought 
to  be  derived  from  kudos.  ] 

2.  (Christ's  Hospital). — Severe. 
CUDDIE,  subs.  (Scots). — A  donkey. 

CUDDLING,  verbal  subs,  (athletic 
and  pugilistic). — Wrestling. 

CUDDY,  adj.  (Christ's  Hospital).— 
Hard  ;  difficult ;  said  of  a  lesson. 
Also  Hertfordice  for  PASSY  (q.v.\ 
[There  is  a  common  hard  biscuit 
called  a  '  cuddy-biscuit '  which 
doubtless  has  this  derivation.] 

CUE,  -verb  (thieves'). — To  swindle 
on  credit. 

CUFF,  subs,  (old).— i.  A  foolish 
old  man.  [Probably  a  contrac- 
tion of  CUFFIN  (q.v.). 

1678.  C.  COTTON,  Scarronides,  bk.  I., 
p.  3  (ed.  1725).  The  lustiest  Carles  there- 
abouts. Rich  CUFFS  and  very  sturdy 

1708.  CENTLIVRE,  Susie  Body,  Act  i. 
A  very  extraordinary  Bargain  I  have  made 
truly,  if  she  should  be  really  in  Love  with 
this  old  CUFF  now. 

1760.  COLMAN,  Polly  Honeycombe, 
in  wks.  (1777)  IV.,  38.  They  are  just 
here  !  ten  to  one  the  old  CUFF  may  not 
stay  with  her  :  I'll  pop  into  this  closet. 

2.  (tailors'). — A  religious  man, 
either  real  or  sham. 

To  CUFF  ANTHONY,  phr. — 

TO  BEAT  or  CUFF  JONAS,  phr. 

(q.v.  under  BEAT). 




CUFFER,  subs,  (military). — I.  A 
lie ;  an  exaggerated  and  im- 
probable story. — See  quot. ,  under 
TO  SPIN  COFFERS,  and  for 
synonyms,  see  WHOPPER. 

2.  (American  thieves').  —  A 
man  ;  also  CUFFIR.  [Cf.,  COFE, 
COVE,  and  CUFFIN,  from  one  of 
which  the  American  form  is 
doubtless  derived.] 

1859.  MAT  SELL,  Vocabulum,  or 
Rogue's  Lexicon,  s.v. 

TO  SPIN  CUFFERS,  phr. — 
To  tell  extremely  improbable 
stories  ;  to  yarn  ;  TO  DRAW  THE 
LONG  BOW  (q.V.). 

1888.  Colonies  and  India,  14  Nov. 
The  Australian  youth  can  develop  the  art 
of  SPINNING  CUFFERS  very  successfully  on 
his  own  account,  without  any  adventitious 
assistance  from  a  passing  Minister  of  Pub- 
lic Instruction. 

CUFFIN, CUFFEN,  orCuFFiNG,.r«fo. 
(Old  Cant).— A  man. 
1567.    HARMAN,  Caveat,  s.v. 

1857.  Punch,  31  Jan.,  p.  49.  'Dear 
Bill,  this  Stone-jug.'  In  the  day-rooms  the 
CUFFINS  [warders]  we  queer  at  our  ease, 
And  at  Darkmans  we  run  the  rig  just  as  we 

QUEER-CUFFIN,    subs.  (old). — 

A  magistrate.  [From  QUEER, 
an  old  canting  term  for  bad,  + 
CUFFIN,  a  man ;  literally  a  bad 
man — from  a  rogue's  point  of 
view.  Some  of  the  old  canting 
terms  are  curious  enough  :  e.g., 
'  quyer  crampringes  '  =  bolts  or 
fetters  ;  '  quyer  kyn '  =  a  prison 
house.]  For  synonyms,  see  BEAK, 
sense  2. 

1609.  DEKKER,  Lantherne  and  Can- 
dle-light [ed.  Gros.,  III.,  p.  203].  To  the 


1837.  DISRAELI,  Venetia,  p.  71. 
The  gentry  cove  will  be  romboyld  by  his 
dam  said  a  third  gypsy.  '  QUEER  CUFFIN  ' 
[magistrate  or  queer  man]  will  be  the  word 
if  we.  don't  tour. 

CUFF-SHOOTER,  ^j.  (theatrical). — 
A  beginner  ;  one  who  gives  him- 
self '  airs  ' ;  literally  one  who 
shoots  his  cuffs  :  having  a  greater 
regard  for  the  display  of  his  linen 
than  for  his  work  as  an  actor. 


verb  and  verbal  subs,  (thieves'). — 
To  purloin  from  the  seats  of  car- 
riages ;  the  act  of  snatching  hand- 
bags and  other  impedimenta  there- 
from. [Either  an  abbreviation 
and  corruption  of  RETICULE,  or 
from  CULL,  to  gather.] 

1857.  SNOWDEN,  Mag.  Assistant, 
3ed.,  p.  444.  Snatching  reticules  from  a 
carriage — c  u  LI  NG. 

CULL  or  CULLY,  subs.  (old). — A 
man  ;  companion  ;  partner.  Spe- 
cifically, a  fool ;  one  tricked  or 
imposed  upon.  Grose  seems  to 
make  a  distinction,  for  he  quotes 
CULL  =  '  a  man  honest  or  other- 
wise, '  and  CULLY  =  '  a  fop,  fool, 
or  dupe  to  women,'  in  which  sense 
it  was  current  in  the  seventeenth 
century.  Thus  Rochester  (in 
Satire  on  the  Times},  '  But  pimp- 
fed  Ratcliffe's  not  a  greater  CULLY. 
— See  also  quot.,  1771.  [Prob- 
ably a  contraction  of  CULLION 
(Fr.,  couillon\  It.,  coglione};  but 
derived  by  Annandale  from  the 
Sp.  Gypsy  chulai,  a  man ;  Turkish 
Gypsy,  khulai,  a  gentleman.] 

1671.  R.  HEAD,  English  Kogue,  pt. 
I.,  ch.  v.,  p.  48  (1874).  CULLE  :  a  sap- 
headed  fellow. 

1676.  A  Warning  for-  Housekeepers. 
As  we  walk  along  the  street,  We  bite  the 
CULLEY  of  his  cole. 

1693.  CONGREVE,  Old  Batchelor, 
Act  Hi.,  Sc.  i.  Man  was  by  nature 
woman's  CULLY  made  :  We  never  are  but 
by  ourselves  betrayed. 

1712.  ARBUTHNOT,  Hist,  of  John 
Bull,  pt.  IV.,  ch.  i.  I  won't  let  him  make 
me  over,  by  deed  and  indenture,  as  his 
lawful  CULLY. 




1748.  T.  DVCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CULL  (s.)  :  a  cant  word  for  a  man,  either 
good  or  bad,  but  generally  means  one  that 
a  wench  has  picked  up  for  some  naughty 

1760.  JOHNSTON,  Chrysal,  ii.,  17. 
Your  secret,  grave,  old,  rich  CULLS,  just  fit 
to  do  business  with. 

1771.  HENRY  MACKENZIE,  The  Man 
of  Feeling^  vol.  I.,  ch.  xxvi.  Harley  .  .  . 
sallied  forth  with  a  blush  of  triumph  on 
his  face,  without  taking  notice  of  the 
sneer  of  the  waiter  who,  twirling  the  watch 
in  his  hand,  made  him  a  profound  bow  at 
the  door,  and  whispered  to  a  girl  who  stood 
in  the  passage  something  in  which  the 
word  CULLY  was  honoured  with  a  particular 

1825.  SCOTT,  St.  Ronan's  Well,  ch. 
xxx.  '  Na,  Na,'  answered  the  boy  :  '  he  is 
a  queer  auld  CULL,  he  disna  frequent  wi' 
other  folk.' 

1830.  BULWER  LYTTON,  Paul  Clif- 
ford, p.  75  (ed.  1854).  A  famous  CULL  is 
my  friend  Attie  —  an  old  soldier  —  has  seen 
the  world,  and  knows  what  is  what; 

1839.  W.  H.  AIN 
pard  (1889),  p.  14.  Capital  trick  of  the 
CULL  in  the  cloak  to  make  another  person's 
brain  stand  the  BRUNT  for  his  own  — 
capital  ! 

1889.  Puck's  Library,  April,  p.  18. 
Showman  :  Look-a-here,  CULLY,  yer  don't 
'xpect  ter  git  a  lecture  on  nat'l  history  'n'a 
free  ticket  ter  the  antipoads  fer  a  quarter, 
do  yer  ? 

RUM  CULL,  suds,  (theatrical).  — 
The  manager  of  a  theatre  ;  also 
called  a  CULLY-GORGER. 

CULLS,  subs.  (old).  —  The  testes. 

b.  1574,  d.  1637.  BEN  JONSON.  Claw 
a  churl  by  the  CULLS,  and  he'll  shite  in 
your  fist. 

CULLY-GORGER,  sttbs.  (theatrical). 
—  The  manager  of  a  theatre  ;  a 
companion  or  brother  actor. 

[CULLY  (q.V.}  =  3.    man  +  GORGER 

(?.v.),  a  swell,  employer,  or 
boss  ;  literally  a  well  -  dressed 

CULLY-SHANGY,«^J.  (common).  — 
Copulation.  For  synonyms,  see 

18(?).  CAREY,  Life  in  Paris,  p.  276, 

CULMINATE,  verb  (University:  ob- 
solete).— To  mount  a  coach-box. 
1803.     Gradus  ad  Cantabrigiam,  s.v. 

CULTY-GUN,  subs,  (venery). — The 
penis.  For  synonyms,  see  CREAM- 

CUM-ANNEXIS,.mAr.  (West  Indian). 
— One's  belongings  ;  specially  ap 
plied  to  one's  wife  and  children. 
[In  allusion  to  a  legal  locution 
connected  with  land  transfer  in 
Demerara.  The  oui  lying  farms 
of  estates  come  under  this  general 
description  ;  e.g.,  Belair,  (a  well- 
known  property)  CUM  ANNEXIS 
includes,  amongst  others,  estates 
formerly  known  as  La  Penitence, 
Turkeyen,  Cuming's  Lodge,  In- 
Guai.ry,  <?<"<%,  and  in  official  docu- 
ments this  congees  of  estates  is 
spoken  of  as  Eclair  CUM  AN::FXIS.] 

CUMMER,  subs,  (common). — An 
intimate.  For  synonyms,  see 

CUNDUM,  subs.  (old). — An  obsolete 
appliance  worn  in  the  act  of 
coition,  to  prevent  infection : 
so-called  from  the  name  of  its 
inventor,  a  colonel  in  the  Guards, 
temp.,  Charles  II.  :  the  modern 
equivalent  is  known  as  a  FRENCH 

LETTER  (q.V.). 

DORSET,  A  Panegyric  upon  Cundum,  p. 
208.  Happy  the  man  who  in  his  pocket 
keeps,  Whether  with  green  or  scarlet  riband 
bound,  A  well-made  CUNDUM. 

CUNNILINGE,  verb  (venery). — To 
tongue  a  woman.  [Latin  ctmni- 
lingus,  a  form  which  occurs  in 
Martial,  from  cunnus  =  \he  female 
pudendum  +  lingo.  Cf. ,  Ti P  THE 





CUNNILINGIST,  subs,  (venery).— A 
man  (or  woman)  addicted  to  the 
practice  of  tonguing  the  female 

CUNNY-HAUNTED,  adj.  phr.  (popu- 
lar). — Lecherous. 

CUNNY-THUMBED,  adj.  (old). — i. 
Said  of  a  person  who  doubles  the 
fist  with  the  thumb  turned  in- 

2.  (schoolboys').  —  Said  of 
one  who  shoots  his  marble — as 
at  ring-taw  or  shoot  hole — with 
the  first  phalange  of  the  thumb 
from  the  second  of  the  forefinger, 
instead  of  with  the  knuckle  of  the 
thumb  from  the  first  of  the  fore- 

CUNT,  subs,  (common). —  The  fe- 
male ptidendum  ;  T/aL;n  V««»«j. 
A  langiid^e  word,  but  vulgar  in 
usage.  Diminutives  of  varying  de- 
grees are  CUNNICLE,  CUNNIKIN, 

Derivatives,  the  result  of  an 
obvious  play  upon  words  (old), 
are  cuNNY-CATCHERand  CUNNY- 
BURROW  FERRET  (Urquhart),  for 
which  see  CREAM-STICK  ;  CUNNY- 
HUNTER  =  a  whoremonger  ;  and 
CUNNY-SKIN  (Durfey),  for  which 
see  FLEECE.  For  synonyms,  see 

1383.  CHAUCER,  The  Millers  Tale, 
Full  prively  he  caught  her  by  the  QUEINT, 
And  sayde  Ywis  but  if  I  have  my^  will, 
For  derne  love  of  thee,  lemman,  I  spill. 

1622.  FLETCHER,  Spanish  Curate. 
They  write  sunt  with  a  C,  which  is  abomin- 

1647-80.  ROCHESTER,  The  Royal 
Angler.  However  weak  and  slender  in 
the  string,  Bait  it  with  CUNT,  and  it  will 
hold  a  king. 

1768.  STERNE,  The  Sentimental 
Journey,  So  that,  when  I  stretched 
out  my  hand,  I  caught  bold  of  the  fille-de- 
chambre's . 

CUNT-PENSIONER, subs,  (vulgar). — 
A  male  keep  ;  one  who  lives  by 
the  prostitution  of  a  wife,  a 
mistress,  a  daughter,  or  any  other 
female  connection. 

CUNT-STRUCK,  adj.  (vulgar).  — 
Enamoured  of  women:  who  may, 
in  turn,  be  either  COCK-SMITTEN 
or  PRICK-STRUCK  (q.v.). 

phr.  (theatrical).  —  A  term  of 
derision  applied  to  the  players 
associated  with  the  late  T.  W. 
Robertson's  comedies. 

CUPBOARD  LOVE,  subs.  phr.  (popu- 
lar). —  Interested  affection  :  a 
variant  of  the  saw  that  'the 
way  to  a  man's  heart  is  through 
.  his  stomach.'  C/.,  RICE-CHRIS- 

c.  1661.  Poor  Robin  [HERRICK].  A 
CUPBOARD  LOVE  is  seldom  true,  A  love 
sincere  is  found  in  few. 

178 1.  Miss  SEWARD,  Letters  [ed. 
1811],  vol.  II.,  p.  103.  This  last  and  long- 
enduring  passion  [of  Dr.  Johnson]  for  Mrs. 
Thrale  was,  however,  composed  perhaps 
of  CUPBOARD  LOVE,  Platonic  love,  and 
vanity  tickled  and  gratified. 

1885.  Giits  Own  Paper,  VI.,  830. 
When  tea-time  comes  and  milk,  she's  not 
above  Increasing  her  caresses,  till  we  hear 
A  whisper  now  and  then  of  CUPBOARD 



CUPS.  IN  ONE'S  CUPS,  adv.  phr. 
1  colloquial).—  Drunk.  Cf.,  CUP- 
SHOT,  and  for  synonyms,  see 

1593.  NASHE,  Christ's  Teares,  in  wks. 
IV.,  228  (Grosart).  Those  whom  the 
Sunne  sees  not  in  a  month  together,  I 
nowe  see  IN  THEIR  CUPPES  and  their 

1688.  SHADWELL,  Sq.  of  Alsatia 
III.,  in  wks.  (1720),  iv.,  64.  I  shall  take 
my  leave :  you  are  IN  YOUR  CUPS  :  you 
will  wish  you  had  heard  me. 




Itias.  DRYDEN,  Juvenal,  x  288. 
Which  IN  His  CUPS  the  bowsy  poet  sings. 

1712.  ARBUTHNOT,  History  of  John 
Bull,  pt.  II.,  ch.  iv.  She  used  to  come 
home  IN  HER  CUPS,  and  break  the  china 
and  the  locking-glasses. 

1837.  BARHAM,  /.  L.  (Brothers  of 
Birchington).  Gets  tipsy  whenever  he 
dines  or  he  sups,  And  is  wont  to  come 
quarrelsome  home  IN  HIS  CUPS. 

1864.  MARK  LEMON,  Jest  Book,  p. 
185  [of  one  remarkable  at  once  for  Bac- 
chanalian devotion  and  large  and  startling 
eyes],  '  I  always  know  when  he  has  been 
IN  HIS  CUPS  by  the  state  of  his  saucers.' 

CUP-SHOT,  adj.  (old). — Drunk. 

1639.  FULLER,  Holy  War,  bk.  III., 
ch.  xvi.  The  spring-tide  of  their  mirth 
so  drowned  their  souls  that  the  Turks 
coming  in  upon  them  cut  every  one  of 
their  throats,  to  the  number  of  twenty 
thousand,  and  quickly  they  were  stabbed 
with  the  sword -that  were  CUP-SHOT  before. 

1785.    GROSE,    Diet.    Vulg.    Tongue, 

CUP-TOSSER,  subs,  (common). — 
See  quot. 

1868.  BREWER,  Phrase  and  Fable, 
s.v.  CUP  TOSSER  :  a  juggler  (French 
joueur  de  gobelef).  The  old  symbol  for  a 
juggler  was  a  goblet  The  phrase  and 
symbol  are  derived  from  the  practice  of 
jugglers  who  toss  in  the  air,  twist  on  a 
stick,  and  play  all  sorts  of  tricks  with  gob- 
lets or  cups. 

CURATE,  subs,  (common). — A  small 
poker,  or  TICKLER  (q.v.),  used  to 
save  a  better  one  ;  also  a  pocket- 
handkerchief  in  actual  use  as 
against  one  worn  for  show.  The 
better  article  is  called  a  RECTOR. 
Similarly  when  a  tea-cake  is  split 
and  buttered,  the  bottom  half, 
which  gets  the  more  butter,  is 
called  the  RECTOR,  and  the  other, 
the  CURATE. 

CURB,  verb  (old). — To  steal.  For 
synonyms,  see  PRIG. 

1615.  GREENE,  Thieves  Falling  Out 
(Harl.  Misc.,  VIII.,  380).  Though  you 

can  foyst,  nip,  prig,  lift,  CURBE.  and  use 
the  black  art,  yet  you  cannot  ciossbite 
without  the  helpe  of  a  woman. 



CURBSTONE-SAILOR,  subs,  (popu- 
lar).— A  prostitute.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  BARRACK-HACK  and 
TART,  and  cf.,  CRUISER,  sense  2. 

CURE,  subs,  (common). — An  eccen- 
tric ;  a  tool ;  also  a  funny  fellow. 
Originally  applied  in  many  con- 
nections, see  quot. 

1856.    Punch,  vol.  XXXI.,  p.  201. 

Punch  has  no  mission  to  repeat 
The  Slang  he  hears  along  the  street, 
But  when  a  curious  phrase  he  seizes, 
Pimch  does — as  always — what  he  pleases. 
He  finds  then  in  the  following  word 
No  merit  save  that  it's  absurd, 
But  as  it's  likely  to  endure 
He  asks  a  question,  '  What's  a  CURE  '  ? 
He  heard  upon  a  river  boat 
The  steersman  told  to  move  his  coat, 
The  fellow  grunted  like  a  boor, 
The  captain  said,  '  Well  you're  a  CURE,' 
The  mud  was  thick,  the  crossing  clean — 
A  well-dressed  man,  genteel  of  mien — 
Walked    through    the   first  (he   might  be 


The  sweeper  muttered  '  He's  a  CURE.' 
Two    youths    talked    'chaff'    (in    phrase 


Each  asked  where  'tother slept  last  night,' 
'Me?  Up  a  spout.'    'Me?  Down  a  sewer.' 
The  first :  '  Ain't  you  a  precious  CURE.' 
A  child  more  apt  to  eat  than  spell 
Espied  his  little  sweetheart  Nell  : 
Embraced  her  with  affection  pure, 
And  cried,  '  You  darling  little  CURE.' 
Before  a  shop  stood  maidens  two 
Where  fine  mock  diamonds  mocked  their 

view  : 

'  Oh,  Julia  !     That's  the  Koh-i-noor.' 
'  That ! '  Julia  said,  '  You  silly  CURE.' 
Lastly,  he  heard  the  word  applied 
To  Lord  Mayor  Finnis  in  his  pride  ; 
A  female  shouted,  '  Well  I'm  s«re  ! 
Call  him  a  mayor — he  looks  a  CURE.' 
Thus  having  heard  the  word  he  mentions 
Spoken  with  seven  distinctions, 
Punch  doth  the  slangy  world  adjure 
To  state  whence  derivation  '  CURE  ' 


232          Curse  of  Scotland. 

verbal  phr.  (common). — To  act 

CURL.  OUT  OF  CURL,  adv.  phr. 
(common). — Out  of  sorts  ;  out  of 

To  CURL  UP,  verbal  phr. 
(familiar).  —  To  be  silent ;  to 
'shut  up.' 

To  CURL  ONE'S  HAIR,  verb, 
phr.  (common).— To  administer 
chastisement ;  to  '  go  for '  one. 


verbal  phr.  (common). — To  make 
one  feel  intensely.  Cf.,  TURN 

THE  LIVER  (q.V.}. 

1877.  S.L.CLEMENS  ('Mark  Twain'), 
Life  on  the  Mississippi,  pp.  414-415.  This 
is  sport  that  makes  the  body's  VERY  LIVER 
CURL  with  enjoyment. 

CURLE,  subs.  (old). — Clippings  of 
money. — Grose. 

CURL  PAPER,  subs,  (common). — 
Paper  for  the  W.C.;  toilet  paper  ; 
'  wipe  -  bummatory  '  (Urquhart), 
or  '  sanitary '  paper  ;  bunv 
f odder  ;  bumf;  ammunition. 

(common). — Fantastic  ornaments 
worn  on  the  person  or  used  in 
architecture ;  also,  by  implica- 
tion, a  strange  line  of  conduct. 
Used  by  Burns  in  The  Merry 

1858.  Home  Journal,  24  July. 
Architects  have  a  wonderful  predilection 
for  all  manner  of  CURLYCUES  and  breaks 
in  your  roo£ 

CURRANTS'AND  PLUMS,  subs.  phr. 
(rhyming '  slang).  — A  threepenny 
bit  ;  or  THRUMS  (q.v.). 

CURRENCY,  subs.  (Australian).— 
A  colonist  born  in  Australia, 
those  of  English  birth  being 
STERLING  (q.v.).  [In  allusion  to 
the  colonial  and  home  mintages, 
which,  identical  in  value,  present 
one  or  two  strongly  marked 
points  of  difference.] 

1856.  C.  READE,  Never  Too  Late, 
ch.  Ixxxv.  When  gold  was  found  in  Vic- 
toria he  crossed  over  to  that  port  and 
robbed.  One  day  hejrobbed  the  tent  of  an 
old  man,  a  native  of  the  colony,  who  was 
digging  there  with  his  son,  a  lad  of  fifteen. 
Now  these  CURRENCY  lads  are  very  sharp 
and  determined ., 

WORTH  A  CURSE,  phr.  (common). 
— To  care  or  be  worth  little — or 
nothing  at  all.  [CURSE  may 
either  =  ( I )  the  wild  cherry  ;  or 
(2)  a  corruption  of  A.S.  cerse, 
watercress.  C/.,  CONTINENTAL 

1362.  WILLIAM  LANGLAND,  Vision 
of  Piers  Ploughman.  Wisdom  and  witt 
nowe  is  NOT  WORTH  A  KERSE,  But  if  it  be 
carded  with  cootis  as  clothers  Kemble  their 

1838.  DICKENS,  Nicholas  Nickleby, 
ch.  xvi.,  p.  124.  With  regard  to  such 
questions  .  .  .  which  one  can't  be  expected 


187(?).  G.  R.  SIMS,  Dagonet  Ballads 
(/«  the  Workhouse).  I  CARE  NOT  A  CURSE 
for  the  guardians. 

CURSE  OF  GOD,  subs.  phr.  (old). — 
A  cockade.  —  Lexicon  Bala- 
tronicum  [l8li]. 

CURSE  OF  SCOTLAND,  subs.  phr. 
(popular).  —  The  nine  of 
diamonds.  [The  suggested  deri- 
vations are  inconclusive.  The 
locution  has  nothing  to  do  with 
Culloden  and  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland,  for  the  card  was 
r  cknamed  the  JUSTICE-CLERK, 
in  allusion  to  the  Lord  Justice- 
Clerk  Ormistone,  who,  for  his 
severity  in  suppressing  the 



Cushion- Smite* . 

Rebellion  of  1715,  was  called  the 
suggestions  are  :  (i)  That  it  is 
derived  from  the  game  of  Pope 
Joan,  the  nine  of  diamonds  there 
being  called  the  '  pope,'  of  whom 
the  Scotch  have  always  stood  in 
horror.  (2)  The  word  '  curse ' 
is  a  corruption  of  cross,  and  the 
nine  of  diamonds  is  so  arranged 
as  to  form  a  St.  Andrew's  Cross. 
(3)  That  it  refers  to  the  arms  of 
Dalrymple,  Earl  of  Stair  (viz.,  or, 
on  a  saltire  azure,  nine  lozenges 
of  the  field),  who  was  held  in 
abhorrence  for  the  Massacre  of 
Glencoe  ;  or  to  Colonel  Packer, 
who  attended  Charles  I.  on 
the  scaffold,  and  had  for  his 
arms  nine  lozenges  conjoined, 
or  in  the  heraldic  language, 
GULES,  a  cross  of  lozenges. 
These  conflicting  views  were 
discussed  at  length  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  I  S.,  i.,  61,  90;  iii.,  22, 
253>  423.  483;  v.,  619;  3  S., 
xii.,  24,  96  ;  48.,  vi.,  194,  289 ; 
also,  see  Chambers'  Encyclopaedia.'} 

1791.  Gent.  Mag.,  vol.  LXI.,  p.  141. 
The  Queen  of  Clubs  is  ...  called  Queen 
Bess  .  .  .  The  Nine  of  Diamonds,  the 

CURSITOR  orCuRSETOR,.wfo.  (old). 
— A  low  tramp  or  vagabond. 
[Properly,  a  CURSITOR  (unde  Cur- 
sitor Street,  in  Chancery  Lane) 
was  a  clerk  in  the  Court  of  Chan- 
cery, whose  business  was  to  make 
out  original  writs  ;  also  a  courier 
or  runner.  From  thf  Latin.] 

CURTAIN-RAISER,  subs,  (theatrical). 
— A  short  'piece'  to  bring  up 
the  curtain  and  play  in  the  house. 
Fr.,  lever  de  rideau. 

1889.  Daily  News,  2  Sept.,  p.  3,  col. 
4.  Miss  Grace  Hawthorne  is  about  to  try 
an  original  experiment  in  what  are  known 


CURTALL  or  CURTAIL,  subs.  (old). — 
A  vagabond  and  thief.  —  See 

1560.  JOHN  AWDELEY,  Fraternitye 
of  Vacabondes  (1869.  English  Dialect 
Society's  Reprint),  p.  4.  A  CURTALL  is 
much  like  to  the  Vpright  man,  but  hys 
authority  is  not  fully  so  great.  He  vseth 
commonly  to  go  with  a  short  cloke,  like  to 
grey  Friers,  and  his  woman  with  him  in 
like  liuery,  which  he  calleth  his  altham  if 
she  be  hys. 

1785.  GROSE,  Diet.  Vulg.  Tongue. 
CURTAILS  :  thieves  who  cut  off  pieces  of 
stuff  hanging  out  of  shop  windows ;  the 
tails  of  women's  gowns,  etc. ;  also  thieves 
wearing  short  jackets. 

Verb  (old). — To  cut  off.  Origi- 
nally a   cant   word — vide 
braSy  and   Bacchus  and 

CUSE,  subs.(  Winchester  College). — 
A  book  in  which  a  record  is  kept 
cf  the  '  marks '  in  each  division  : 
its  name  to  dons  is  '  classicus 
paper  ' ;  also  used  for  the  weekly 

CUSHION,  verb  (thieves'). — To  hide 
or  conceal.  Variants  are,  STALL 
OFF  ;  STOW  ;  SLUM.  Sp.,  Hacer 
la  agachadiza  =  to  hide  oneself. 

verbal phr.  (old). — On  the  birth 
of  a  child  a  man  was  said  TO 

DESERVE   THE      CUSHION  ;     i.e., 

the  symbol  of  rest  from  labour. 

subs,  (common).  —  A  clergyman. 
[Derivation  obvious.]  For  syno- 
nyms, see  DEVIL-DODGER 

1843.  Tw.A.CKERA.v,IrishSketchBook, 
ch  xx.  For  what  a  number  of  such  loud 
nothings,  windy,  emphatic  tropes  and 
metaphors,  spoken,  not  for  God's  glory, 
but  the  preacher's,  will  many  a  CUSHION- 
THUMPER  have  to  answer  ! 

1849.  THACKERAY,  in  Scribn.  Mag., 
June,  1887,  p.  686.  CUSHION-THUMPERS 
and  High  and  Low  Church  extatics. 

1889.  Modern  Society,  19  Oct.,  p. 
1294,  col.  i.  On  a  recent  occasion  a 




CUSHION-THUMPER  received  a  challenge 
from  the  miserable  sinner  whom  he  so 
volubly  denounced. 

Cuss,  subs.  (American). — A  man, 
COVE,  or  CULL.  Generally,  but 
not  necessarily,  disparaging.  [Of 
uncertain  derivation  :  may  be 
either  from  '  curse  '  or  from  '  cus- 
tomer.'] For  synonyms,  see 
COVE.  Also  see  specific  use  in 
quot.,  1883. 

1883.  Daily  Telegraph,  25  July,  p.  2, 
col.  i.  I'll  give  Tom  his  due,  and  say  of 
him  that  for  flumoxing  a  cuss  (Custom 
House  Officer)  or  working  the  weed,  I 
don't  know  any  one  he  couldn't  give  a 
chalk  to  and  beat  'em. 

1888.  F.  R.  STOCKTON,  Rudder 
Grange,  ch.  xii.  The  man  that  lives  up 
this  lane  is  a  mean,  stingy  cuss,  with  a 
wicked  dog,  and  it's  no  good  to  go  there. 

CUSSEDNESS,  subs.  (American). — 
Generally  in  such  phrases  as 
'  pure  CUSSEDNESS,'  the  '  CUSSED- 
NESS  of  things,'  etc.  Mischievous- 
ness,  or  resolution,  or  courage  may 
be  implied  ;  but  in  the  Coventry 
plays  CURSYDNESSE  signified 
sheer  wickedness  and  malignity. 

18(?).  COL.  JOHN  HAY,  Song  of  the 
Prairie  Belle.  Through  the  hot,  black 
breath  of  the  burnin'  boat  Jim  Bludsoe's 
voice  was  heard,  And  they  all  had  trust  in 
his  CUSSEDNESS,  And  knowed  he  would 
keep  his  word. 

1886.  Detroit  Free  Press,  Aug.  A 
more  mischievous  boy  never  came  under 
my  observation.  Pure  CUSSEDNESS  was 
spread  out  all  over  him. 

1888.  .  .  .  Mr.  Potter  of  Texas  (&y. 
ed.),  p.  122.  The  extraordinary  belief  he 
had  of  transatlantic  blood  -  thirstiness, 
scalping,  and  general  CUSSEDNESS  en- 
gendered by  these  books. 

1890.  Notes  and  Queries,  7  S.,  ix., 
29  Mar.,  p.  244.  To  swear  at  something 
when  '  the  CUSSEDNESS  of  things '  mani- 
fests itself  in  any  specially  exasperating 
shape  seems  to  be  recognised  as  a  neces- 
sity by  a  large  majority  of  the  adult  male 
population  of  the  globe. 

1890.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  22  May,  p.  4, 
col.  2.  The  cause  of  the  difficulty  is  the 
pestilent  CUSSEDNKSS  of  the  working  man. 

Cuss  OUT,  verb  (common).— To 
talk  down,  to  FLUMMOX  BY  THE 
LIP  (q.v.). 

1881.  New  York  Times,  18  Dec. 
[quoted  in  N.  and  Q.,  6  S.,  v.,  65].  He 
CUSSED  that  fellow  OUT,  i.e.,  he  annihilated 
him  verbally. 

CUSTOMER,  subs,  (common). — A 
man  ;  fellow ;  cove  ;  cuss  ;  or 
chap  ;  with  a  certain  qualifi- 
cation, e.g.  An  'ugly CUSTOMER 
=  a  dangerous  opponent ;  a  queer 
CUSTOMER  =  a  suspicious  person, 
one  to  be  suspected  ;  a  '  rum 
CUSTOMER  '  =  an  odd  fish.  For 
synonyms,  see  COVE. 

1818.  P.  EGAN,  Boxiana,  I.,  19. 
Here  .  .  .  many  an  ugly  CUSTOMER  has 
met  with  his  match,  and  been  frightened 
in  his  turn, 

1854.  WHYTE  MELVILLE,  General 
Bounce,  ch.  vi.  Some  of  these  good-look- 
ing young  gentlemen  are  '  ugly  CUSTOMERS  ' 
enough  when  their  blood  is  up. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  8  Oct.  Cus- 
tomers would  then  know  the  kind  of 
'  CUSTOMERS  '  of  tradesmen  with  whom 
they  had  to  deal. 

CUSTOM  HOUSE-OFFiCER,.y«&r.(com- 
mon). — An  aperient  pill.  [Be- 
cause it  effects  a  clearance.]  Cf., 

CUT,  subs,  (common). — I.  A  stage 
or  degree. 

1835.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Boz,  p. 
183.  It  looked  so  knowing,  with  the  front 
garden,  and  the  green  railings,  and  the 
brass  knocker,  and  all  that— I  really  thought 
it  was  a  CUT  above  me. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  iv.,  p.  29.  Any  other  man  in  the  wide 
world,  I  am  equal  to  ;  but  Sylme  is,  I 
frankly  confess,  a  great  many  CUTS  above 

1851.  MAYHEW,  London  Labour  and 
London  Poor,  vol.  II.,  p.  123.  He's  a  CUT 
above  me  a  precious  sight. 

2.  (popular).  —  A  refusal  to 
acknowledge  acquaintance,  or  to 
associate,  with  another  person. — 
See  verbal  sense.  A  CUT  DIRECT 




or  DEAD  CUT  is  a  conspicuous 
non  -  acknowledgment  of  an 

1821.  P.  EGAN,  Tom  and  Jerry  [ed, 
1890],  p.  55.  His  acquaintances  were 
numerous,  but  they  seldom  lasted  longer 
than  a  few  days,  when  he  made  no  hesita- 
tion in  giving  them  the  CUT-DIRECT. 

1836.  MARRYAT,/«//z^,ch.lii.  He 
was  a  noted  duellist,  had  killed  his  three  or 
four  men,  and  a  CUT  DIRECT  from  any  per- 
son was,  with  him,  sufficient  ground  for 
sending  a  friend. 

3.  (theatrical).  —  Mutilation 
of  the  *  book '  of  a  play,  opera, 

1779.  SHERIDAN,  The  Critic.,  Act  ii., 
Sc.  2.  Puff  (speaking  of  the  mutilation  of 
his  play)  :  Hey,  what  the  plague  ! — what 
a  CUT  is  here  ! 

1883.  Saturday  Review,  21  April,  p. 
501,  col.  2.  Mr.  Mackenzie  had  not  only 
modified  the  energy  of  the  orchestra,  but 
had  shortened  the  opera  by  some  judicious 

4.  (general). — A  snub  or  set- 
down.  Cf.,  sense  2. 

1876.  HINDLEY,  Life  and  Adventures 
of  a  Cheap  Jack,  p.  143.  One  of  the  great- 
est CUTS  I  ever  kne  *'  was  once  when  a  man 
was  speaking  of  Chris.  Newman  and  saying 
what  a  good  sort  he  was,  upon  which  the 
other  said,  '  What  do  you  mean  by  saying 
that  ?  Why,  d —  me,  sir,  he  never  called 
for  a  bottle  of  champagne  in  his  life  ! ' 

Adj.  (old). — Tipsy  ;  ON  THE 
CUT  =  on  the  spree.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  SCREWED. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
CUT  (A.)  .  .  .  also  an  epithet  applied  to 
one  who  is  drunk,  as,  He  is  deeply  CUT, 
that  is,  he  is  so  drunk,  that  he  can  neither 
stand  nor  go. 

1830.  PIERCE  EGAN,  Finish  to  Life  in 
London,  p.  214.  Terry  was  terribly  CUT. 

1848.  THACKERAY,  Book  of  Snobs,  ch. 
xli.  I  was  so  CUT  last  night,  old  boy  ! 
Hopkins  says  to  Tomkins  (with  amiable 

1859.  Punch,  vol.  XXXVII.,  p.  22. 
Our  friend  prone  to  vices  you  never  may 
see,  Though  he  goes  on  the  Loose,  or  the 
CUT,  or  the  Spree. 

Verb  (old).— i.     To  talk. 

1567.     HARMAN,  Caveat  1814),  p.  66 
To  CUTTE,  to  say. 
To  CUT  BENLE,  to  speake  gentle. 
To  CUT  BENE  WHYDDS,  to  speake  or  give 

good  words. 

To   CUTTR  QUYER   WHYDDES,  tO  gCU6    Cull 

words  or  evil  language. 

1622.  HEAD  AND  KIRKMAN,  The 
English  Rogue.  This  Doxie  Dell  can 
CUT  BIEN  WHIDS,  and  drill  well  for  a  win. 

1815.  SCOTT,  Guy  Manneiing,  ch. 
xxviii.  Meg's  true-bred  ;  she's  the  last 
in  the  gang  that  will  start— but  she  has 
some  queer  ways,  and  often  CUTS  queer 

1834.  W.  H.  AINSWORTH,  Rookwood 
p.  230  (ed.  1864).  Here  I  am,  pal  Peter ; 
and  here  are  my  two  chums,  Rust  and 
Wilder.  CUT  the  whid. 

1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch. 
ix.  The  infatuated  young  man  went  on 
CUTTING  his  jokes  at  the  Admiral's  ex- 
pense, fancying  that  all  the  world  was 
laughing  with  him. 

2.  (colloquial). —  To  disown, 
ignore,  or  avoid  associating  with, 
a  person.  Sometimes  to  CUT 
DEAD. — See  CUT,  subs.,  sense  2. 
An  article  in  the  Monthly  Maga- 
zine for  1798  cites  CUT  as  a 
current  peculiarity  of  expression, 
and  says  that  some  had  tried  to 
change  it  into  'spear,'  but  had 

1634.  S.  ROWLEY,  Noble  Souldier, 
Act  ii.,  Sc.  i.  Why  shud  a  Souldier, 
being  the  world's  right  arme,  Be  CUT  thus 
by  the  left,  a  Courtier? 

1794.  Gent.  Mag.,  p.  1085.  I  no 
sooner  learned  he  was  at  the  '  Black  Bull ' 
than  I  determined  to  CUT  the  old  codger 

1811.  Miss  AUSTEN,  Sense  and  Sen- 
sibility, ch.  xliv.  That  he  had  CUT  me 
ever  since  my  marriage,  I  had  seen  with- 
out surprise  or  resentment. 

1855.  THACKERAY,  Newcomes,  ch.  xli. 
'  You  are  angry  with  her  because  she  CUT 
you,'  growls  Clive.  '  You  know  you  said 
she  CUT  you,  or  forgot  you ;  and  your 
vanity's  wounded.' 

1864.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Guy  Living- 
stone, ch.  viii.  It  was  only  a  slight  satis- 
faction to  hear  that  she  has  utterly  lost 



Cut  a  Caper. 

sight  of  my  rival,  and  promises  to  CUT  him 
DEAD  the  first  time  they  meet. 

1870.  Daily  News,  26  May,  '  Leader. ' 
The  old  Greeks  dedicated  an  altar  to  the 
Unknown  God,  for  fear  of  CUTTING  some 
jealous  but  obscure  deity  through  ignor- 
ance of  his  existence  and  attributes. 

Also  as  verbal  substantive, 

1840.  MRS.  GORE,  The  Dowager,  ch. 
xiii.     [On  the  Continent.]     Every  person's 
place  in  Society  is  so  definite  .  .  .  that  ex- 
cept in  cases  of  some  enormous  breach  of 
propriety,  no  person  once  established  can 
ever  be  expelled.  Unless  for  cogent  reasons, 
he  could  not  have  been  there  at  all  ... 
There  is  no  talk  of  '  CUTTING.'     Such  an 
outrage  would  reflect  on  the  perpetrator 
rather  than  on  the  person  '  cut.'    All  the 
vulgar  caprices  consequent  on  a  shifting 
state  of  society  are  unknown. 

3.  (general). — Also  TO  CUT  AND 
AWAY,  etc.  To  depart  more  or 
less  hurriedly  and  perforce. 
[Originally  nautical — to  CUT  the 
cable  AND  RUN  before  the  wind.] 
CUT  OVER  and  CUT  AWAY  form- 
erly bore  precisely  the  same  mean- 
ings. For  synonyms,  see  AMPU- 

1570.  LAMBARDE,  Perambulation  of 
Kent.  Let  me  CUT  OVER  to  Watling 

1593.  NASHE,  Countercujfe  to  Martin 
Junior,  in  wks.,  vol.  I. ,  p.  79.  He  came 
latelie  ouer-sea  into  Kent,  fro  thence  he 
CUT  OUER  into  Essex  at  Grauesende. 

1678.  C.  COTTON,  Scarronides,  bk. 
IV.,  p.  86  (ed.  1725).  Put  on  the  Wings 
that  used  to  bear  ye,  And  CUT  AWAY  to 
Carthage  quickly. 

1841.  Punch,  vol.  I.,  p.  51.     Explain 
the  philosophical  meaning  of  the  sentence. 
1  He  CUT  AWAY  from  the  crushers  as  quick 
as   a  flash  of  lightning  thro'  a  gooseberry 

1857.  DICKENS,  Little  Dorrit,  bk.  I., 
ch.  xxxi.,  p.  238.  '  I  see  precious  well,' 
said  Mr.  Tip,  rising,  *  that  I  shall  get  no 
sensible  or  fair  argument  here  to-night,  and 
so  the  best  thing  I  can  do  is  to  CUT.' 

1888.  RIDER  HAGGARD,  Mr.  Meesons 
Will[\n  Illus.  Lond.Neivs,  Summer  Num- 

ber], p.  2,  col.  3.  Off  you  go!  and  mind 
you  don't  set  foot  in  Pompadour  Hall,  Mr. 
Meeson's  seat,  unless  it  is  to  get  your 
clothes.  Come,  CUT. 

4.  (trade).  —  To     compete    in 
business  ;      to     under  -  sail.       A 
CUTTING    trade    is     one    where 
profits  are  reduced  to  a  minimum. 

Also  CUT  UNDER. 

1874.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Charac- 
ters, p.  469.  All  agreed  in  referring  their 
misery  to  the  spirit  of  competition  on  the 
part  of  the  masters  —  the  same  universal 
desire  to  CUT  UNDER. 

1883.  L.  OLIPHANT,  Altiora  Peto, 
II.,  xxiii.,  78.  So  we  dissolved  partner- 
ship, and  I  went  in  with  another  chap,  to 
work  on  some  kind  of  principle,  but  Ned 
was  all  "the  time  CUTTING  UNDER  us  by 
bringing  out  some  new  contrivance  —  he's 
great  on  electricity,  Ned  is. 

5.  (common).  —  To    excel.  — 
See  quot.,  1853.     Also  CUT  OUT 

1853.  WH.  MELVILLE,  Digby  Grand, 
ch.  viii.  There  have  been  instances  of  the 
weaker  sex  ...  CUTTING  DOWN,  from 
sheer  nerve  and  determination,  the  bearded 
sons  of  Nimrod  themselves. 

1884.  Referee,  13  April,  p.  i,  col.  4. 
George's  performance  in  the  ten  miles 
handicap  at  Stamford  Bridge  on  Monday 
—  51  min.  20  sec.  —  is  hardly  likely  to  be 
disturbed  for  a  long  time  to  come,  unless 
he  CUTS  himself. 

6.  (theatrical).  —  To    strike 
out   portions   of  a  dramatic  pro- 
duction,   so    as    to    shorten    for 
representation.  Cf.  ,  subs.  ,  sense  3. 

7.  (University).  —  To    avoid  ; 
to  absent  oneself  from.    Thus,  TO 


are  common  phrases. 
1794.     Gentleman's  Mag.,  Dec.,   s.v. 
1889.     WHIBLEY,  In  Cap  and  Gown, 

CUT  A  CAPER  or  CAPERS,  verbal 
phr.  (colloquial).  —  To  play  a 
trick  or  prank  ;  to  behave  bois- 

Cut  a  Diish. 


Cut- A  way 

terously  or  fantastically.  [From 
CUT,  a  verb  of  action,  +  CAPER 
(q.v.)  a  freakish  proceeding  or 
prank.]  C/.,  CUT  DIDOES.  Fr., 
battre  itn  h^^.^t. 

1602.  SHAKSPEARE,  Twelfth  Night, 
Act  i.,  Sc.  3.  Sir  And.  Faith,  I  can  CUT 

c.  1626.  Dick  of  Devonshire,  in  Bul- 
len's  Old  Plays,  ii.,  68.  Pike,  Could  I 
shake  those  chaines  off  I  would  CUTT 
CAPERS  :  poore  Dick  Pike  would  dance 
though  Death  pip'd  to  him. 

1712.  Spectator,  No.  324.  Others  are 
called  the  dancing-masters,  and  teach 
their  scholars  to  CUT  CAPERS  by  running 
swords  through  their  legs. 

1751.  SMOLLETT,  Peregrine  Pickle, 
ch.  Ixxxvii.  He  ....  hied  him  home  to 
his  bride,  to  communicate  his  happiness, 
CUTTING  CAPERS,  and  talking  to  himself 
all  the  way. 

1780.  MRS.  COWLEV,  The  Belle's 
Stratagem,  Act  iv.,  Sc.  i.  Har.  Why, 
isn't  it  a  shame  to  see  so  many  stout,  well- 
built  young  fellows,  masquerading,  and 
cutting  courants  here  at  home,  instead  of 
making  the  French  CUT  CAPERS  to  the 
tune  of  your  cannon ;  or  sweating  the 
Spaniards  with  an  English  fandango? 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  xx.,  p.  208.  Jonas  only  laughed  at 
this,  and  getting  down  from  the  coach-top 
with  great  alacrity,  CUT  a  cumbersome 
kind  of  CAPER  in  the  road. 


verbal  phr.  (general). — To  make 
a  show;  to  attract  attention 
through  some  idiosyncrasy  of 
manner,  appearance,  or  conduct. 
In  the  United  States  to  CUT  A 

SPLURGE  Or  CUT  A  SWATHE      P  r., 

flamber  \faire  duflafla ;  and  faire 

1771.  FOOTE,  Maid  of  Bath,  I.  But 
the  squire  does  not  intend  to  CUT  A  DASH 
till  the  spring. 

1835.  HALIBURTON,  Clockmaker,  i  S., 
ch.  xxii.  Well,  they  CUT  as  many  SHINES 
as  Uncle  Peleg.  One  frigate  they  guessed 
would  captivate,  sink,  or  burn  our  whole 

1857.  A.  TROLLOPE,  Three  Clerks, 
ch.  xxxi.  Gin  and  water  was  the  ordinary 
tipple  in  the  front  parlour  ;  and  any  one 

of  its  denizens  inclined  to  CUT  A  DASH 
above  his  neighbours  generally  did  so 
with  a  bottom  of  brandy, 

1884.  S.  L.  CLEMENS  ('  M.  Twain  '), 
Hucklebury  Finn,  xxiii.,  227.     It  would  a 
made  a  cow  laugh  to  see  the  SHINES  that 
old  idiot  CUT. 

1885.  G.  A.  SALA,  in  Daily  Telegraph, 
i  Sept.,  p.  5,  col.  4.     It  is  while  they  are 
in  the  land  of  the  living  that  I  should  like 
to  see  the  Australian  Croesuses  spending 
their  money.     Why  don't  they — to  use  a 
very  vulgar  but  very  expressive  locution  — 
CUT    A    SPLASH    with    their    magnificent 
revenues  ? 

CUT  A  FIGURE,  verbal  phr.  (com- 
mon).— To  make  an  appearance, 
good  or  bad. 

1759.  STERNE,  Tristram  Shandy. 
vol.  II.,  ch.  ii.  You  will  CUT  NO  con- 
temptible FIGURE  in  a  metaphysic  circle. 

1766.  GOLDSMITH,  Vicar  of  Wake- 
field,  ch.  x.  When  Moses  has  trimmed 
them  [the  horses]  a  little,  they  will  CUT  A 


1839.  LEVER,  Harry  Lorrequer,  ch. 
i.  He  certainly  CUT  A  DROLL  FIGURE. 

(colloquial). — Plenty:  i.e.,  if  one 
cut  does  not  suffice  plenty  remains 
to  come  at  again. 

1738.  SWIFT,  Polite  Conv.,  dial.  ii. 
I  vow,  'tis  a  noble  sir-loyn.  Neuerout. 
Ay  ;  here's  CUT  AND  COME  AGAIN. 

1821.  COOMBE,  Dr.  Syntax,  tour  III., 
ch.  iv.  Something  of  bold  and  new 
design  Dug  from  the  never-failing  mine, 
That's  work'd  within  your  fertile  brain, 
Where  all  is  CUT  AND  COME  AGAIN. 

Subs,    (venery).  —  The  female 

CUT-AWAY,  subs,  (common). — A 
morning  coat.  [From  comparison 
to  a  frock-coat,  the  lappets  in 
front  being  'CUT  AWAY.']  For 
synonyms,  see  CAPELLA. 

1866.  London  Miscellany,  5  Jan.,  p. 
201.  '  London  Revelations.'  He  wore  a 
Newmarket  CUTAWAY,  with  huge  flaps 
and  pockets  monopolising  the  whole  of 
the  skirts,  suggestive  of  being  receptacles 
for  plunder. 



Cut  Dirt. 

1870.  London  Figaro,  8  June.  It 
may  be  taken  as  an  axiom  that  if  a  CUT- 
AWAY has  been  made  for  a  fashionable 
man  six  feet  high  and  broad  in  proportion, 
it  will  never  sit  nicely  on  the  form  of  a 
wee  little  weaver  of  five  feet  two. 

1889.  Pall  Mall  Gaz.,  29  Oct.,  p.  3, 
col.  i.  Off  flies  the  frock  coat  and  the 
flowing  necktie  ;  on  goes  the  little  red  bow 
and  the  seedy  brown  '  CUTAWAY.' 

SHINES,  etc.,  verbal  phr.  (collo- 
quial).— To  play  pranks  or  tricks  ; 
the  same  as  CUT  CAPERS. 

18(?).  Pickings  from  the  Picayune, 
p.  147.  This  'ere  Frenchman  has  been 
CUTTING  UP  DIDOES  in  my  house  now  for 
several  days  ;  he  aint  sober  onst  a  week, 
and  breaks  all  my  cheers  and  tables  Mr. 

1851.  New  York  Tribune,  10  April. 
Had  the  Free  Stales  been  manly  enough, 
true  enough,  to  enact  the  Wilmot  Proviso 
as  to  all  present  or  future  territories  of  the 
Union,  we  should  have  had  just  the  same 
DIDOES  CUT  UP  by  the  chivalry  that  we 
have  witnessed,  and  with  no  more  damage 
to  the  Union. 

CUT  DIRT  (American),  or  CUT 
ONE'S  STICK,  LUCKY,  etc.,  verbal 
phr.  (common). — To  make  off; 
to  escape.  To  CUT  DIRT  is 
clearly  an  allusion  to  the  throw- 
ing up  of  mud  and  dust  by  a 
horse's  hoofs  in  fast  trotting. 
Originally,  TO  CUT  ONE'S  STICK 
refers  to  the  cutting  of  a  staff 
from  a  hedge  or  tree  on  the  occa- 
sion of  a  journey  CUT  OVER 
and  CUT  AWAY,  though  vulgarly 
colloquial  in  the  nineteenth,  were 

.  in  literary  use  in  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries.  A 
curious  and  noteworthy  parallel 
is  found  in  Zechariah  xi.  10,  where 
the  'cutting  of  a  stick'  is  described 
as  the  symbol  of  breaking  a 
friendly  covenant.  CUT  ONE'S 
STICK  is  sometimes  elaborated 
(q.v.).  CUT  ONE'S  LUCKY  is  a 
simple  reference  to  a  *  lucky ' 

escape.  A  Latin  equivalent  of 
CUT  ONE'S  STICK  is  to  be  found 
in  Juvenal's  Collige  sarcinulas 
('collect  the  bags').  For  syn- 
onyms, see  AMPUTATE.  To  CUT 
ONE'S  LUCKY  also  signifies  to  die. 

1829.  Negro  Song  [quoted  in  *$".  /., 
a»dC.,  p.  287].  He  jump  up  fo'  sartin — 
he  CUT  DIRT  and  run,  While  Sambo 
follow  arter  wid  his  '  turn,  turn,  turn.' 

1836.  C.  DICKENS,  Pickwick  Papers 
(about  1827),  p.  79  (ed.  1857).  Hold  still, 
sir  ;  wot's  the  use  o1  runnin  arter  a  man  as 
has  MADE  HIS  LUCKY,  and  got  to  t'other 
end  of  the  Borough  by  this  time. 

1840.  DICKENS,  Old  Curiosity  Shop, 
ch.  xl.     '  And  now  that  the  nag  has  got 
his    wind    again,'   said    Mr.     Chuckster, 
rising  in  a  graceful  manner,   '  I'm  afraid 

I  must  CUT  MY  STICK.' 

1841.  Punch,  vol.   I.,  p.   136.     He 
t James  II.]  is  the  only  English  sovereign 
who  may  be  said  to  have  amputated  his 
bludgeon,  which,  if  we  were  speaking  of 
an  ordinary  man  and  not  a  monarch,  we 
should    have     rendered    by    the    familiar 
phrase  of  CUT  HIS  STICK. 

1841.  Comic  Almanack,  p.  278.  As 
sune  as  ve  arived  at  the  sumat  had  a 
Werry  hextensif  vew  off  Prinse  lewy  a 
CUTTIN  HIS  UNLUKKY,  folowd  by  his 
folowers  at  H  i  pressure  spede. 

1843.  W.  M.  THACKERAY,  Lyra 
Hibemica.  'The  Battle  of  Limerick.' 
.  .  .  the  best  use  Tommy  made  Of  his 
famous  battle  blade,  Was  to  CUT  HIS  OWN 
STICK  from  the  Shannon  shore. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  150.  A  iran 
got  me  to  go  for  some  in  a  orchard,  and 
told  me  how  to  manage ;  but  I  CUT  MY 
LUCKY  in  a  minute 

1853.  Western  Scenes.  Now  you 
CUT  DIRT,  and  don't  let  me  see  you  here 
again  for  a  coon's  age,  you  hear  ? 

1855.  J.  RICHARDSON,  Recollections 
of  Last  Half  Century,  vol.  II.,  p.  172. 
In  less  than  half  an  hour  he  swallowed  the 
whole  undiluted  contents  of  the  bottle,  and 
haying  done  so  CUT  HIS  LUCKY,  and 

ante~i%l\.  Border  Adventures,  p.  231. 
Now,  I  say,  old  hoss,  if  you  don't  hurry 
up  and  CUT  DIRT  like  streak  -  liyhtnin', 
this  child  goes  arter  you,  and  you  look  out 
for  a  windin"  sheet,  you  hear? 

18PO.     Punch's  Almanack,  p.  3. 



Cut  it  Fat. 

CUTE,  CUTERER,  and  CUTELY,  adj. 
and  adv.  (colloquial). — Sharp  ; 
clever;  'fly  to  wot's  wot.'  [A 
corruption  of  ACUTE.]  Fr., 
avoir  le  nez  creux.  For  syno- 
nyms, see  KNOWING.  So  also 
CUTENESS,  the  quality  or  character 
of  being  CUTE. 

1748.  T.  DYCHE,  Dictionary  (5  ed.). 
COTE  (A)  :  sharp,  witty,  ingenious,  ready, 

1754.  B.  MARTIN,  Eng.  Diet.  (2  ed.). 
CUTE  (alow  word  used  instead  of  (Acute): 

1762.  FOOTE,  Orators,  Act  i.  I  did 
speechify  once  at  a  vestry  concerning  new 
lettering  the  church  buckets,  and  came  off 
CUTELY  enough. 

1765.  FOOTE,  Commissary,  III.  I 
did  not  know  but  they  might  be  after, 
more  CUTERER  now  in  catching  their 

1768.  GOLDSMITH,  Good  Natured 
Man,  Act  ii.  Well,  who  could  have 
thought  so  innocent  a  face  could  cover  so 
much  'CUTENESS  ! 

1768.  GOLDSMITH,  Good  Natured 
Man,  Act  iv.  Truly,  madam,  I  write  and 
indite  but  poorly.  I  never  was  "CUTE  at 
my  learning. 

1874.  M.  COLLINS,  Frances,  ch. 
xxxv.  We  can  leave  them  to  their  own 
devices  ;  they're  both  pretty  'CUTE. 

1884.  C.  GIBBON,  By  Mead  and 
Stream,  ch.  xx.  Dressed  in  the  latest 
City  fashion— for  there  is  a  City  fashion, 
designed  apparently  to  combine  the  ele- 
gance of  the  West  end  with  a  suggestion 
of  superhuman  '  CUTENESS.' 

CUT  FINE,  verbal phr.  (common). — 
To  narrow  down  to  a  minimum. 

CUT  IN,  verbal  phr.  (common). — To 
join  in  suddenly  and  without 
ceremony  ;  to  intrude,  or  CHIP 
IN  (q.v.).  Also  substantively. 

1819.  SCOTT,  Bride  of  Lammermoor, 
ch.  xxi.  He  was  afraid  you  would  CUT 
IN  and  carry  off  the  girl. 

1843.  DICKENS,  Martin  Chuzzlewit, 
ch.  xxiv.,  p.  246.  I  advise  you  to  keep 
your  own  counsel,  and  to  avoid  tittle- 
tattle,  and  not  to  CUT  IN  where  you're  not 

1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch. 
vii.  '  Most  injudicious,'  CUT  IN  the  Major. 

1864.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE,  Guy  Living- 
stone, ch.  vi.  Keeping  all  her  after-supper 
waltzes  for  him  religiously,  though  half  the 
men  in  town  were  trying  to  CUT  IN. 

1883.  Referee,  17  June,  p.  7,  col.  4. 
I  am  anxious  to  have  a  CUT  IN  and  get  a 
big  advertisement  for  nothing. 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  v.     '  In  short,'  CUT  IN  my  uncle 
unceremoniously,  '  you  have  seen  enough 
of  Jack's  life  to  know  something  about  it  ?' 

CUT  INTO,  verbal  phr.  (Winchester 
College). — Originally  to  hit  one 
with  a  'ground  ash.'  The  office 
was  exercised  by  Bible-clerks 
upon  a  '  man  '  kicking  up  a  row 
when  'up  to  books.'  Now  gene- 
rally used  in  the  sense  of  to  cor- 
rect in  a  less  formal  manner  than 

TUNDING  (q.V.). 

CUT  IT,  verbal  phr.  (common). — To 
move  off  quickly  ;  to  run  away, 
or  CUT  DIRT  (g. v.).  For  syno- 
nyms, see  AMPUTATE  and  SKE- 

1885.  Indoor  Paupers,  p.  36.     Once 
a  week  we  CUT  IT  From  the  workhouse 

Intj.  phr.  (common). — 'Cease ! ' 
'  Stow  it  ! '  '  Stash  it  !  '—A 
forcible  injunction  to  desist  and 
be  off.  Also  CUT  THAT  !  or 
simply  CUT  ! 

1863.  C.  READE,  Hard  Cash,  II., 
240.  Then  first  he  seemed  to  awake  to  his 
danger,  and  uttered  a  stentorian  cry  of 
terror,  that  rang  through  the  night,  and 
made  two  [unprofessional]  of  his  three 
captors  tremble.  '  CUT  THAT,'  said  Green 
[professional]  sternly,  'or  you'll  get  into 
trouble.'  Mr.  Hardie  lowered  his  voice 

CUT  IT  FAT,  verbal  phr.  (general). 
— To  show  off;  to  make  a  di  - 
play  ;  to  '  come  it  strong  ' ;  '  put 
on  side,'  or  CUT  A  DASH  (q.v.\ 

1F35.  DICKENS,  Sketches  by  Boz,  p. 
54.  Gentlemen,  in  alarming  waistcoats, 

Cut  Mutton. 

240        Out  Ones  Eye  Teeth. 

and  steel  watch  -  guards,  promenading 
about,  three  abreast,  with  surprising  dig- 
nity (or  as  the  gentleman  in  the  next  box 
facetiously  observes,  'CUTTING  IT  UNCOM- 
MON FAT  !  ') 

1841.  Comic  Almanack,  'Christmas 
Fair.'  A  goose,  even  tailors  have,  who 
CUT  IT  FAT,  And  use  the^ww  itself  to  get 

1887.  BAUMANN,  Londonismen.  'A 
slang  dittv,'  p.  v.  But,  there,  it  don't 
matter,  Since  lo  CUT  IT  STILL  FATTER,  By 
'ook  and  by  crook  Ve've  got  up  this  book. 

CUT  MUTTON,  verbal  phr.  (old).  — 
To  partake  of  one's  hospitality. 
Cf.  ,  '  to  break  bread  '  with  one. 

1849.  THACKERAY,  Pendennis,  ch. 
xxxii.  Bungay  .  .  .  hoped  to  have  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  both  gents  to  CUT 
MUTTON  with  him  before  long. 

CUT  OFF  ONE'S  HEAD,  verbal  phr. 
(American  political).  —  Used  when 
an  official's  term  of  office  has 
come  to  an  end  through  change 
of  Government,  or  supercession 
in  other  ways.  Also  TO  DECAPI- 

1869.  New  York  Herald,  5  Aug. 
'  The  axe,'  wrote  a  correspondent  from 
Washington,  'is  still  doing  its  bloody 
work,  and  HEADS  ARE  FLYING  OFF  in  all 
directions.  The  clerks  in  the  Treasury 
Department  begin  to  feel  anxious,  as  the 
work  of  decapitation  will  soon  make  an 
end  of  them  also.' 

1872.  Daily  Telegraph,  5  Jan. 
'  Leader.'  At  the  commencement  of  any 
fresh  Presidency,  hundreds  of  Democratic 
employes  have  their  HEADS  CUT  OFF  to 
make  room  for  Republicans  who,  in  their 
turn,  will  be  decapitated  when  the  Demo- 
crats get  the  upper  hand  again. 

CUT  OF  ONE'S  JIB,  subs,  phr  \  (nau- 
tical). —  The  general  appearance. 
[From  the  foremost  sail  of  a  ship, 
which  is  frequently  indicative  of 
a  vessel's  character.  A  strange 
sail  is  judged  by  the  CUT  OF  ITS 


1833.  MARRYAT,  Peter  Simple  [ed. 
1846],  vol.  I.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  9.  I  axes  you 
because  I  see  you're  a  sailor  by  the  CUT  OF 


1835.  HALIBURTON,   Clockmaker,   3 
S.,  ch.  iv.      For  1  seed  by  the  CUT  OF  THE 
FELLER'S  JIB  that  he  was  a  preacher. 

1836.  MICHAEL  SCOTT,  Cruise  of  the 
Midge  (ed.    18),   p.    363.      Oh,     I  see — 
there  is  a  smart  hand,  in  the  gay  jacket 
there,  who  does  not  seem  to  belong  to  your 
crew — a  good  seamen,   evidently,   by  the 

1881.  BUCHANAN,  God  and  the  Man, 
ch.  xvi.  By  the  voice  of  you,  by  the  rigs 
of  you,  and  by  the  CUT  OF  YOUR  PRECIOUS 

1884.  W.  C.  RUSSELL,  Jack's  Court- 
ship, ch.  iii.  My  democratic  wide-awake 
and  the  republican  CUT  OK  MY  JIB,  said  he 
looking  down  at  his  clothes. 

CUT  ONE'S  CART,  verbal  phr. 
(vagrants') — See  quot. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
andLon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  339.  I've  seen 
them  doze  and  sleep  against  the  door. 
They  like  to  be  there  before  anyone  CUTS 
THEIR  CART  (exposes  their  tricks). 

CUT  ONE'S  COMB,  verbal  phr. 
(common). — To  snub  ;  to  lower 

1593.  G.  HARVEY,  Pierces  Super- 
erog.,  in  wks.  II.,  283.  Can  .  .  .  loue 
quench,  or  Zeale  luke  warme,  or  valour 
manicle,  or,  excellencie  mew-vpp,  or  perfec- 
tion geld,  or  supererogation  COMBE-CUTT 

1608.  MIDDLETON,  Trick  to  Catch 
the  Old  One,  IV.,  iv.  To  see  ten  men 
ride  after  me  in  watchet  liveries,  with 
orange-tawny  caps, — 'twill  CUT  HIS  COMB, 
i'  faith. 

ed.  1717.  NED  WARD,  wks.  II.,  302. 
If  you  prate  one  word  more,  I  shall  SLICE 
A  SMVER  OFF  YOUR  COXCOMB,  and  teach 
you  a  little  more  manners  before  I've  done 
with  you. 

1822.  SCOTT,  The  Fortunes  of  Nigel, 
ch.  ii.  I  will  take  my  own  time  ;  and  all 
the  Counts  in  Cumberland  shall  not  CUT  MY 

CUT  ONE'S  EYES,  verbal  phr. 
(thieves'). — To  get  suspicious. 

TEETH,  verbal  phr.  (common).— 
To  learn  '  what  s  what.'  [A  play 

Cut  Ones  Own  Grass.      241 

Cut  the  Painter. 

upon    the   word   'eye,'  with  an 
allusion  to  the  canine  teeth.] 

CUT  ONE'S  OWN  GRASS,  verbal 
phr.  (prison). — To  get  one's  own 
living.  C/.,  PADDLE  ONE'S  OWN 

CUT  OUT,  verbal  phr.  (colloquial). 
— To  debar;  deprive  of  advantage; 
supersede.  Cf. ,  CUT,  verb,  sense 
5.  [Originally  a  nautical  term; 
from  CUTTING  OUT  a  ship  in  an 
enemy's  port.] 

1779.  R.  CUMBERLAND,  Wheel  of 
Fortune,  Act  iv.,  Sc.  3.  I  suspect  your 
heart  inclines  to  Captain  Woodville  ;  and 
now  he  is  come  to  England,  I  suppose  I 
am  likely  to  be  CUT  OUT. 

1856.  C.  BRONTE,  Professor,  ch.  iii. 
There's  Waddy— Sam  Waddy— making 
up  to  her ;  won't  I  CUT  HIM  OUT  ? 

1863.  HON.  MRS.  NORTON,  Lost  and 
Saved,  p.  182.     One  woman  has  often  CUT 
ANOTHER  OUT,  whose  superiority,  if  dis- 
sected and  analysed,  would  be  found  to  be 
composed  of  the  carriage  that  whirled  her 
up  to  the  door,  the  nimble  footman  who 
rapped  at  it,  the  soft  carpet  on  the  hand- 
some staircase,  the  drawing-room  to  which 
it  led,  and  the  gilt  stand  full  of  geraniums, 
heliotropes,   and   roses    in    the    curtained 

1864.  G.  A.  LAWRENCE.  Guy  Living- 
stone, ch.  xxv.     Here,  as  elsewhere,  she 
pursued     her    favourite    amusement,    re- 
morselessly.     Fallowfield    called    it    'her 
CUTTING  OUT  expeditions."     She  used  to 
watch  till  a  mother  and  daughter  had,  be- 
tween  them,  secured  a  good  matrimonial 
prize,  and  then  employ  her  fascinations  on 
the  captured  one. 

CUTOUT  Q*, verbal  phr.  (common). 
— To  '  do,'  or  be  done,  out  of. 

CUTS,  subs,  (tailors').  —  Scissors. 
*  SMALL  CUTS  '  =  button-hole 


CUT  SHORT.  (Generally  CUT  IT 
SHORT  !)  phr.  (common).  —  A 
common  injunction  not  to  be 

prolix.  For  synonyms,  see  STOW 

1852.  DICKENS,  Bleak  House,  ch. 
Ivii.,  p.  478.  'Come,  then!'  he  gruffly 
cried  to  her,  '  You  hear  what  she  says. 
CUT  IT  SHORT,  and  tell  her.1 

1878.  JAS.  PAYN,  By  Proxy,  ch.  xvi. 
Let  us  CUT  THIS  SHORT,  Pennicuick. 
There  is  nothing  more  of  importance  to  be 
said,  and  such  talk  is  painful  to  both  of 

CUTTER,  subs.  (old). — A  robber  ; 
a  bully.  [From  committing  acts 
of  violence  like  those  ascribed  to 
the  Mohocks ;  or,  from  cutting 
purses.  Cotgrave  translates  CUT- 
TER (or  swash  -  buckler)  by 
balaffreuX)  taillebras,  fendeur  t/e 
naseaux.  Coles  has,  'A  CUTTER 
(or  robber),  gladiator,  /afro.'] 
This  ancient  cant  word  now 
survives  in  the  phrase,  *  to  swear 
like  a  CUTTER.  ' 

c.  1589.  NASHE,  Month' s  Mind,  in 
wks.,  vol.  I.,  p.  152.  These  like  lustie 
CUTTERS  ....  aduentured  to  lay  holde 
fast  on  our  purses,  and  like  strong  theeues 
in  deed  proffered  to  robbe  vs  of  all  our 

1633.  ROWLEY,  Match  at  Midn.. 
O.  PI.,  vii.,  353.  He's  out  of  cash,  and 
thou  know'st,  ty  CUTTER'S  law  we  are 
bound  to  relieve  one  another. 

1663.  ABRAHAM  COWI.KY,  The  Cutter 
of  Coleman  St.  [Title  of  play.] 

1822.  SCOTT,  Fortunes  of  Nigel, 
ch.  xxiii.  Fifty  thousand  decuses,  the 
spoils  of  five  thousand  bullies,  CUTTERS, 
and  spendthrifts. 


verbal  phr.  (thieves').— To  cut  a 
story  short  ;  to  stop  yarning. — 
See  CAVE. 

CUT  THE  PAINTER,  verbal  phr. 
(nautical).  I.  To  decamp  ;  make 
off— secretly  and  suddenly.  For 
synonyms,  see  AMPUTATE  and 

2.     To  die.—.?**  ALOFT    and 
Ho i»  THE  TWIG. 




Cut  Up. 

CUTTING,  verbal  subs,  and  ppL  adj. 
(trade). — I.  The  process  of  under- 
selling ;  synonymous  with  com- 
petition of  the  keenest  kind. — See 
CUT.  verb,  sense  4. 

1851-61.  H.  MAYHEW,  London  Lab. 
and  Lon.  Poor,  vol.  I.,  p.  372.  There  is 
great  competition  in  the  trade,  and  much 
of  what  is  called  CUTTING,  or  one  trades- 
man underselling  another.  Ibid.,  vol. 
II.,  p.  232.  Those  employers  who 
seek  to  reduce  the  prices  of  a  trade 
are  known  technologically  as  CUT- 
TING employers,  in  contradistinction 
to  the  standard  employers,  or  those  who 
pay  their  workpeople,  and  sell  their  goods 
"at  the  ordinary  rates. 

1863.  Once  a  Week,  vol.  VIII.,  p. 
552.  At  first  sight  it  would  seem  that 
the  poor  men  got  a  better  article  for  less 
money  than  the  rich  and  well-to-do 
classes ;  but  a  little  inquiry  into  the 
method  by  which  these  CUTTING  bakers 
1  make  things  pleasant '  soon  dissipate  this 
seeming  anomaly. 

1863.  Once  a  Week,  vol.  VIII.,  p.  179. 
If  she  is  accustomed  to  frequent  CUTTING 
SHOPS,  where  the  stock  is  periodically 
thrown  into  a  state  of  convulsions  in  its 
efforts  to  sell  itself  off,  of  course  she 
expects  to  be  done. 

2.  (colloquial). — Disowning  or 
ignoring  a  person. — SeeCuT,  verb, 
sense  2. 

1854.  AYTOUN  AND  MARTIN.  Bon 
Gaultier  Ballads.  '  The  Doleful  Lay 
of  the  Honble.  I.  O.  Uwins.'  Uselessly 
down  Bond  Street  strutting,  Did  he  greet 
his  friends  of  yore :  Such  a  universal 
CUTTING,  Never  man  received  before. 

CUTTLE  or  CUTTLE  BUNG,  subs. 
(old). — A  knife  used  by  cut- 
purses.  [From  Latin  cultellus, 
a  knife ;  ttnde,  a  cutlass.  ]  For 
synonyms,  see  CHIVE.